The questionnaire is: Definition, Types, and Characteristics

The questionnaire is – In conducting any research it requires data. The process of obtaining data is also very diverse. However, of the many ways to obtain data, it turns out that the questionnaire method is always the most widely used option.

Questionnaire is a tool or method used to obtain data in a research conducted. Although many use questionnaires as a data collection method, it cannot be ruled out that there are still people who ignore how to make questionnaires properly and correctly.

Of course, if you want to make a questionnaire, you really have to know how to make it, the types and contents of the questionnaire itself. It should be noted that questionnaires are not only needed for psychological analysis, but questionnaires are also often used in research and in this case are commonly referred to as research questionnaires. In the past, many people applied questionnaires to research using quantitative methods.

However, it is not uncommon for questionnaires to be applied to research with qualitative methods. The process of making a questionnaire cannot be done haphazardly. This is because the questionnaire is closely related to the purpose of the research conducted.

Therefore, this article will discuss important matters related to research.

Definition of Questionnaire

Previously, we briefly discussed what a questionnaire is. However, this point will explain more broadly about the meaning of the questionnaire.

The questionnaire is a research instrument which consists of a series of questions with the aim of obtaining information from the intended respondent. The questionnaire itself is often considered a written interview technique. In addition, this method can also be done in several ways, from face to face, by telephone or even by post.

In fact, advances in technology also make it easy for the owner of the questionnaire to distribute it to the respondents. Where currently there are many media that can be used as a platform for sharing questionnaires. Not only that, the reach obtained is also wider and more targeted.

Questionnaires are a way of collecting information in large quantities, but at a lower price, faster and more efficiently. By using a questionnaire can get samples from many people.

The process of collecting data using a questionnaire was also somewhat faster because the researchers did not need to be present when filling out the questionnaire. Questionnaires can really help in the large population research process compared to the interview method which is considered less practical.

Even so, choosing to use a questionnaire also has drawbacks. One of the most prominent problems with the use of the questionnaire is that the respondents did not provide answers according to the facts. This cannot be separated from the respondents who want to display their positive self-image and lead to acts of lying when making an answer to an existing questionnaire.

Even so, the questionnaire is also one of the most effective tools for measuring the behavior, attitudes, preferences, opinions and intentions of a large number of subjects but at a lower cost and faster time compared to other types of methods.

Definition of Questionnaire According to Experts

In the previous explanation, it has been reviewed how the meaning of the questionnaire is. Next, it is still related to the meaning of the questionnaire according to experts. The reason is, there are several experts who have their opinion about the questionnaire. Below are some opinions from experts regarding the meaning of the questionnaire.

1. Difficulty

Sukardi argues that the questionnaire is a set of questions or statements that must be answered by the respondents.

2. Nurkancana

Nurkancana explained that the questionnaire is a method in the data collection process with a system of submitting a list of questions in writing. Where the statement will be given to individuals to provide answers in writing.

3. Hendrarno, Sugiyono and Supriyo

Hendrarno, Sugiyono and Supriyo explained that the questionnaire is a student understanding technique that is carried out by means of written communication. The meaning of this written communication refers more to a questionnaire or researcher who can provide a number of questions in writing which will later be answered by students in writing.

4. Walgito

Walgito has an opinion if the questionnaire consists of two parts, namely identity and questions. As the name implies, the questions section will have a number of questions in it that are used to get answers from respondents.

Questionnaire Types

The Big Indonesian Dictionary or KBBI explains that a questionnaire is a research or survey tool in which there are a series of written questions. The purpose of the questionnaire is to obtain responses from a selected group of people through personal interviews or by post.

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In its application, the questionnaire is divided into several types. In general, questionnaires are divided into three types, namely open questionnaires, closed questionnaires and mixed questionnaires. Where each type of questionnaire has a different meaning and function.

To be clearer, the following is an explanation of the types of questionnaires.

1. Open Questionnaire

An open questionnaire is a list of questions that will basically provide an opportunity for respondents to write down their opinions about the questions posed by the researcher. Therefore, this type of questionnaire requires research expertise in posing questions so that it is easy for respondents to understand when giving their answers.

2. Closed Questionnaire

The second type is a closed questionnaire in which there is a complete list of questions with alternative answers that have been provided by the researcher. This method is considered more effective because the respondents only need to give a tick in the column provided.

3. Mixed Questionnaire

Mixed questionnaire is a combination of open questionnaire and questionnaire types. Typically, this technique will be used to obtain a series of research data including numbers.

4. Semi-Open Questionnaire

In general, there are only three types of questionnaires. However, it turns out that there is still one more type of questionnaire, namely the semi-open questionnaire. Where this type of questionnaire will provide opportunities for respondents to use other answers.

The use of alternative answers is necessary when the available answers do not match the wishes of the respondents. Even so, semi-open questionnaires have weaknesses such as difficulty processing data because the answers obtained are certainly more numerous.

However, the existence of this semi-open questionnaire will help researchers to get more diverse answers that have not been explored at all before.

Things To Look For In Making Questionnaires

In the process of making a research questionnaire, it must be adjusted to the problems to be discussed and the information to be collected. This is because the questionnaire will have a list of questions or statements that must be more easily understood by respondents who do not meet face to face.

Of course, there must be a number of things that must be considered when creating a questionnaire. So, for more details, you can read the reviews below.

1. Simple

Research questionnaires should be made simple, to the point, not complex and more easily understood by respondents so that they are in accordance with their main objectives. This will also make the information obtained from the questionnaire in accordance with the needs of the research being carried out.

2. Clear Size

Research questionnaires that have the goal of obtaining data in the form of numbers must have clear dimensions. An example is using the size of square meters which is used to answer the question of land area. This is done so that respondents understand better and minimize confusion.


3. Straightforward Questions

If the questionnaire created is in the form of questions and uses Yes or No answer options, then you must ensure that the questionnaire does not have long-winded questions. Where long-winded questions will cause confusion for the respondents or even lead to a different understanding so that the respondents feel bored when giving their answers.

4. Questions Must Be Categorized

The questions in the questionnaire must also be grouped or categorized to suit the information needed in the research.

5. Don’t Get Confused

The list of questions or questions in the questionnaire should be made easier to understand and not confuse the respondents. Questions or statements that are not confusing will make it easier for respondents to provide answers that match your wishes.

Questionnaire Characteristics

The form of the survey you get will depend on the type of information collected from the respondents. Questionnaires will usually be used when there is a need to obtain exploratory information that can help prove or demonstrate a hypothesis. Questionnaires will be widely used for the process of validating or testing hypotheses that have been made before. However, most questionnaires created will incorporate some of the characteristics listed below.

1. Religion

Questionnaires really help collect various types of data, ranging from demographics, personal opinions, facts or attitudes from respondents. One of the important attributes in a research formula is the same design and standardization.

Where each respondent can get the same questions as other respondents. This will help you to get data and statistical analysis of the data obtained.

For example, in terms of the questionnaire template used to evaluate a retail store, it will contain questions related to evaluating the experience of the retail store. The questions that exist will relate to the value of the purchase, the variety of options to get the product and the quality of existing merchandise.

Later all the questions in the questionnaire template will be the same for one respondent with another respondent.

2. Exploration

The questionnaire must be exploratory in the data collection process. There are no restrictions on the questions asked on the questionnaire. For example, when you use a questionnaire to collect data and send it to a housewife as a respondent, you can better understand spending habits and saving activities that are related to household income.

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Where open questions will give you a lot of insight and the possibility of respondents being able to explain more about the implementation they have been doing so far. A structured list of questions can sometimes be a limitation of the data collection process.

3. Order of Questions

Finally, the questionnaire must be able to follow the flow of questions in a structured manner so that it can further increase the number of responses. The order of these questions can be screening questions, warm-up questions, transition questions, skip questions, challenging questions and classification questions.

For example, a motivational and buying experience questionnaire template will include demographic questions that will then ask for time spent in the store department and the reasons behind their buying transaction process.

Excess Questionnaire

Conducting interviews in person can provide advantages such as the results obtained are more accurate. However, that does not mean that the process of collecting data using the questionnaire method has no advantages.

The reason is, submitting a questionnaire also has its own advantages. So, so that you can better understand what are the advantages of the data collection process using a questionnaire, here is a full explanation.

1. Doesn’t Require a Lot of Time

The use of questionnaires in collecting research data does not require much time. Starting from the processing process to distributing the questionnaires to the respondents did not take much time. In fact, for now distributing questionnaires can use various platforms, for example, such as using social media. On the other hand, respondents can have more personal time to consider the choices of answers to existing questionnaire questions without fear of being disturbed.

2. Broader Reach

Because the process of distributing the questionnaire can use online platforms such as social media, the process of distributing the questionnaire will also be very broad in reach and even the desired number of respondents will also be collected more easily. This will allow you to get the diversity of the data collected.

3. Face-to-face is not mandatory

The questionnaire is a form of interview but in a written way without the need to meet face to face with the respondents in the process of collecting the required data. This is because you can distribute questionnaires online.

4. Respondents Can Keep Identity Confidential

The existence of a questionnaire does not only benefit the respondents in terms of time. However, questionnaires can also provide distinct advantages to the privacy of the respondents. This is because the respondents could keep their identity secret when filling out the questionnaire. That way the respondents can be more honest in giving answers without fear of knowing their identity.

5. More Efficient

In the questionnaire there will be a list of questions that are used to collect the amount of data and information needed. That way, you can get large amounts of data from the list of questions that are already in the questionnaire template. Of course, this is quite efficient in various aspects.

How to Make a Questionnaire

The last discussion that we will review is about how to make a questionnaire. The following are some ways that you can apply when creating a questionnaire.

  • Determine the Purpose of the Questionnaire

The first thing you can do in making a questionnaire is to understand the data or formulation of the questions needed in the research. That way, you will better understand what the purpose of the questionnaire is, namely to collect important data and information from the respondent as research material.

  • Create a Question List

The next thing you can do is make a list of questions or a grid which includes indicators and the number of question items. This will make the required data and information easier to convert into questions or statements in more detail.

  • Determine the Type of Questionnaire

Next you have to determine the type of questionnaire needed, for example an open, closed or mixed questionnaire. That way, it will be easier for you to provide the information and data needed for research.

  • Create a Structured Questionnaire

The fourth step that you can do next is to make a structured questionnaire or questionnaire. Questionnaire sheets must be made with the prefix identity and characteristics of the respondent. Apart from that, you also have to classify each type of questionnaire and arrange it in a coherent manner. This is done so that the results of data collection are also easier.

  • Create Follow Up Questions

You can also make follow-up questions. After making the grid or questions needed for data and information collection. You could try embedding a follow-up question that is clearer and more detailed. Explanation of this follow-up question aims to obtain the required information in more depth.

  • Questionnaire Test

The last is to try out the questionnaire to find out how well the questionnaire has been made. You can conduct field surveys to test research questionnaires. This can also make it easier for you to fix the deficiencies in the questionnaire before finally distributing it to the respondents.

From the discussion above it can be said that the questionnaire is a research instrument which consists of a series of questions with the aim of obtaining information from the intended respondent. So, that’s a review of the questionnaire that you can read in full above. All matters relating to the questionnaire have been clearly summarized in the review above.

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Author: Hendrik Nuryanto