Recognizing Propositions in Sentences: Types and Examples

Proposition Is- In Indonesian lessons apart from learning to read and write we also learn about how to make a good sentence structure in accordance with the basic rules that apply. Therefore, an article must also pay attention to how the linguistic rules have been agreed upon and can be learned in Indonesian itself.

One of the sentence structures that must be considered in making an Indonesian sentence is a proposition. In Indonesian, a proposition is a clause in the form of a complete sentence. Propositions consist of three main parts: subject, predicate, and conjunction (copula). Conjunctions (copula) are words that connect a subject and a predicate. Copula in Indonesian sentences is not always used. But in a proposition, the copula must be used. Examples of the word copula are, whereas, is, or, etc.

For Sinaumed’s friends, especially for those who are interested in language and literature, the discussion this time will be very interesting because it will discuss the meaning of propositional sentence structure and how to form example sentences and find out the types of text.

Further discussion of the notion of propositions can be seen below!

Definition of Proposition

Proposition is a term used for a meaningful declarative phrase. That is, a sentence must be believed, questioned, disproved or proven true or not. In short, propositions are statements about things that can be found to be true or false.

Quoting from a semantic book, a proposition is a statement that can be proven true or can be disproved. Whereas in the book Basics of Logic, propositions are statements in sentences that have a complete and intact meaning. Propositions are also known as instructional sentences which are used as data. In the form of a prepositional sentence, there is a relationship between the fact and the subject. In short, a proposition is a neutral sentence because it does not take the form of a question, wish, or command.

Propositional Text Forming Elements

The elements contained in a propositional sentence include:

  • Subjects, especially those mentioned in prepositional sentences, can be objects, places, people, or events.
  • Predicate, namely the things stated in the subject.
  • A copula or conjunction is a word that connects a subject and a predicate.

Here is an example of a propositional sentence with its constituent parts.

From the sentence “all humans will die”, it can be explained that the subject of the sentence is “humans”, the predicate of the sentence is “dead”, and the word “is” can be called a copula. The word “all” in the sentence is a number.

Types of Propositional Sentences

  • Propositions according to form

According to their form, propositions are classified into two categories: singular and compound. Simple propositions express only one statement which is only supported by subject and predicate (single sentence).

Examples of simple propositional sentences: I am crying; brother run.

Example of a compound proposition: Dad does office work and listens to the radio. Every citizen must fulfill his obligations and receive his rights.

  • Based on the nature of justification or denial

Based on the nature of justification and denial, there are two types of propositions:

categorical and conditional. Categorical propositions refer to absolute justification or denial; definitely right or definitely wrong. In other words, truth happens unconditionally.

Next are conditional propositions, which refer to conditional or optional justification or denial. The conditional clause category itself can be divided into two categories, namely the hypothesis and the differentiating proposition.

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A hypothesis conditional statement is a statement that shows a conditional justification. This means that if the proposal is made, then the truth happens. We can see this in the sentence If it rains then the ground is muddy, then the ground will be muddy if it rains. Unlike the subjunctive conditional, an exception clause is also known as a substitution clause. It is based on justification in the form of choice. These clauses often use the word or as in sentences:

Amir has to help his parents or clean the yard.

  • Categorical proposition:

the justification or denial of a proposition is absolute (certainly true or false definitively), so that the justification of an absolute proposition is unconditional.

Example of a categorical clause: All living things will die.

  • Conditional proposition:

Refers to a proposition as a conditional justification or denial or a possible choice. Conditional clauses are divided into hypothetical conditional propositions and disjunctive conditional propositions.

The conditional proposition of the hypothesis refers to the conditional justification. When the proposition is fulfilled, the truth occurs.

Hypothesis conditional proposition:

In the dry season, the land becomes arid. So that the earth will dry if there is a drought.

Disjunctive conditional propositions refer to justification by choice and often use the word “or”.

Examples of disjunctive conditional propositions:

I have to go to school or work to make a living.

  • Based on a broad understanding

Based on a broad sense, propositions are divided into three categories:

universal (general), particular (special) and singular (unique). Universal propositions are propositions that cover all aspects or parts. This is indicated by the words:

all, all, each, every time, everything. For example in the sentence: No one in the world lives happily

Then the second proposition is a special proposition, namely a proposition that represents a portion of all aspects. Tasks mark specific suggestions as some, some, not all, most, many. For example:

Not all students study hard. The word “not all” in the sentence above is a single clause, which only includes certain aspects.

And the last proposition is the singular proposition, which expresses only one aspect, between the signs of this word and that of another.

Examples of its use in sentences:

This house is for sale, from this house there is only one element. If there are two elements in it, then a sentence cannot be called a singular proposition.

  • General (universal) proposition:

A clause with a predicate that supports or denies all objects. Propositional signs are the words “all”, “each”, “all”, “all”.

Examples of general propositions:

All students must do homework given by the teacher.

  • Particular Propositions (Special):

Propositions with special statements stating that a particular object is part of the predicate. It can also be said that special propositions reveal several aspects.

Example of a special proposition:

Several students on this campus are scholarship recipients.

  • Singular Proposition (Unique):

A proposition that expresses only one aspect. Single clauses are marked with the words “this” and “that”.

Example: This coconut tree will be cut down.

Based on quality and quantity

Based on the quality and quantity, propositions can be divided into two, namely Propositions A, I, E and Proposition O. Proposition A here means universal or single affirmative; total disclosure and justification, affirmative or positive clause. Example sentences: This table is made of teak wood.

Unlike A, an E-clause is a universal or singular negation it expresses the entirety of any negation, denial, or negativity. For example, like the sentence “This table is not teak wood”, the word not in the sentence shows negation in a negative form.

In addition to Proposals A and E, based on their quality and quantity, Proposals are further divided into Proposition I and Proposition O. Proposition I is a special proposition in implementation; express a part of the whole acknowledgment, justification or positivity. As an example in the following sentence “Most public high school students are not diligent in studying”.

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Proposition O is itself a concrete negating proposition; express a part of the whole negation, denial or negation.

Example of sentences:

“Most public high school students don’t study hard”

Examples of Propositional Sentences

Examples of compound proposition sentences

  • Most women prefer pink, while most men prefer black.
  • Some animals cannot lay eggs, while some plants cannot bear fruit.
  • Some students choose to major in science while others choose to major in social sciences.
  • Some recent graduates choose to work as office workers, while others choose to become entrepreneurs.
  • All humans are living beings and must die.
  • Everyone must eat and drink.
  • Most teenagers are stupid weeaboos and kpopers.
  • Jakarta is the capital city of the Republic of Indonesia and the provincial capital of DKI Jakarta. People definitely need genuine love and care.
  • Jakarta is the capital of the Republic of Indonesia, while Paris is the capital of France.

Single proposition sentence examples

  • Most teenagers like loud music bands.
  • Some women don’t like pink.
  • Of course everyone needs love and affection.
  • Jakarta is the capital city of the Republic of Indonesia.
  • Some trees cannot bear fruit.
  • Everyone is a living being.
  • Humans are all eaters.
  • All living things will surely die.
  • All living things need food.
  • Some men like women with a nice body.

Another example of a proposition sentence

  • Each child should have their own interests and talents.
  • Not all graduates go on to study for a doctoral degree.
  • Not all students stand out because of their academic success.
  • The moon is a natural satellite of planet Earth.
  • Some viewers don’t like horror movies. Everyone has their own problems.
  • Everything in the universe is God’s creation.
  • Michael Jordan is not a soccer player.
  • Rendang is a dish that CNN rated as the best.
  • Today, most people need multiple devices. Not all men like dark clothes.
  • Not everyone is proud to have a private vehicle.
  • Sadewa is the youngest child of Pandu and Dewi Kunti.
  • IPS stands for social science.
  • Communication is not an exact science. Evan Dimas is not a technocrat.
  • Poetry is not a kind of sentence.
  • Arjuna was not the son of Basudewa Kresna.
  • Gareng is a clown.
  • The poem I Want is a poem by Sapardi Djoko Damono. Ernest Hemingway is not an Indonesian writer.
  • Multatuli is the pseudonym of Eduard Douwes Dekker.
  • Some high school graduates inevitably choose to continue their studies at the university level.
  • Cats are not herbivores.
  • Humans are not tailed creatures. Bandung is not the capital city of East Java.
  • Chairil Anwar is a poet who is famous for his poem I.
  • Today, most people must have various types of social media accounts.
  • Anyone who is an adult must have experienced puberty.
  • Not all men are mean to women. Not all women like pink.
  • Not all teenagers like Japanese manga and anime.
  • All creatures breathe.
  • All living things need food.
  • All living things will surely grow and develop. Each of them has its own characteristics and characteristics.
  • All living beings pass through the stages of birth and death.


That’s a brief discussion of the meaning of propositional sentences. The discussion this time does not only discuss the definition of propositional sentences but also discusses the proper use of propositional sentences, types, and examples of propositional sentences.

Understanding propositional sentences really helps us understand the correct linguistic structure in language learning which helps us more easily understand and properly understand the function and proper use of propositional sentences.