Women’s National Hero – Many people already know that in ancient times, Indonesia was a colonial country. Therefore, many Indonesian citizens fought against the invaders. In fact, it’s not just the men, but there are already many women who aim to help Indonesia’s independence.
Therefore, there are many Indonesian women who are given the title of hero because of their services to Indonesia. However, before discussing women’s national heroes, we should first discuss what national heroes are.
Indonesia has national heroes, both heroes in the Dutch and Japanese colonial eras, heroes of the revolution and heroes in the post-proclamation era. Thanks to the services of these heroes, Indonesia managed to become independent and become a big and better nation as it is now.
Meanwhile, a hero is a person who stands out because of his courage and sacrifice in defending the truth, or a brave warrior. Etymologically, the word ‘hero’ comes from the Sanskrit ‘phala’, which means result or fruit.
According to the Big Indonesian Dictionary (KBBI), a hero is someone who has the courage and sacrifice in defending the truth for the nation, state and religion or a brave fighter.
National hero is the title of the highest award in Indonesia, as well as posthumously or a title given by the government to people who have died, who have contributed greatly and are role models for the community. Not only men, but there are many female national heroes who participated in fighting for Indonesian independence.
National Hero is a title given to an Indonesian citizen or someone who fought against colonialism in the territory that is now the territory of the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia who died or died defending the nation and state, or who during his lifetime carried out heroic actions or produced great achievements and works. for the development and progress of the nation and state of the Republic of Indonesia.
Indonesian Hero Criteria
The Indonesian Ministry of Social Affairs states that the title of National Hero will be awarded to individuals who meet the following criteria:
- An Indonesian citizen who has passed away, but during his lifetime carried out struggles for the interests of the nation, achieved independence, realized national unity and created big ideas that affected the development and welfare of the nation.
- Has served and fought for the nation for most of his life.
- The struggle has had an impact on a national scale.
- Nationalist spirit.
- Moral and good manners.
- Not easily give up in the face of enemies who threaten his struggle.
- In his whole life he has never carried out actions that could potentially damage the values of his struggle and dedication.
Process of Coronation of National Hero
In the coronation of a national hero, it is divided into four stages. In the following, the coronation of a national hero goes through four stages, namely:
- Submissions from the community from cities and regencies by way of submitting recommendation proposals addressed to regional heads, starting from the mayor or regent, up to the governor.
- After the recommendation proposals are submitted, the Governor will propose them to the Ministry of Social Affairs.
- After that the Ministry of Social Affairs will pass it on to the President who is represented by the Titles Council. This Council of Titles is a council entitled to confer the title of national hero consisting of two academics, where generally the two academics consist of figures with military backgrounds and figures who have received awards.
- After being considered by the Titles Council and according to the established criteria, the President through the Titles Council will award the person with the title of National Hero. The coronation of the title was carried out to coincide with Heroes’ Day on November 10.
Indonesian Women National Hero
As good citizens, we need to know the names of the female national heroes who have fought for Indonesian independence. The following is a list of Indonesian women’s national heroes that are important to know, including:
1. Martha Christina Tiahahu from Maluku
Martha Christina Tiahahu, a warrior from Abubu Village, Nusalaut Island who was born on January 4, 1800. When she was 17 years old, she dared to take up arms against the Dutch colonialists. Not only that, Martha Christina Tiahahu also always encourages women to help men on the battlefield.
Sadly, his father, Kapitan Paulus Tiahahu, was sentenced to death by the Dutch. After the death of his father, his physical and mental health deteriorated. Then, he was arrested along with 39 other people and taken to Java Island by ship Eversten to be forced to work on a coffee plantation.
However, Martha Christina Tiahahu’s health condition worsened while on the ship. This was exacerbated by her refusing to eat and being treated. He breathed his last on January 2, 1818 and was buried with military honors in the Banda Sea.
2. Admiral Malahayati from Aceh
Keumalahayati, a warrior from the Aceh Sultanate who was born in Aceh Besar in 1550. This formidable woman led 2,000 Inong Balee troops (widows of martyred heroes).
With determination, they fought against Dutch ships and forts while killing Cornelis de Houtman. This incident occurred on September 11, 1599. Thanks to her bravery, Malahayati received the title of admiral.
However, Malahayati died in 1615 while protecting the Krueng Raya Bay from the Portuguese attack led by Admiral Alfonso De Castro.
3. Cut Nyak Meutia from Aceh
Bumi rencong gave birth to many formidable warrior women, one of which is Cut Nyak Meutia. Initially, she fought against the Dutch with her husband, Teuku Muhammad. However, her husband was arrested by the Dutch and executed in 1905.
According to her husband’s will before his death, Cut Nyak Meutia married Pang Nanggroe. They fought with the Marechausée Corps and killed her husband on September 26, 1910, but Cut Nyak Meutia managed to escape. He continued to fight with the remnants of his army, but fate had other plans. Cut Nyak Meutia died on October 24, 1910.
4. Raden Adjeng Kartini from Jepara, Central Java
RA Kartini is a female figure who was born in Jepara in 1879. RA Kartini is well known as a figure who fights for the revival of women in Indonesia. At that time, he slightly criticized Javanese culture which hindered the development of women.
Through her letters, she provides ideas related to women’s struggles. In fact, Kartini’s birth date, which is April 21, has been designated as the day of commemoration of Kartini’s struggle, also known as Kartini Day.
5. Cut Nyak Dien from Aceh
Cut Nyak Dien is another female national hero in Indonesia. Cut Nyak Dien was born in Lampadang, the Kingdom of Aceh. As a woman, Cut Nyak Dien played a role in fighting against Dutch colonialism. In fact, Cut Nyak Dien joined the battlefield against the Dutch.
6. Dewi Sartika from West Java
Besides Maria Walanda Maramis, there is also Raden Dewi Sartika who cares about women’s education. His service was to create a school called the Wife School in Pendopo on January 16 1904. Then, this school changed its name to the Kaoetamaan Istri School in 1910 and changed again to Raden Dewi School in September 1929.
Thanks to her services in fighting for education, Dewi Sartika was awarded the Order van Oranje-Nassau title. In addition, he was also recognized as a National Hero on December 1, 1966. Dewi Sartika died on September 11, 1947.
7. Andi Deputy Maraddia Balanipa from Tinambung, Polewali Mandar, West Sulawesi
Andi Depu Maraddia Balanipa is known for his success in defending his territory from Dutch conquest. In fact, Andi Depu had the courage to fly the Red and White flag when Japanese troops arrived at Mandar in 1942. For his bravery, Andi Depu was awarded the Mahaputra Level IV Star from President Soekarno.
In addition, President Joko Widodo also bestowed the title of National Hero on Andi Depu and 5 other national figures. This is stated in the Decree of the President of the Republic of Indonesia Number 123/TK/Year 2018 concerning the Awarding of the National Hero Title.
8. Maria Walanda Maramis from Minahasa, North Sulawesi
It is not wrong if Maria Walanda Maramis is nicknamed Kartini from Minahasa. This is because this hero who was born on December 1, 1872 tries to free women from educational backwardness. Maria herself attended the Malay School in Maumbi, North Minahasa, for three years and was unable to continue her education to a higher level.
Later, Maria founded an organization called Mother’s Love for Her Generations (PIKAT) to advance women’s education. Through PIKAT, women are equipped with household knowledge, such as cooking, sewing, caring for babies, and more. Maria continued to be active in PIKAT until her death on April 22, 1924.
9. Siti Manggopoh from Manggopoh, Agam, West Sumatra
Siti Manggopoh was born in May 1880. Siti Manggopoh was a female warrior from Manggopoh, Lubuk Basung, Agam. He once waged his resistance against the Dutch colonialists in a war known as the Belasting War
10.HR. Rasuna Said from Maninjau, Agam, West Sumatra
Hajjah Rangkayo Rasuna Said or better known as Rasuna Said. Her role is to fight for equal rights between women and men, just like Kartini. According to her, women’s progress is not only obtained from establishing schools, but also carrying out political struggles.
Thanks to his speech criticizing the Dutch government, he was subject to the Speek Delict law. The Speek Delict Law is a Dutch colonial law for people who speak against the Dutch. He was caught with his friend, Rasimah Ismail, and imprisoned in Semarang in 1932.
After independence, Rasuna Said was active in the Sumatra Representative Council representing West Sumatra and was appointed a member of the People’s Representative Council of the United States of Indonesia (DPR RIS). In addition, he also served as a member of the Supreme Advisory Council until the end of his life. Rasuna Said died on November 2, 1965 due to blood cancer.
11. Fatmawati Soekarno from Bengkulu
Fatmawati is a female national hero. She is the first first lady in Indonesia because of her status as the wife of President Soekarno. Fatmawati comes from West Sumatra and has descendants from the Indrapura Sultanate.
One of the reasons the hero title was given to Fatmawati was because of her role in sewing the red and white flag for the Indonesian Independence Proclamation ceremony.
12. Nyi Ageng Serang from Purwodadi, Central Java
This woman whose real name is Raden Ajeng Kustiyah Wulaningsih Retno Edi is one of the descendants of Sunan Kalijaga. The woman born in 1752 was the daughter of Prince Natapraja and fought against the invaders with her father and older brother, Kyai Ageng Serang.
His very passionate spirit to defend the people was sparked by the death of his older brother for defending Prince Mangkubumi against Pakubuwono I who was assisted by the Dutch. In fact, he never gave up even though his father, brother and husband had died. In addition, Nyi Ageng Serang continues to lead troops at the age of 73 years.
In fact, Prince Diponegoro acknowledged Nyi Ageng Serang’s prowess in strategizing, so he was trusted to be one of his advisors. However, two years before the Diponegoro War ended, Nyi Ageng Serang died at the age of 76 due to an outbreak of malaria.
13. Opu Daeng Risadju from South Sulawesi
Opu Daeng Risaju is a female hero who was born in 1880. Opu Daeng Risaju’s role in the resistance against the NICA troops in Belopa was enormous. Opu Daeng Risaju awakened and mobilized youths to fight against the NICA troops. NICA soldiers are soldiers from the Dutch colonialists.
14. Nyai Ahmad Dahlan from Yogyakarta
Born with the name Siti Walidah, Nyai Ahmad Dahlan is a figure of women’s emancipation who has participated in war discussions with General Sudirman and President Soekarno. In addition, he initiated the establishment of the Sopo Tresno association in 1914 for Muslim women. This association focuses on three areas, namely da’wah, education, and social.
In fact, he also founded a girls’ dormitory which was built at his house, providing education in the faith, practicing worship, to practicing speeches and da’wah. Nyai Ahmad Dahlan continued to struggle after her husband passed away. In addition, he fosters the younger generation, especially Muslim women, to be diligent, persistent and educated.
15. Queen Nahrasiyah from the Kingdom of Samudera Pasai
Ratu Sultanah Nahrasiyah may still be foreign to ordinary people. Even though his name is not as flashy as other rulers such as Airlangga, Jayabaya, Hayam Wuruk, to Raden Patah, this figure is very special in the history of the movement of women leaders in the archipelago.
Sultanah Nahrasiyah herself is the ruler of the Samudera Pasai Sultanate who ascended the throne to replace her father. However, there is another version which states that Nahrasiyah was the wife of the king who died.
Where before Sultanah Nahrasiyah reigned, the kingdom was held by Sultan Zain al-Abidin Malik az-Zahir, who was none other than the biological father of Sultanah Nahrasiyah. But it was while serving as king that his father was killed by King Nakur, as told in the book “Women – Tough Women Rulers of the Land of Java” by Krishna Bayu Adji and Sri Wintala Achmad.
Ying Yai Sheng Lan’s record confirms that there was the first Muslim female leader in the archipelago. Where at that time the King of Samudera Pasai who was attacked by King Nakur, died after being hit by a poisoned arrow. After the death of Sultan Zain al-Abidin Malik az-Zahir, Nahrasiyah finally ascended the throne. She is the first woman in Southeast Asia to rule as king. His figure reigned in the Samudera Pasai Kingdom which was led from 1405 – 1428 AD.
In another story, after the king’s death, his queen supposedly declared an oath in front of her people that whoever could avenge her husband’s death would marry her and be willing to jointly rule the Samudera Pasai Kingdom. A Panglima Laot appears, a royal official assigned to take care of fisheries who declares his ability to carry out the mandate. He departed with the Samudera Pasai army to fight against King Nakur.
In that battle, King Nakur’s troops were defeated and surrendered. Even the king promised not to take hostility against the Samudera Pasai Kingdom. Even as a true leader, Sultanah Nahrasiyah kept her promise and married Panglima Laot. In 1409, aware of his authority, Sultanah Nahrasiyah’s husband brought tribute to the Chinese king Ch’engestu consisting of various crops and was accepted by the Chinese king.
In 1412, he returned to Samudera Pasai, upon arrival in the kingdom the son of the previous king who had reached adulthood succeeded in killing his stepfather, Panglima Laot. The figure of Sultanah Nahrasiyah herself died on 17 Dzulhijjah 831 H or 1428 AD. On her tomb is engraved the letter Yasin with beautiful calligraphy and the seat verse contained in the letter Al-Baqarah. Apart from that, on his tomb there are excerpts from the holy book Al-Quran verses 18 and 19 of Surah Ali Imran.
But it’s a shame that during his reign in Samudera Pasai, there were no historical records of the actions of the Sultanah Nahrasiyah government. Even so, he has inscribed the concept of gender equality since the birth of the first Islamic empire in the archipelago.
16. Rohana Kuddus from Padang, West Sumatra
Rohana Kuddus was the first Indonesian journalist who was born on December 20, 1884. In 1911, Ruhana founded the Amai Setia Handicraft school in Koto Gadang. While active in the field of education, Ruhana wrote for the women’s newspaper, Poetri Indies.
17. Siti Hartinah (Tien Suharto’s mother)
Raden Ayu Hj. Siti Hartinah, or better known as Mrs. Tien Soeharto, is the wife of the second President of Indonesia, retired Major General Suharto.
Tien Suharto’s mother was awarded the title of Indonesian national hero shortly after her death. Siti Hartinah was also influential in banning polygamy for officials in Indonesia.
As a driving force for the Indonesian Women’s Congress, she urged the need for a ban on polygamy which eventually came out in the form of Government Regulation Number 10 of 1983 which strictly prohibited civil servants from polygamy and also Law Number 1 of 1974 concerning Marriage.
Apart from that, there are also forms of his legacy and ideas that still exist today, namely the Beautiful Indonesia Miniature Park, the Mekarsari Fruit Garden, the national library, our hope RSAB, museums and others.
Thus the discussion about Indonesian women’s national heroes. Of all the discussions above, are there any heroes whose area is the same as yours?