**Inventor of Mathematics –** Was Sinaumed’s one of those who loved mathematics? Exactly, mathematics is a branch of science that is certainly familiar to us. In practice, our daily activities cannot be separated from mathematics. Based on the major role of mathematics, does Sinaumed’s know who the inventor of mathematics is?

To answer this question, Sinaumed’s can see the following explanation by the inventors of mathematics based on the history of its discovery and development:

## History of Mathematical Discoveries

The field of study known as the history of mathematics is concerned with the study of the origins of mathematical discoveries, namely past mathematical activity and notation. Before modern times and science spread throughout the world, there are only a few places where written examples of the development of mathematics began to appear.

The oldest mathematical books found are Plimpton 322 (Babylonian Mathematics, circa 1900 BC), Rhind Mathematical Sheets (Egyptian Mathematics, circa 2000-1800 BC), Moscow Mathematics Gazette (Egyptian Mathematics 1890 BC).

These books all explain the theorem commonly known as the Pythagorean theorem. This theorem seems to be the oldest and most common in mathematics after basic arithmetic and geometry. The contributions of Greek mathematicians have refined the method (mainly by introducing mathematical rigor into deductive reasoning and mathematical proof) and broadened the subject of mathematics.

The word “mathematics” itself comes from the ancient Greek word (mathema), which means “subject”. Chinese mathematics made early contributions, including scale notation. The Hindu-Arabic notation and operational calculations currently in use were probably developed through lectures on Indian mathematics in the first millennium AD and passed down to the West through Islamic mathematics.

Islamic mathematics develops the science of mathematics and extends to this civilization. Many Greek and Arabic texts on mathematics were later translated into Latin, leading to the further development of mathematics in medieval Europe.

From ancient times to the Middle Ages, bursts of mathematical creativity were often accompanied by centuries of stagnation. Beginning with the Italian Renaissance in the 16th century, new mathematics developed and interacted with new scientific discoveries, resulting in exponential growth that continues today.

### 1. Prehistoric Mathematics

The origin of mathematical thinking is thinking about numbers, quantities, and numbers. Modern research on animal fossils shows that this idea is not unique to humans. This idea could also become a daily member of a hunting herd. The idea that numbers evolve over time is evidence from some modern languages that the distinction between “1”, “2”, and “many” is preserved, but numbers greater than 2 are not.

The oldest known mathematical object (35,000 BC) is the Lebombo Bone found in the Lebombo Mountains in Swaziland. This bone contains 29 distinct notches that were intentionally carved into the baboon’s fibula. There is evidence that women count ahead when they remember their menstrual cycle.

Prehistoric remains from 35,000 BC can also be found in Africa and France. The year 20,000 BC shows the earliest attempts to calculate time. The Ishango bone near the Nile basin (northeast Congo) contains a series of scratches carved into the bone in three vertical lines. The common definition is that the Ishango bones represent the oldest sequence of primes or demonstrations of the 6-month lunar calendar.

### 2. Ancient Mathematics

#### a. Mesopotamian mathematics

Mesopotamia refers to all the mathematics developed by Mesopotamia (now Iraq) from early Sumer to early Hellenic civilization. It is called “Babylonian mathematics” because the Babylonian region played an important role as a place of research.

During the Hellenistic civilization, Babylonian mathematics combined Greek and Egyptian mathematics to create Greek mathematics. Under the Islamic caliphate, Mesopotamia, especially Baghdad, again became an important center for Islamic mathematical research.

The earliest evidence of written mathematics at this time is the work of the Sumerians who founded an ancient civilization in Mesopotamia. As early as 3000 BC they developed a measuring winding system. Since 2500 BC, the Sumerians had been writing multiplication tables on clay tablets, dealing with geometric exercises and division problems. Early traces of Babylonian notation also refer to this period.

#### b. Egypt

Egyptian mathematics refers to mathematics written in the Egyptian language. Since the Hellenistic civilization, Greek has replaced Egyptian as the written Egyptian language studied, and since then Egyptian mathematics has merged with Greek and Babylonian mathematics, leading to Hellenistic mathematics. The study of mathematics in Egypt was undertaken under the Kirafa of Islam as a member of Islamic mathematics when Arabic was the written language of Egyptian scholars.

A very long Egyptian mathematical inscription is the Rhind Gazette of 1650 BC (sometimes called the “Ahmes Gazette” after its author). This sheet is a guide for math and geometry students. In addition to area formulas and how to manipulate multiplication, division, and fractions, this sheet also provides proofs for other mathematical sciences, such as compound numbers and prime numbers.

### 3. Greek mathematics

Greek mathematics refers to mathematics that took place during 600 BC. And the year AD 300 is written in Greek. Greek mathematicians lived in cities along the eastern Mediterranean coast, from Italy to North Africa, but they shared a common culture and language. Greek mathematicians after Alexander the Great are sometimes called Hellenistic mathematicians.

The Greek form of Mathematics was more difficult than the mathematics that had developed from earlier times. All extant pre-Greek mathematical texts demonstrate the use of inductive reasoning, the continuous observations used to make practical approximations. In contrast, Greek mathematicians used deductive reasoning.

The Greeks in their discoveries used reason to deduce primary characteristics and axioms, and still tended to be rigid. The founders of Greek Mathematics are Thales according to Miletus (approximately 624 to 546 BC) & Pythagoras according to Samos (approximately 582 to 507 BC). Pythagoras had traveled to Egypt to investigate mathematics, geometry and astronomy by Egyptian monks.

### 4. Chinese Mathematics

Early Chinese mathematics was different when compared to using origins from other parts of the world, so it was relatively logical if believed to be the output of independent development. The oldest known Chinese mathematical writing is the Chou Pei Suan Ching, dated between 1200 BC and 100 BC. Of particular note in Chinese mathematical usage is the seven-decimal positional notation system, also called “sapta-batg” at a time when a different cipher was used for numbers between 1 & 10, and another cipher for powers of ten.

Thus, seven 123 is written using the symbol for “1”, followed by the symbol for “100”, then the symbol for “2” followed by the symbol for “10”. The number of bars allows serving as many saptas as required & allows calculations to be made in suuan pan, or (Chinese abacus). The date of Suanpan’s discovery is uncertain, but the oldest written record is from AD 190 in a postscript on the art of drawing by Xu Yue.

The oldest surviving pieces of geometry in China come from the normative norms of Mohistic philosophy in 330 BC. Mo Jing explains various fields of many fields of natural science and also provides a lot of mathematical information. In 212 BC Emperor Qin Shǐ Huáng (Qin Shi Huang) ordered all the Qin Empire’s books to be burned, except for those officially recognized by the government. This decision was generally ignored, but the effect of this arrangement is that little information about ancient Chinese mathematics remains.

The Eastern Han Dynasty (202 BC-220 AD), which burned at the Burning of Books in 212 BC, produced mathematical works that are extensions of works lost today. The most important is Chapter 9 which consists of 246 word assignments on agriculture, commerce, geometric work, range of tower heights and comparison of dimensions of Chinese towers, technique of right triangles, measurements and materials.

He also used Cavalieri’s volume principle over 1000 years ago, before Cavalieri proposed it in the West. He created a mathematical proof of the Pythagorean theorem and the Gauss-Jordan formula. Liu Hui commented on the work as early as the 3rd century AD.

### 5. Indian Mathematics

The earliest mathematical discovery on the Indian subcontinent was the Indus Valley civilization, which lived between 2600 and 1900 BC beginning in BC in the catchment area of the Indus River. Although their cities were arranged geometrically, no mathematical documents have survived from this civilization. Vedanta mathematics began in India from the Iron Age. The Brahman Shatapatha (9th century BC) and the Sulba Sutra (800-500 BC) are geometric books containing irrational numbers, prime numbers, approximations of 3, and cube roots to hundreds of thousands. I

This book provides activities involving circles approximating squares by area, solving linear and quadratic equations. Algebraically it is developing Pythagorean triples and providing statements and numerical proofs of the Pythagorean theorem.

The notation it uses is the same as modern mathematical notation, using meta rules, transformations, and recursion. Pingala (the period from about 300 BC to the first 100 years) uses tools consistent with its prosodic binary system. His argument about meter combinatorics is consistent with the basic version of the binomial theorem.

Later Surya Siddhanta (400) introduced the trigonometric functions sine, cosine, and inverse sine and established rules that determined the actual motions of celestial bodies according to their actual positions in the sky. The time cycle of the universe described in the paper, which copies an earlier study, follows a mean sidereal time of 365.2563627 days, which is only 1.4 seconds longer than the current value of 365.25636305 days. This work was translated into Arabic and Latin in the Middle Ages.

Aryabhata introduced version functions in 499, created India’s first trigonometry tables of sines and cosines, developed methods and algorithms for algebraic, minimal and differential equations, and incorporated the same activities as those used. Now we get integer solutions of linear equations through this activity, with accurate astronomical calculations based on the Heliocentric system of gravity.

## Biography of Al-Khwarizmi, the Inventor of Zero and Algebra

Talking about the history of the discovery of mathematics, it cannot be separated from the role of an Islamic figure named Al-Khwarizmi. Born in Baghdad in 780, Al Khawarizmi had the real name Muhammad Ibn Musa al Khawarizmi. As a mathematician, he is very famous in various fields, a mathematician, astrologer, geographer. For his genius, many researchers have carried out basic research on his mathematical discoveries.

As one of the authors of the history of mathematics, George Sarton revealed that Al Khwarizmi was one of the best in the field of science and many researchers and historians also spoke about Al-Khwarizmi. Because of his intelligence, he taught as a teacher at one of the Schools of Honor in Baghdad. In addition, Al-Khwarizmi was used as a teacher in European classes because his discoveries quickly revolutionized mathematics. At that time, the caliph Al-Khwarizmi was focusing on the development of science.

The effect was enormous when the caliph built a place for developing science, Virtual Hikuma, a place for books and book studies that discussed science. The place is used as a university facility and as a place for scientific research and development. At the time Al-Khwarizmi was not the only inventor of mathematics or mathematician and astronomer, but there were scholars or titles known as triads.

The triumvirate included Bani Musa Ibn Shakir, a friend of Al Khawarizmi while studying knowledge collected by the former caliph. The Caliphate of Maamun loved science so much that a special research team was formed. He and his friend Al-Khwarizmi participated in a project to measure the earth’s circumference along a straight line.

The results of this study were the discovery of the circumference of the earth with a length of 1 degree and 360 degrees, and the making of Ptolemy’s map. For satisfactory results, he received various awards for his work. There are institutions that increasingly support Al-Khwarizmi’s work and become a point of contact for researchers in the Middle East and abroad. Because of his revolution in the world of science, he is called the father of algebra.

His work provides a summary of algebraic formulas and their comparisons. This book also explains the concept of geometry. theorems, triangles, parallelograms, and circle formulas. This work was published by F. Rosen, an English mathematician in 1831. Its benefit was so great that many mathematicians competed to translate and carry out research. In fact, the understanding of all other mathematician translators and discoverers has increased.

In the 12th century, this work became important for education and research. In this work, the first lesson is about the use of decimal numbers. The existence of this work is the starting point for the development of mathematics and science in the world. European students have expressed Al-Khwarizmi with a new arithmetic underlying number notation. This makes the description of Arabic numerals known as an algorithm.

How important his work is because the first notation used Arabic numerals and placement values from 1 to 9. In addition, there is also an explanation that is equipped with rules regarding the use of Arabic numerals. This work also explains four arithmetic operations, namely addition, subtraction, division, and multiplication. It also supports the use of commonly used numeric formats, namely roots and 6 decimal places.

Apart from that, Al-Khwarizmi was also the one who introduced the number 0 (zero) to the world of mathematics. He introduced to the world that the number 0 is not just a number. His discoveries revolutionized the way we think about mathematics and modern science. The discovery of the number 0 revolutionized the way of thinking in mathematics and the natural sciences themselves. In fact, since the 9th century, the number 0 has been known in the Arab and Islamic world itself.

However, the introduction of the number 0 in Europe dates back to the 13th century. The introduction of the number 0 by Al-Khwarizmi is more detailed than the introduction of other numbers. This number is so important to the function of numbers that numbers like hundreds or tens cannot be read as such if there is no 0. 0 represents positive and negative neutrality, so its shape is one of the greatest discoveries in the world of mathematics itself.

So, that’s an explanation of the history of mathematics and the figures who played an important role as the inventors of mathematics. Al-Khwarizmi about being one of the most influential mathematical inventors in the world. Even today his findings are still the basis of mathematics. If Sinaumed’s is interested in learning more about the history of mathematics, then you can visit sinaumedia’s collection of books at www.sinaumedia.com , like the following recommendations: Enjoy studying. #FriendsWithoutLimits.