List of Revolutionary Heroes and Short Profiles – Do you know the list of heroes of the Indonesian revolution? Well, that’s right, this time the author will discuss about the heroes of the revolution in Indonesia. However, before discussing who the heroes of the revolution are, we will discuss the definition of a revolutionary hero.
So, the heroes of the revolution were people who had previously been the target of the PKI’s kidnapping in a way that was quite sadistic and heinous. This is because they were slandered for committing treason against the first President of the Republic of Indonesia, namely Ir Soekarno through the Council of Generals. Therefore, they were forcibly picked up and taken to Crocodile Hole to be tortured and even killed.
After being killed, they were put into a well in the Crocodile Hole area, located in East Jakarta. There were six generals and also one first officer from the Indonesian Army who were victims of the G30S PKI incident.
Their bodies were found in an old well area which had a depth of approximately 12 meters by the Army Command Member Regiment Unit. At that time, their bodies were found on October 4, 1965.
List of Revolutionary Heroes
As explained above, the G30S PKI was one of the darkest events in Indonesian history. This movement did not only occur in Jakarta, but also in Yogyakarta. At that time, groups supporting the Indonesian Communist Party (PKI) kidnapped several high-ranking officers accused of carrying out the coup.
As a result of this movement, several people became victims. In addition, this event was also one of the factors in the collapse of the Old Order government, which was led directly by Ir Soekarno. The following are 10 victims of the G30S PKI incident who were later given the title of revolutionary hero by the government. Until now they have been known as national heroes.
Below is a list of 10 heroes of the revolution and their brief profiles. Listen carefully.
1. General TNI Ahmad Yani
TNI General Ahmad Yani is one of the victims of the G30S PKI incident who is now known as a revolutionary hero. He is known to have been born in Purworejo, Central Java. General Ahmad Yani was born on June 19, 1922. When he was young, he had attended military service and served as a Dutch East Indies soldier. Then when Japan colonized Indonesia, General Ahmad Yani became a member of the Defenders of the Homeland (PETA) army.
Then after Indonesia’s independence, Ahmad Yani began to join the Indonesian National Armed Forces, which at that time still had the name People’s Security Army (TKR). Ahmad Yani became an army commander in the Magelang area. He managed to defend the city from attacks by British troops after the proclamation of independence.
Apart from that, Ahmad Yani also carried out guerrilla warfare against the Dutch during the Dutch military aggression. After the recognition of Indonesian sovereignty by the Dutch, he was then withdrawn to the City of Tegal, Central Java. In that city, Ahmad Yani with his special troops, the Banteng Raiders. Where they succeeded in quelling and defeating the Darul Islam rebellion that was formed by Kartosuwiryo.
From this achievement, finally the Indonesian government sent Ahmad Yani to take military courses in the United States. There Ahmad Yani was prepared to become a general candidate. Then, after returning to Indonesia, he was recalled to the Indonesian Army Headquarters located in Jakarta and became the general staff of General AH Nasution.
In 1958, Ahmad Yani succeeded in suppressing the PRRI rebellion led by Lt. Col. Ahmad Husein in West Sumatra. This achievement later made Ahmad Yani appointed as Commander of the Army. He was there to replace General AH Nasution.
On September 30, 1965, early in the morning, Ahmad Yani was kidnapped by troops named Cakrabirawa who were led directly by Lieutenant Colonel Untung. Where they are affiliated with the PKI. When he was kidnapped at his residence, Ahmad Yani was found dead with gunshot wounds inflicted by Cakrabirawa troops. Ahmad Yani’s body was then taken and put into a well in the crocodile pit area.
His body along with that of the other victims was successfully removed on October 4, 1965. Then, Ahmad Yani was buried militaryly at the Heroes Cemetery in the Kalibata area, Jakarta. After that, the Indonesian government awarded Ahmad Yani the title Hero of the Revolution.
2. Major General Siwondo Parman
The second hero of the revolution is Major General Siswondo Parman. He was born on August 14, 1918 in Wonosobo, Central Java. He had entered medical school. However, it stopped after Japan colonized Indonesia.
During Japanese rule, Parman worked as a military police. At that time the work was known as Kempetai. Not long after that, Parman was finally sent to Japan to attend intelligence training. But after Japan stopped colonizing Indonesia, Parman turned to being a translator.
Parman’s military career in the TNI began when he joined TKR or the People’s Security Army. Parman joined TKR after Indonesia’s independence in 1945. Several months later, Parman was appointed chief of staff of the military police stationed in Yogyakarta.
It only took a few years for Parman to become chief of staff for the military governor in Jabodetabek with the rank of Major. Parman’s achievements include thwarting the rebellion by the Ratu Adil Armed Forces or APRA. Where the troops were led directly by Raymond Westerling who then sent Parman to military police school in America.
He had held positions at the headquarters of the Indonesian Military Police, served as an attaché in the Indonesian military in London and England, and even held a position in the Indonesian Ministry of Defence. Then after that, Parman was taken back to Indonesia to serve as an intelligence assistant for KSAD General Ahmad Yani.
On September 30, 1965, Parman was kidnapped by Cakrabirawa troops at his residence. Then he was forcibly taken to Crocodile Hole in the Halim Perdana Kusuma area. At that place, Parman was shot along with several other officers.
His body was then put in a well and piled up with the bodies of other victims who had been killed by the PKI. After their bodies were found, the government then gave the title of PKI victims as heroes of the revolution.
3. Brigadier General Donald Isaac Pandjaitan
Brigadier General Donald Isaac Pandjaitan was born in Balige, North Sumatra on June 9, 1925. When the Japanese occupied Indonesia, Pandjaitan had just finished school. Then after graduating from high school, he became a member of the Gyugun or you could call it a volunteer soldier in the Pekanbaru area, Riau.
After Indonesia became independent in 1945, Pandjaitan began to join the newly formed People’s Security Army or TKR. When he first joined, he served as battalion commander. Then he was assigned to be the Education Commander of Division IX / Bull in Bukittinggi in 1948.
But not long after that, he moved to become Chief of the General Staff IV in the Sumatran Army Command. Then he became the Leader of the Supplies for the Struggle of the Emergency Government of the Republic of Indonesia when the Dutch Military Aggression I and II occurred.
After the recognition of Indonesian sovereignty by the Netherlands, Pandjaitan rose to a position, namely to become Chief of Staff for Army Operations and Territory I Bukit Barisan in the Medan area. Then, he also turned into Chief of Staff T and T II / Sriwijaya.
In 1963, he was sent to the United States to take a military course at the Associated Command and General Staff College in the Fort Leavenworth area. Pandjaitan was also assigned as the Indonesian military attache in the Bonn region in 1960. Previously, he had attended a military attache course in 1965. After that, two years later he was reassigned as Minister of the Commander of the Army General AH Nasution in the logistics section.
Then in the early hours of October 1, 1965, Pandjaitan was kidnapped by Cakrabirawa troops and became one of the victims of the G30S PKI. Until now, Pandjaitan has been known as a revolutionary hero.
4. Major General MT Haryono
Major General Mas Tirtodarmo Haryono or commonly known as Major General MT Haryono was born in Surabaya, East Java on January 20, 1924. After completing his basic education, he also studied at Ika Dai Gakko (Medical College) during the Japanese era, although not until the end because Japan surrendered.
After the proclamation of Independence in 1945, MT Haryono joined the TKR (People’s Security Army) and also received the rank of Major. During the defense of independence, MT Haryono was assigned several times as a member of the Indonesian delegation during negotiations with the British and the Dutch, such as at the Round Table Conference (KMB).
His ability when negotiating and understanding several foreign languages such as German, Dutch and English made him asked to serve as the Indonesian military attache in the Netherlands. After that, he then returned to Indonesia and was appointed Assistant or Deputy III to the Minister/Commander of the Army, General Ahmad Yani, for development and planning.
5. Major General R. Suprapto
Major General R. Suprapto was born in Purwokerto, Central Java on June 20, 1920. After completing his senior secondary education, Suprapto then attended a military training at the Koninklijke Militaire Akademie in Bandung. However, it was not finished because Japan controlled Indonesia.
R. Suprapto was then arrested and put in jail. However, he managed to escape. He also attended a training called keibodan, syuisyintai, and seinendan held by the Japanese. After that, he decided to work at the Community Education Office.
Similar to MT Haryono, after Indonesia’s independence R. Suprapto also joined the TKR (People’s Security Army). He played a direct role in the Ambarawa battle with General Sudirman against the British army.
After Indonesian sovereignty was recognized by the Dutch, R. Suprapto was assigned as Chief of Staff of the Army and Territorial (T&T) IV/ Diponegoro in Semarang. After that, he moved to Jakarta to become the Army Staff and the Ministry of Defense.
A few years later, R. Suprapto was appointed Deputy (Deputy) of the Army Chief of Staff for the Sumatra region in Medan. Until finally, he returned to Jakarta as a high-ranking army officer with the rank of Major General.
On October 1, 1965, in the early hours of the morning, R Suprapto was picked up by the Cakrabirawa Troops under the pretext of being called to meet President Soekarno. Suprapto was then taken to the Halim Perdanakusuma area, or to be more precise, to the crocodile pit.
6. Major General TNI Sutoyo Siswomiharjo
Sutoyo Siswomiharjo was born in the Purworejo area, Central Java on August 28, 1922. After completing his education at AMS, he then studied at the Civil Service Education School in Jakarta. After graduating from school, he then worked as a government employee in Purworejo, and stopped working in 1944.
After Indonesia’s independence in 1945, Sutoyo Siswomiharjo or usually called by the name Pak Toyo decided to join the People’s Security Army Police unit. Not long after, he was assigned to become an aide to General Gatot Subroto, who at that time was the commander of the military police.
After serving a long time in the military police, Sutoyo Siswomiharjo finally became chief of staff at the Military Police Headquarters in 1954. Only a few years later, he was assigned to become an assistant military attache at the Indonesian embassy in England.
After completing staff and command school in Bandung in 1960, Sutoyo was assigned to become an Army Inspector of Justice. After that, he then rose as Inspector of Justice or Chief Military Prosecutor with the rank of Brigadier General TNI.
Sutoyo Siswomiharjo is included in a list of high-ranking army officers who were kidnapped by Cakrabirawa troops. At that time, Sutoyo was picked up by Cakrabirawa troops at his house. Then he was taken to a crocodile pit in the Halim Perdanakusuma area.
7. Captain Czi. Pierre Tendean
Full Name of Captain Czi. Pierre Tendean is Pierre Andries Tendean. He is usually known by the name of Pierre Tendean, born on January 21, 1939. Since childhood, he has aspired to become a soldier. After completing his studies, he then joined the military school of the Army Engineering Academy (ATEKAD). During school, he even participated in a military operation to eradicate the PRRI (Revolutionary Government of the Republic of Indonesia) rebellion in Sumatra.
After graduating, Pierre was assigned to become a Platoon Commander of Combat Engineering Battalion 2 Kodam II/Bukit Barisan in Medan with the rank of Second Lieutenant. A few years later he joined the Army Central Intelligence Service (DIPIAD). From there he got a job as an intelligence officer in Malaysia when Indonesia and Malaysia had a confrontation.
From there, Pierre then rose to the rank of first lieutenant and was withdrawn as an adjutant to General AH Nasution. On the early morning of October 1, 1965, the Cakrabirawa Troops arrived to kidnap General AH Nasution who was the main target.
However, due to the pressing time, the Cakrabirawa troops could not differentiate between Pierre Tendean and AH Nasution, so they took Pierre Tendean with them. Then AH Nasution managed to escape by jumping over the fence of his house but he suffered an injury to his leg.
After that, Pierre Tendean was tortured and executed along with other high-ranking Army officers who had been kidnapped earlier. Then, Pierre Tendean’s body was put into an old well at Crocodile Hole in the Halim Perdanakusuma area.
Those are the 7 heroes of the revolution that we need to know. All of them died because they were killed by PKI members. As previously explained, the hero of the revolution is a title given to military officers who have died in the tragedy that occurred on September 30, 1965 or to be precise, on the early morning of October 1. Since the enactment of Law number 20 of 2009, the title of hero of the revolution has also been recognized as the title of National Hero.
The list of heroes of the revolution above are some of the national heroes whose struggles and sacrifices we need to remember. They have risked their lives to defend our country. So, it is appropriate for us to remember their struggles and practice their good attitudes and qualities for the betterment of the nation and state.
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