Geosphere Phenomena – Hello, Sinaumed’s friends , did you know? Geography is a basic science that is learned when we are in high school (SMA). Let’s start with a general understanding of geography below.
Etymologically, the word geography comes from the Greek, geo means earth and graphein means text. The combination of the two words then forms “geography”.
General Definition Geography is the science of the earth and all the principles, phenomena, and aspects related to human life. Both caused by nature and by human activity.
Geography is a science that is in great demand all over the world. Its important geographical position has made many scientists study it. In the Big Indonesian Dictionary (KBBI), geography is the science that discusses the earth’s surface, climate, population, flora, fauna and results obtained from within the earth.
Well, in geography there is the term geosphere. Geosphere is a term that is often found in geography. Because the geosphere is the material object of geography. In earth science, also known as geoscience, the discussion relating to the geosphere refers to the solid parts of our planet, such as the mantle and crust. The liquid part is called the hydrosphere, and the gaseous part is called the atmosphere.
What is certain, however, is that historically, the appearance of the geosphere, which was created in the late 19th century, was modeled after the atmosphere, with the Greek prefix geo meaning “earth” land. Thus, the geosphere has played an important role so far as it defines much of the environment in which we live, controlling the distribution of minerals, rocks and soil, as well as the natural hazards that affect humans.
The distribution of mountains, the position of continents, the shape of the seabed, and the location of major rivers and floodplains are largely the product of processes that occur in the geosphere. From the discussion above, we will discuss what exactly is the geosphere and material objects of geography? What are the elements? What are Geosphere Phenomena? Let’s look at the explanation.
Definition of Geosphere
Earth is made up of different structural layers. In the air, on its surface, even in its heart, it has various compositions. This material sustains life on earth. This is then called the geosphere, as mentioned in the opening paragraph.
The geosphere is a general term in geography, because the geosphere is a physical object of geography. The term geosphere is taken from the word geo which means earth and sphere which means layer, therefore the meaning of the geosphere is the layers that exist on earth, both below the earth’s surface, on the earth’s surface and above the earth’s surface which affect human life and other living things on earth.
This geosphere is a phenomenon or events or events that occur on the surface of the earth. It also includes the layers consisting of the atmosphere, lithosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, and also the anthroposphere. The geosphere itself comes from the word geo which means area and sphere which means to surround or surround. The earth has several main layers including:
- This barrier layer is the layer of the earth’s core which is a solid substance consisting of a layer of nickel and also ferum iron or a nife layer. This barrier has a radius of approximately 3,470 km.
- This mautle asthenosphere layer is a layer of earth that lies in the nife layer and also has a thickness of about 1,700 km. This layer also consists of liquid material that has a high temperature and also glows with a specific gravity of about 5 g/cm.
- This lithosphere is the outermost layer of the earth’s crust which is located in the asthenosphere mautle layer which has a thickness of about 1,200 km with an average specific gravity of 2.8 g/cm.
Understanding Geosphere According to Experts
The geosphere can be interpreted as a collective name for the lithosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, and atmosphere.
2. Aristotelian physics
The geosphere is the term applied to the 4 natural layers of the world centered around the center of the Earth, as described in Physics and Meteorology courses. The four layers can be used to describe the motion of the four elements of the earth.
3. Modern texts (in Earth system science)
Geosphere refers to the solid part of the Earth that is used along with the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere to describe the Earth system (its interaction with the magnetosphere is sometimes listed). In this context, the term lithosphere is sometimes used interchangeably with the geosphere or also for the solid part of the earth. The lithosphere also refers only to the solid upper layer of the Earth (the rock of the oceanic and continental crust and the upper mantle).
Since the beginning of space exploration, it has been observed that the level of the ionosphere or plasma layer changes dramatically and is often much greater than previously thought, sometimes even extending to the limits of the magnetosphere or Earth’s magnetism. This outer boundary of geological material is known as the “geopause” , to indicate the relative scarcity of external material, where the wind in the solar sense predominates.
Types of Geosphere
The geosphere consists of 5 layers, including:
In this sense, the atmosphere is the layer of gas that surrounds a planet, including Earth, from the planet’s surface to the depths of outer space. Earth’s atmosphere exists from a height of 0 km above the ground to about 560 km from the earth’s surface.
The atmospheric density gradually decreases in space, which, due to the planet’s gravity, pulls gases and aerosols (i.e. microscopic suspended particles such as dust, soot, smoke, or chemicals) into the atmosphere, closer to the surface. The atmosphere on some planets, such as Mercury, is almost non-existent, due to the primordial atmosphere escaping or being released from the planet’s relatively weak gravity and being released into space.
Other planets, such as Venus, Earth, Mars, and the outer giant planets, retain their atmospheres. In addition, the earth’s atmosphere can also accommodate water in its three phases (solid, liquid and gas) which is certainly important for the development of life on this planet.
The lithosphere is the densest or hardest and outermost part of the Earth. Although this lithosphere is still considered elastic, it is not viscous. The lithosphere is much more fragile than the asthenosphere. The elasticity and plasticity of the lithosphere depend on temperature, pressure and the curvature of the Earth itself. This lithosphere is capable of generating heat due to convection that occurs in the plastic mantle beneath the lithosphere.
The lithosphere is not a continuous layer divided into moving tectonic plates. This is a layer about 100 km deep. The deepest and hottest part of the lithosphere is called the asthenosphere.
The hydrosphere is defined as the total amount of water on the planet. This includes water that is also present on the planet’s surface, underground, and in the atmosphere. The hydrosphere on a planet may or may not be in the form of liquid, vapor, or ice. In general, the hydrosphere is abundant, with the oceans covering about 71% of the earth’s surface.
The hydrosphere plays a key role in the development and survival of organisms. It is believed that the first living organisms appeared in water. Moreover, every human life begins in the aquatic environment i.e. the mother’s womb, most of our cells and tissues are also water and most of the chemical reactions are part of water. All life processes take place in water.
The meaning of this biosphere is the layer of planet Earth where life takes place. These layers extend from a height of up to ten kilometers above sea level. The biosphere is one of the four layers that surround the Earth along with the lithosphere (rock), hydrosphere (water), and atmosphere (air) and is the sum of all ecosystems. .
The nature of the biosphere is unique. So far, there is no life anywhere else in the universe. Life on this Earth depends on the sun. The energy provided by sunlight is absorbed by plants, some bacteria and protozoa, and used in photosynthesis.
The energy obtained then converts carbon dioxide into organic compounds such as sugar and produces oxygen. Most animals, fungi, plant parasites and many bacteria depend directly or indirectly on photosynthesis.
Therefore, we can say that this biosphere is a system characterized by a continuous cycle of matter and the accompanying flow of solar energy, in which the molecules are large as well as the number of reproductive cells. Water is the main influencing factor, because all life depends on water.
The term anthroposphere is also known as the technosphere. The Anthroposphere is that part of the environment created or modified by humans for use by human activity and habitation. The Human Sphere is the part of the earth’s surface that is inhabited by humans.
Examples of Geosphere Phenomena
Studying the importance of the geosphere is essential for interacting with other regions. For example, in this case, the development of the modern atmosphere was the result of a combination of geological processes (volcanic eruptions, weathering of rocks, iron oxides) and biological processes, such as photosynthesis. The main source of carbon dioxide that can cause global warming is fossil fuels which are taken from the lithosphere (which is one of the layers of the geosphere) and used to produce energy.
Most of the water that makes up the world’s oceans comes from volcanic vapors. The distribution of plants, although largely controlled by global climate, changes in response to changes in elevation and subsurface distribution.
Geosphere phenomena are natural phenomena or events related to the elements of the geosphere, namely the atmosphere, lithosphere, biosphere, humans and hydrosphere. Examples of geosphere phenomena in everyday life can be studied together with geography, because geography itself is a science that studies geosphere phenomena or geosphere phenomena based on the elements of the geosphere. On this occasion, we will discuss examples of geosphere phenomena in everyday life.
The phenomenon of the geosphere includes 5 elements, namely the biosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere, anthroposphere, atmosphere if abbreviated as “Bili Hianat” . All these elements are interconnected and form life on earth. On this occasion we will discuss examples of geosphere phenomena in everyday life, the following are examples of geosphere phenomena classified according to geosphere elements:
1. Phenomena in the Atmosphere
Geosphere phenomena in the atmosphere can be encountered in everyday life. The following are examples of geosphere phenomena related to the atmosphere:
- There is a change of seasons in the hemisphere which directly or indirectly affects life. As an example of the emergence of a change in a season caused by seasonal climatic factors in Indonesia, namely during the rainy season, farmers take advantage of this by starting to plant rice in rice fields thanks to rain. In addition, during the rainy season, fishermen often discourage going to sea. Indeed, tides cannot be predicted with certainty.
- Changes in weather factors. For example, people with cold climates tend to wear thick clothes, while people with warm climates tend to wear light clothes.
- Aurora is a luminous atmospheric phenomenon that appears as bands of light that are sometimes visible in the night sky in northern or southern regions of the Earth. This is thought to be caused by charged particles from the sun entering the Earth’s magnetic field and molecules exciting the atmosphere. The aurora that shines at the south pole is called the aurora australis or aurora borealis. While the aurora that shines at the north pole is called the aurora borealis or aurora borealis.
- Mirage is an optical illusion that occurs due to the refraction of sunlight through the air with varying degrees of intensity. Mirage appearances are often in the form of puddles of water in the middle of the desert or on asphalt exposed to the hot sun. Its true appearance is that of sunlight refracted by a mass of air of brittle density.
2. Phenomena in the Lithosphere
Geosphere phenomena in the lithosphere can be encountered in everyday life. The following are examples of geosphere phenomena related to the lithosphere:
- Such as the occurrence of earthquakes caused by the movement of tectonic plates. Examples of geospatial phenomena in everyday life can be found in Indonesia. Earthquakes due to the movement of tectonic plates occur in many parts of Indonesia, such as the earthquake in Karo, Yogyakarta and also the earthquake in Papua.
- Erosion occurs on sloping areas so it is necessary to build ditches or ladders on steep areas to reduce the rate of erosion.
- Landslide, the definition of a landslide or commonly known as ground displacement is a geological event that occurs due to shifting of rock or soil masses in various forms and types such as falling rocks or large masses of foundation soil.
Landslides are generally caused by two factors, namely driving factors and triggering factors. Repulsive factors are factors that affect the state of the material itself, while triggers are factors that cause matter to move.
3. Phenomena in the Hydrosphere
The following is an example of a geosphere phenomenon related to the hydrosphere.
- The amount of water stored in the soil is influenced by the infiltration of water into the soil as well as other factors that affect the potential of soil water. This rock is also a ground cover that can or can affect water absorption. In addition, the use of groundwater by humans also affects groundwater resources.
- Snow on the mountains of Jaya Wijaya, Papua, Indonesia. An example of geosphere phenomena in everyday life is a unique example in Indonesia, because snow exists in Indonesia which is known to have a tropical climate.
4. Phenomena in the Biosphere
Geosphere phenomena in the biosphere can be encountered in everyday life. The following are examples of geosphere phenomena related to the biosphere:
- There is a distribution of flora and fauna in the hemisphere. This phenomenon is caused by favorable habitat conditions, such as the presence of Javan tigers, camels in Arabia and even birds of paradise in Papua and their habitats. Apart from that, the existence of wild animals in this part of the world is also used by humans, for example in Indonesia people use animals such as cows, buffaloes and even horses, while in Thailand people use elephants to support their activities or daily life. .
- Food consumption varies due to differences in flora and fauna. For example, in Indonesia, the staple food is rice because Indonesia is a rice-producing area.
5. Phenomena in the Anthroposphere
Geosphere phenomena in the anthroposphere can be encountered in everyday life. The following are examples of geosphere phenomena related to the anthroposphere:
- There is a diversity of customs and also cultures in the hemisphere. This diversity also greatly influences human life itself, including ways of interacting, different skills and also different needs.
- There are different potential natural resources (SDA) which can or may cause differences in the way they are used too, therefore processing and also the tools used will also be different due to differences in the types of these natural resources.
Well, this is an example of geosphere phenomena in everyday life . The geographical scope generally includes geosphere phenomena which include natural phenomena and social phenomena . In addition, within the scope of geography can include human interaction with the environment. If you still have difficulty understanding the Geosfar Phenomenon, you can buy and read books at sinaumedia.com. Hopefully this article is useful.