Knowing the Strengths and Weaknesses of Regional Autonomy

Advantages and Disadvantages of Regional Autonomy – In a country, it is certain that it
has a government system, from the central government to regional governments.
This also applies
in Indonesia.
In the Indonesian government system, the central government delegates some powers
to regional governments to regulate their regions independently.
This delegation of power from
the central government to regional governments is commonly referred to as regional autonomy.

Regional autonomy is a policy and authority given to regional governments to regulate their regions
independently.
In short, regional autonomy means a policy to manage its own region.
The right of autonomy to the regions in Indonesia aims to create a more effective state
system.

To be clearer, there are several opinions from experts regarding the meaning of regional autonomy, including:

1. Regional autonomy according to CJ Franseen

Regional autonomy according to CJ Franseen is a right to regulate and manage all regional interests and adjust
the regulations that have been made.

2. Regional autonomy according to J Wajong

Regional autonomy is J Wajong, namely the freedom to maintain, develop, and advance the special interests of a
region by determining its own law, self-finance, and self-government.

3. Ateng Syarifuddin

Regional autonomy according to Ateng Syarifuddin is freedom or independence but it is different from
independence.
Freedom in regional autonomy is a manifestation of giving an opportunity to a
region to be more responsible.

4. Law Number 12 of 2008 and Law Number 32
of 2004

Regional autonomy based on Law Number 12 of 2008 and Law Number 32 of 2004 is the right, authority and obligation
for an autonomous region to regulate and manage its own regional government affairs and the interests of its
people in accordance with existing laws and regulations.

From the several opinions related to regional autonomy above, it can be concluded that regional autonomy is the
freedom of rights or authorities as well as the obligations and responsibilities of local governments to
regulate and manage an area in accordance with the capabilities and potential possessed by each region.

After the regional autonomy system was implemented and running for more than two decades.
Regional autonomy has made many new autonomous regions emerge. Until 2019, there were
542 autonomous regions consisting of 34 provinces, 415 regencies and 93 cities.
This proves
that regional autonomy has been running well and has provided many benefits to the regions.
Autonomous regions are able to develop and at the same time discover their regional potential
through a scheme of absorbing and involving the community.
However, apart from these
advantages, regional autonomy still has many shortcomings that must be corrected.

Advantages of Regional Autonomy

In carrying out regional autonomy, there are several advantages that a region can get if it can maximize
this system.
The following are four advantages of regional autonomy that we need to
know:

1. Provincial and district and city governments can see the basic needs of their territory to become development
priorities.

2. The implementation of regional autonomy has succeeded in making development in the regions more advanced,
developing faster in regional development, improving services and social welfare.

3. Regions can regulate their regional governance independently through Regional Regulations, provided that
Regional Regulations do not conflict with regulations made by the central government.

4. Regional governments together with regional communities can work together in developing their territories to
become more advanced.

The success of regional autonomy lies in the authority of regional heads to see and discover the
fundamental problems that exist in their regions.
Regional autonomy allows regions to be more
advanced, develop and compete with other regions.

Lack of Regional Autonomy

It is a common fact that there is no perfect policy or system behind the success of regional autonomy.
There are three drawbacks that were successfully summarized. Here are three drawbacks
of the regional autonomy policy that you need to know about:

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1. The potential for national disintegration may arise if the central government does not have strong control.

2. Regional autonomy has the potential for corruption, collusion and nepotism (KKN) as well as other problems
which will greatly impact the central government if it does not supervise its autonomous regions.

3. Regulations set by the central government are often interpreted differently in each region.
This has the potential to harm regional governments and people in the regions if regulations cannot
be implemented in the regions.

The main drawback of this regional autonomy system is the lack of preparedness of the regions in managing
their regions.
The inequality of resources makes regional development uneven, some are
successful but some are not.
The central government is needed in carrying out supervision so
that each region can maximize its potential effectively and maximally.

Principles of Implementation of Regional Autonomy

The implementation of regional autonomy in Indonesia was only able to be implemented after finding its momentum
in the post-reform era in 1998. The demands for reform motivated the MPR to hold a Special Session in 1998.
regulation, distribution, utilization of national resources in an equitable manner, as well as central and
regional financial balances within the framework of the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia.

Furthermore, the implementation of regional autonomy was truly more perfect when the government and DPR RI found
an agreement to ratify Law Number 32 of 2004 concerning Regional Government and Law Number 33 of 2004 concerning
Financial Balance between the Central and Regional Governments.

After the enactment of the two laws, the implementation of regional autonomy was realized. In
the implementation of regional autonomy, there are several principles that will affect its implementation.
The following are five principles of implementing regional autonomy that you need to know,
including:

1. Autonomy as Wide as Possible

The principle of implementing regional autonomy has the intention that the regions are given the authority and
power to regulate all government affairs other than government affairs that have been stipulated in the law.

2. Real Autonomy

The principle of implementing regional autonomy in a real way means that autonomy is given to regional
governments based on existing duties, powers and obligations.
In addition, this principle gives
responsibility to local governments to encourage regional potential and carry out development according to
the potential of their respective regions.

3. Responsible Autonomy

The principle of implementing regional autonomy that is responsible has the intention that the implementation of
autonomy must be in line with and in accordance with the objectives and delegation of authority and
responsibility from the central government.

Principles of Local Government Administration

In addition to the principle of implementing regional autonomy, regional autonomy requires implementing
principles so that regional governments can exercise their authority optimally.
The following
are five principles of local government administration that you need to know, including:

1. The Principle of Unity

Regional autonomy must support the aspirations of the people’s struggles. Regional autonomy is
expected to further strengthen the unitary state and improve the welfare of local communities in every
region in Indonesia.

2. Real Principles and Responsibilities

Real and responsible regional autonomy must be implemented for the benefit of the whole community.
Local governments have a very important role in regulating the process of local government as well
as regional development.

3. The Principle of Deployment

Regional autonomy basically must be in accordance with the principles of decentralization and
deconcentration so that it can be beneficial to the community.
The principle of dissemination
is intended so that people can innovate in an effort to carry out development in their area.

4. The principle of harmony

Regional autonomy in its implementation must prioritize the principle of harmony as a goal in addition to aspects
of democracy.

5. Empowerment Principles

Regional autonomy must be able to increase the usability and efficiency of government administration in the
regions.
Regional autonomy itself has the goal of improving services and developing human
resources in an area.
In addition, local regional governments can carry out increased
development related to national unity and regional and state political stability.

Purpose of Regional Autonomy

The following are the objectives of implementing regional autonomy that you need to know, namely:

1. Implementation of political education.
2. Creating political stability.
3. Realizing
the democratization of the government system in the regions.

4. Open opportunities for the
community to participate in various political activities at the local level.

5. The
implementation of regional autonomy is expected to increase the ability of regional governments to pay
attention to their people.

6. Local government will know more about the problems faced by
its people.

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In addition to the 6 objectives of implementing regional autonomy above, the following are the objectives of
regional autonomy from the perspective of several fields, including:

1. From the political field, the purpose of regional autonomy is as a process to open up space for the
birth of regional government heads through democratic elections.
Regional autonomy is very
likely to provide space for responsive governance to take place.

2. From the economic field, the aim of regional autonomy is to open up opportunities for regional
governments to develop regional to local policies and regulations.
Regional autonomy aims to
enable regions to optimize their distinctive potential to make economic improvements and earn income for
their regions.

3. From the social field, the purpose of regional autonomy is to create and foster a responsive attitude from the
community in dealing with the dynamics that occur in the area where they live.

Legal Basis for Regional Autonomy in Indonesia

The establishment of regional autonomy itself actually has three legal bases, namely the Basic Law (UUD),
MPR-RI Decree and Law (UU).
The following is an explanation of the legal basis for regional
autonomy in Indonesia, including:

1. Constitution

The legal basis for regional autonomy is contained in Article 1945 of the 1945 Constitution. Referring to Article
18 of the UUD paragraphs 1 and 2 it states that the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia is divided into
provinces, regencies and cities which regulate and manage their own government affairs based on the principle of
autonomy and co-administration.

2. Decree of the MPR-RI

As one of the legal foundations for regional autonomy in Indonesia, the Decree of the MPR-RI No.
XV/MPR/1998 explains that the implementation of regional autonomy includes regulation, distribution
and use of equitable national resources, as well as financial balance between the center and the regions
within the framework of the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia.

3. Law (UU)

The legal basis for regional autonomy is contained in two laws, namely Law Number 12 of 2008 concerning the
Second Amendment to Law Number 32 of 2004 concerning Regional Government.
According to the
principle, the administration of regional government prioritizes the implementation of the principle of
decentralization.

In Law Number 12 of 2008 is to encourage community empowerment, increase the role of the community, and foster
initiative and creativity, as well as develop the role and function of the DPRD.

Regional Autonomy Dimensions

In the dimension of regional autonomy, there are two basic values ​​developed in the 1945 Constitution, which
relate to the implementation of decentralization and regional autonomy in Indonesia, namely:

1. Unitary Value

This unitary value is embodied in the perspective that the Indonesian state does not have other
governmental units within it which are state in nature (Eenheidstaat).
Sovereignty is fully
attached to the people, the nation, and the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia is not divided into
government units.

2. Basic values ​​of Territorial Decentralization

The basic value of territorial decentralization is based on the content and soul contained in article 18 of the
1945 Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia. The government has an obligation to carry out politics in a
decentralized and deconcentrated manner in the field of state administration.

a. Definition of Decentralization

Decentralization is a word that comes from the Dutch language. Etymologically, the word
decentralization is a combination of the word “De” which means free and the word “centerum” which means
center.
So, the notion of decentralization is something that is independent from the
center.

b. Definition of Deconcentration

Deconcentration itself is an attempt to expedite work by handing over power from top to bottom in terms of
staffing.
This decentralization gives regional power to regulate the region in an environment
to realize the principles of democracy.

Meanwhile, deconcentration is an attempt to transfer authority from the central government to autonomous
regions.
This autonomous region becomes the representative of the central government within the
framework of a unitary state.

Regional Autonomy in the Context of the Unitary
State

Regional autonomy in a unitary state like Indonesia is very beneficial for the development of an area that
has potential and characteristics.
Not only that, regional autonomy is also very possible to
improve the welfare of people in the region.

The implementation of regional autonomy and the implementation of regional autonomy refer to the legal
basis for empowered demands and needs in facing globalization.
The success of developing a
region can be determined based on the ability and willingness of the local government and its people.
The central government has given trust in the form of authority to regional governments to regulate
and manage their own regions independently.