What is Geography? Scope and Supporting Science of Geography

Boundaries of Geography on Earth – Geography as a scientific discipline that studies the environment and all the phenomena that occur with humans.

Not only the earth object that is also studied in geography is space. On the surface of the earth, things are learned, for example, population problems, flora, fauna, air, climate and everything that has to do with the earth.

The term Geography itself was only used in 1972. Here is an explanation of the meaning and boundaries of geography that you need to know, Sinaumed’s.

A. What is Geography?

Geography comes from the Greek, geo which means earth and graphhein which means writing. So literally, geography is writing about the earth.

Therefore geography is often also referred to as earth science. However, what is studied in geography is not only about the surface of the earth, but various things that exist on the surface of the earth, outside the earth, even objects in outer space are also the objects of study of geography.

Geography can be defined as the study or study of the earth and everything that is on it, such as population, fauna, flora, climate, air, and all their interactions. Geography was first introduced by Eratosthenes which was described in a book entitled Geography (276-104 BC).

The term geography itself is taken from the Greek language where geo means earth and graphein means writing. So if interpreted geography is writing about the earth or it can be called the science that studies about the earth.

Even though it has the meaning of writing about the earth or the study of the earth, geography does not only discuss the earth, geography also discusses the entire universe both inside and outside the earth.

Like the solar system, weather and climate, oceans, and much more that Sinaumed’s can also learn through the Encyclopedia of Geography with the Complete World Atlas below.

So the meaning of geography can be expanded by combining some of the things mentioned above.

Geography is a branch of science that studies the earth, climate, flora, fauna, population, weather, air and others that interact with it. Geographic Limitations according to experts:

  • Ferdinand Von Richthofen, said geography is a branch of science that studies the characteristics and symptoms of the earth’s surface and its inhabitants. In addition, geography also explains causal relationships as well as the existence of symptoms and characteristics simultaneously.
  • Sidney E. Ekblaw and DJD Mulkurne, geography is a branch of science that studies the earth and its contents which can influence how we live, what food we consume, the clothes or clothing we wear, houses for us to take shelter in, as well as all the recreational activities that we feel.
  • Halim Khan, said that the science of geography is the natural and social environment is an area to carry out activities, describe, analyze, and enjoy human behavior on earth that is beneficial for their survival.
  • Bintarto, geography is a branch of science that images, explains the characteristics of the earth, analyzes natural phenomena and populations, and studies the distinctive patterns of livelihoods and tries to find the function of the elements of the earth in space and time.
  • Based on the results of the Semarang seminar and workshop in 1988 , Geography is a branch of science that studies the similarities and differences of natural phenomena and life on earth (geosphere symptoms) as well as the interactions of humans and their environment which are included in spatial and regional contexts.
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B. Scope of Geography

Broadly speaking, all objects of study of geography can be divided into two main aspects, namely physical aspects and social aspects. Physical aspects include chemical, biological, astronomical, and so on, while social aspects include anthropological, political, economic, and so on. The interaction of geography with other sciences gave birth to a new discipline which is a separate branch.

For example, the interaction between geography and biology gave birth to biogeography, the interaction between geography and anthropology gave birth to anthropogeography or ethnography, the interaction between geography and mathematics gave birth to mathematical geography. If the earth is viewed in terms of environmental theory, the earth’s surface can be grouped into three categories, namely:

  • The physical or abiotic environment is everything around humans in the form of non-living things, for example soil, air, water and sunlight.
  • The biological environment (biological environment) or biotic is everything around humans in the form of living things, such as animals, plants including humans.
  • The social environment is everything around humans in the form of human actions or activities both in relation to the natural environment and human relations.

C. Supporting Science of Geography

The scope of geography is very broad, involving all phenomena or symptoms in the geosphere. The geosphere as a scope of geographic study consists of four main components, namely the atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere and biosphere. Geography can be applied in life to improve human welfare. In geography only helps humans in the utilization of natural resources available on earth. Below are the sciences that have geography:

  • Meteorology: The study of atmospheric problems, for example, temperature, air, weather, wind, and various other physical and chemical properties of the atmosphere. One of the books that discusses the science of meteorology, namely the book Aviation Meteorology and the Influence of weather phenomena and their relationship to the operation of aircraft.
  • Climatology : The science that investigates climate problems.
  • Astronomy: The study of celestial bodies outside the earth’s atmosphere, for example, the sun, moon, stars and outer space which is also discussed in the Astronomy Olympiad’s Sacred Book.
  • Geology : The study of the earth as a whole, especially its rocks, for example, the history of occurrence, composition, structure, and processes of rock development. You can also find a deeper discussion of engineering geology in the Engineering Geology book below.
  • Geomorphology : The study of the shape of the earth’s surface and all the processes that produce these forms. This is because life cannot be separated from the surface of the earth which is always undergoing processes, resulting in the aging of the young face of the earth in various forms and this is discussed in the Geomorphology book which you can get at sinaumedia!
  • Soil science : The study of soils as a whole, including the physical and chemical properties of soil, soil structure, distribution of soil types, and so on, which you can learn from the book Fundamentals of Soil Science by Dr. Ir. Kemas Ali Hanafiah, MS.
  • Hydrography or hydrology : Science related to recording, surveying, and mapping the (fresh) water cycle in the earth’s crust, both on the surface and in the earth’s crust, including distribution patterns, properties, and characteristics of water. Derivatives of hydrology include limnology (studying lakes), hydrometeorology (studying the condition of water in the air), fluvial hydrology (rivers) and groundwater hydrology (groundwater hydrology).
  • Oceanography: The study of the physical and chemical properties of the ocean. Physical properties include ocean currents, waves, and sea water temperature. Chemical properties include the salinity and acidity of seawater. Both of these characteristics affect the ecosystem and utilization of the sea.
  • Ecology: The science of the environment, including the reciprocal relationship between humans and their environment.
  • Biogeography: The branch of geography that studies natural factors that influence the distribution of living things.
  • Human Geography : A branch of geography that examines social, economic and population aspects.
  • Political geography : The branch of geography that studies countries from the point of view of the country’s location on the face of the earth, so that its natural conditions, population characteristics, and the basis for making political policies from that country can be known.
  • Geophysics: The study of the properties of the earth (inside) by physical methods or techniques, for example in studying earthquakes, gravity and magnetic fields.
  • Population Geography : A branch of geography that examines population and its relation to the influence of their environment so that they can display various characters and socio-cultures.
  • Economic Geography : A branch of geography that specifically studies population economics, including the distribution of the population’s economy which is influenced by natural conditions.
  • Anthropogeography : The branch of geography that studies the distribution of nations on earth from a geographical point of view, is also called ethnography.
  • Paleontology: The study of the fossils of ancient life forms beneath the earth’s layers.
  • Regional Geography: The branch of geography that studies certain regions in particular, for example, the geography of the Middle East and the geography of Southeast Asia.
  • Physical Geography: The branch of geography that studies the shape and structure of the earth’s surface.
  • Mathematical geography : A branch of geography that can be used to show the shape, size, and movement of the earth, for example, geographical latitude and longitude, meridians, parallels, and the surface area of ​​the earth.
  • Historical geography : The branch of geography that studies the earth in terms of its history and development.
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