Citizens’ Rights – As part of the nation and state, citizens have rights that must be fulfilled by the State. The state is formed from groups of people. Every member of society has different rights and obligations. Therefore, in order for every member of the community to obtain their rights and obligations, the government seeks to protect the rights and obligations of each member of the community so that they do not violate each other.
In this article, we will discuss the rights of citizens in more detail, starting from their understanding and concrete examples in everyday life. So, read this article to the end, Sinaumed’s
Understanding the Rights of Community Citizens
A right is the power to accept or do something that must be accepted or done by a certain party and in principle can be demanded forcibly by him.
The rights of citizens can be interpreted as all things that are obtained or obtained by a citizen, both in the form of authority and power.
Basically, rights are something that can be received or enjoyed. That means we have the right to receive things that are our rights and we must not violate other people’s property.
Meanwhile, obligations are things that must be done as members of society. Generally, obligations can be interpreted as things that must be done in order to obtain our rights.
Next, we will discuss the various rights that exist in society along with examples of their implementation.
Rights in the Community Environment
1. Right to Get Decent Housing
Every member of the community has the right to a decent place to live in order to rest and socialize with residents in the surrounding environment. This right can be fulfilled by the government, one of which is by holding a subsidy program or by providing housing assistance for citizens.
2. The Right to Get a Decent Education
Every member of the community has the right to obtain proper education as the formation of character and personality as well as the transfer of knowledge that is useful for the life of the individual. This right is regulated in the 1945 Constitution Article 31 paragraph 1 which reads “Every citizen has the right to education.”
For example by providing the widest possible access to affordable education for the community and providing free education for the underprivileged.
3. The Right to a Decent Livelihood
Citizens also have the right to a decent living which is regulated in the 1945 Constitution Article 27 paragraph 2 which reads “Every citizen has the right to work and a decent living for humanity.”
An example of its implementation is giving the people of the community social security for the workforce or holding a program that can improve the standard of living of the community.
To obtain a decent living for every citizen, the state is obliged to make efforts to achieve it. The government is trying to provide various jobs for citizens. Meanwhile, citizens have an obligation to work seriously as a form of responsibility.
4. The Right to Get Electricity Supply from the Government
The state has a source of electrical energy so that all citizens have the right to get an adequate supply of electricity. In the Law Article 6 Paragraph (1) reads “Primary energy sources that are available in the country and/or originating from abroad must be utilized optimally in accordance with the national energy policy to ensure the supply of sustainable electricity.” We underline the continuous supply of electricity, the state is obliged to provide a continuous supply of electricity.
An example of its implementation is by making it easy for the community to get electricity supply through adequate facilities.
5. The Right to Legal Protection
All citizens are equal before the law. Therefore, citizens are entitled to legal protection from the government through law enforcement officials. This right is accompanied by the community’s obligation to comply with applicable law. This provision is regulated in the 1945 Constitution article 27 paragraph 1 which reads “All citizens have the same position before law and government and are obliged to uphold that law and government without exception.”
An example of its implementation is by providing legal assistance to communities involved in the dispute process.
6. The Right to Get Community Services
Citizens or citizens also have the right to receive services in the administrative field from the government, such as being entitled to proper services in the administration and government sector.
An example of its implementation is that it can make it easier for the community to process important documents such as birth certificates, KTPs, land certificates, motor vehicle owner books (BPKB) and so on.
7. Right to Obtain Proper Health
Health is a state of well-being of body, soul and social life that enables everyone to be economically productive. Therefore, health is the basis for recognition of human dignity. This provision is in Article 28 H paragraph 1 of the 1945 Constitution which reads “That everyone has the right to live in physical and spiritual prosperity, to have a place to live and to get a good and healthy environment and to receive health services.”
An example is getting free health services especially for underprivileged people.
8. The Right to Express Opinions and Aspirations
Every citizen or citizen has the right to express opinions and aspirations. This is because freedom of opinion is included in human rights.
The purpose of freedom of expression is based on the weighing section of the Freedom of Expression Law in public to realize democracy in the order of life in society, nation and state. This provision is contained in article 1 point 1 of the Freedom of Expressing Opinions in Public Law which reads “Independence of expression is the right of every citizen to express thoughts orally, in writing and so on freely and responsibly in accordance with the provisions of the applicable laws and regulations. ”
An example is that community members do not experience difficulties and are given convenience when they want to express their opinions during deliberations or criticize the government.
9. The Right to Enjoy Natural Resources
Indonesia has vast and abundant natural wealth. as citizens, we have the right to enjoy natural wealth and it must be controlled by the state and used as much as possible for the prosperity of the people. This provision is contained in the 1945 Constitution which states that land, water and the natural resources contained therein are the mainstays of people’s prosperity.
An example is every citizen has the right to enjoy natural wealth such as waterfalls, mountains or beaches which are the natural wealth of a country.
10. Right to Religion and Worship
The state cannot prohibit any sect or religion that develops in Indonesia as long as it is in accordance with the principle of Belief in One Almighty God and does not offend the principles and beliefs of other religious communities. This provision is contained in the 1945 Law article 28E paragraph 1 which reads that “Everyone is free to embrace a religion and worship according to his religion”.
In addition, it is also found in article 29 paragraph 2 of the 1945 Constitution which reads “The State guarantees the independence of each resident to embrace their respective religion and to worship according to their religion and beliefs.”
An example is a person without any interference is free to embrace the religion he believes in and is not disturbed while worshiping.
11. The Right to be Elected and Voted
In Law No. 39 of 1999 concerning Human Rights regulates the right to vote in article 43 which reads that “Every citizen has the right to be elected and vote in general elections based on equal rights through direct, public, free, secret, honest and fair voting in accordance with with the provisions of the laws and regulations.”
An example is that everyone can apply to be chairman or be elected as chairman in an association or area such as the RT/RW or Hamlet Head.
Rights in the Family Circle
1. The Right to Love
Love is an absolute necessity that must be obtained in a family. Without love, family relationships are not harmonious and cannot unite. Every child has the right to receive enough love so that they can grow and develop into civilized human beings.
For example, parents do not discriminate between one child and another, parents look after and care for children well and avoid violence.
2. The right to food, clothing and shelter is fulfilled
The family is the first environment where members get basic human needs, namely food, clothing and shelter. These basic needs must be met so that family members can carry out their activities properly and properly.
An example is that children must receive nutritious and healthy intake, get what they need to go to school and do activities such as clothes and so on.
3. The Right to Education and Guidance
Every human being has the right to education, one of which is the family. The family is the first school for children and has an important role in shaping a person’s character before taking formal education.
For example, children have the right to go to school and get other guidance from tutors or additional lessons that can add to their skills.
Rights in the Educational Environment
1. The Right to Acquire Knowledge
Every student who takes education has the right to get knowledge that comes from learning material delivered by educators. Science is important as a person’s provision for social life and getting a decent living in the future.
For example, children who are entitled to lessons given by competent teachers and guided to become smart and accomplished students.
2. Right to Make Friends and Socialize
Every student has the right to make friends and socialize with anyone regardless of differences. Making friends and socializing can shape the character of students to be more empathetic, improve communication skills, hone emotional intelligence and foster a social spirit.
For example, children get friends who are allowed to socialize with anyone without bullying and social differences.
3. Right to Equal Treatment
In a learning environment, students are entitled to equal treatment from those around them, especially educators. Likewise, educators must receive the same treatment. In this case, what is meant by ‘same’ is fair and equal.
An example is that in schools, every child, both children who are born into affluent and disadvantaged families, has the right to receive equal treatment from educators.
4. Right to Protection
Every student and educator has the right to receive comprehensive protection so that they can carry out educational activities in a calm, comfortable and safe manner.
For example, children must receive protection and security, especially from teachers and school staff regardless of the background, ethnicity, culture and religion of their students.
5. The Right to Get the Opportunity to be Creative
Every student or educator has the right to get the opportunity to be creative in the learning and teaching process with the aim of developing themselves to be even better.
An example is that every child has the right to be creative according to his imagination and can develop his talents and aspirations, such as participating in extracurricular activities or training.
Obligations in the Community Environment
1. Must maintain security and public order
Every community has an obligation to maintain security and public order, by not committing deviant acts.
An example is not making a fuss or even committing a crime
2. Must comply with various applicable regulations
Rules are made of course to be obeyed. If the whole community complies with the existing regulations, a safer and more orderly environment will be created.
Examples of obeying these applicable regulations are traffic rules and signs that apply to all road users. Most accidents occur as a result of road users who do not comply with traffic regulations. Road users must understand and implement traffic regulations in order to create order and safety.
An example is wearing a helmet or seat belt while driving.
3. Obligation to respect others
Every member of the community must respect and know manners so that the surrounding environment is more comfortable to live in.
An example is the obligation to maintain good manners when meeting neighbors in the neighborhood
4. Obligation to maintain inter-religious tolerance
In social life, people with different backgrounds, ethnicities, religions and cultures must maintain mutual tolerance and respect so that harmony and unity is maintained.
For example by not disturbing other people who are worshiping and still maintaining peace.
5. Maintain the sustainability of nature
As citizens, we have an obligation to maintain cleanliness and environmental sustainability. There are several efforts that can be done by the community to protect the environment, so that environmental damage can be reduced or not getting worse.
An example is by planting trees or reforestation, reducing the use of motorized vehicles and the use of plastic, not throwing garbage into rivers and seas and processing waste frequently.
Examples of Obligations of Indonesian Citizens According to the 1945 Constitution
According to the 1945 Constitution, the obligations of citizens are also regulated in the 1945 Constitution, the contents of which are as follows:
- Must comply with law and government (Article 27 paragraph 1)
- Mandatory to participate in national defense efforts (Article 27 paragraph 3)
- Mandatory to respect the Human Rights of Others (Article 28J paragraph 1)
- Mandatory to submit to the restrictions set by law (Article 28J paragraph 2)
- Obligation to participate in state defense and security efforts (Article 30 paragraph 1)
- Compulsory to follow basic education and the government is obliged to finance it (Article 31 paragraph 2)
- Obligation to respect and maintain tolerance in the diversity of religions in Indonesia (Article 28E paragraph 2)
- Must pay taxes (Article 23 A)
Everyone in a country certainly has rights and obligations. That way, every member of the community can continue to interact with each other and can foster a safe and comfortable environment. Even so, every right and obligation must be given according to their capacity so that no one abuses them.
Thus the discussion about the rights of citizens and the obligations of the community. After reading this article to the end, I hope that you can continue to play a role in safeguarding each other’s rights and obligations.