Order of the President of Indonesia – Indonesia as a country with a government in the form of a republic. This also means that this country is headed by a president. In addition, Indonesia also adheres to a democratic system so that the president and his deputy are then directly elected by the people through general elections (pemilu).
Since its independence in 1945 until now Indonesia has been led by seven presidents. So, here’s a review of the order of the Indonesian president and his deputies, cabinet names, and their terms of office!
Order of Indonesian Presidents from the Beginning to the Present
Soekarno’s Term of Office: From 18 August 1945 to 12 March 1967
Vice President Soekarno: Mohammad Hatta (Office from 18 March 1945 to 1 December 1956)
Name of Soekarno’s Cabinet:
- Liberal Democracy of the Natsir Cabinet (From 6 September 1950–21 March 1951)
- Sukiman Cabinet (From 26 April 1951–23 February 1951)
- Wilopo Cabinet (Starting from 30 March 1952–2 June 1953)
- Cabinet of Ali Sastroamidjojo I (From 30 July 1953–24 July 1955)
- Burhanuddin Harahap Cabinet (From 12 August 1955–3 March 1956)
- Cabinet of Ali Sastroamidjojo II (From 20 March 1956–14 March 1957)
- Djuanda/Karya Cabinet (From 9 April 1957–5 July 1959)
- Working Cabinet Guided Democracy I (From 10 July 1959–18 February 1960)
- Working Cabinet II (From 18 February 1960–6 March 1962)
- Working Cabinet III (From 6 March 1962–13 November 1963)
- Working Cabinet IV (From 13 November 1963–27 August 1966)
- Dwikora I Cabinet (Starting from 27 August–22 February 1966)
- Dwikora II Cabinet (From 24 February 1966–28 March 1966)
- Dwikora III Cabinet (From 28 March 1966–28 March 1966)
- Ampera I Cabinet (From 28 July 1966–11 October 1967)
- Ampera II Cabinet From (17 October 1967–10 June 1968)
The Proclaimer and the first President of the Republic of Indonesia were Ir. Soekarno who was born on June 6, 1901 in Surabaya, East Java, of course his name will always be remembered by all Indonesian people, especially because he later played an important role during the struggle for independence at the hands of the colonialists.
In addition to reading out the text of the proclamation on August 17, 1945, Bung Karno, as he is affectionately known, took part in expressing ideas related to the five principles which must then be adhered to in Indonesia.
These five principles were later known as Pancasila, the foundation of the Indonesian state. Bung Karno’s presidency did not start with an election by the MPR (People’s Consultative Assembly) or the Indonesian people themselves. However, he was elected by acclamation as the first President of the Republic of Indonesia at the PPKI meeting, August 18, 1945.
Suharto’s term of office was: Starting from 27 March 1968 (inauguration of the position as the second president of the Republic of Indonesia) – 21 May 1998
Deputy President Suharto was:
- Hamengkubuwono IX (Term of Office: 24 March 1973–23 March 1978)
- Adam Malik (Term of Office: 23 March 1978–11 March 1983)
- Umar Wirahadikusumah (Term of Office: 11 March 1983–11 March 1988)
- Soedharmono (Term of Office: 11 March 1988–11 March 1993)
- Try Sutrisno (Term of Office: 11 March 1993–11 March 1998)
- Bacharuddin Jusuf Habibie (Term of Office: 11 March 1988–21 May 1998)
Name of Suharto’s Cabinet:
- Development Cabinet I (Term: 10 June 1968–28 March 1973)
- Development Cabinet II (Term: 28 March 1973–29 March 1978)
- Development Cabinet III (Term: 31 March 1978–19 March 1983)
- IV Development Cabinet (Term: 19 March 1983–21 March 1988)
- Development Cabinet V (Term: 23 March 1988–17 March 1993)
- Development Cabinet VI (Term: 17 March 1993–14 March 1998)
- VII Development Cabinet (Term: 14 March 1998–21 May 1998)
On March 12, 1967, during the holding of the MPRS Special Session, a major general of the TNI was then officially sworn in as the new president of the Republic of Indonesia, replacing Soekarno. He is Suharto. Born June 8, 1921 in Kemusuk, Yogyakarta, Suharto’s inauguration marked the end of the Old Order and the start of the New Order (Orba) period.
This Order itself has aspirations to implement Pancasila and the 1945 Constitution purely and consistently. This is expected to create national stability, starting from the political, social and economic aspects
BJ Habibie (1998–1999)
BJ Habibie’s Term of Office: From 21 May 1998–20 October 1999
Deputy President BJ Habibie: –
Name of Bj Habibie’s Cabinet: Development Reform Cabinet (Started from 23 May 1998–20 October 1999)
The reform movement carried out by the students finally succeeded in overthrowing Suharto’s leadership, which had been in power for approximately 32 years in Indonesia. After his resignation, the presidency was shifted to the incumbent vice president, namely Bacharuddin Jusuf (BJ) Habibie, on 10–13 November 1998.
A number of parties later stated that his appointment was controversial because it was considered unconstitutional and was a continuation of the New Order era. However, in reality, the policies taken were actually in line with the reform agenda, starting from freeing New Order political prisoners, abolishing Press Publishing Business Permits (SIUPP), repealing subversion laws and guaranteeing freedom of assembly and expression.
In addition, during his short presidency, BJ Habibie also issued several policies, namely:
- Politics : Holding various memorandums for the people of East Timor which later resulted in the release of this territory from Indonesia to become an independent state and drafted a law against corruption in 1999 to eradicate KKN practices.
- Economy : Stipulates an anti-monopoly law which is then regulated in Law Number 5 of 1999.
- Supplying rice at a more affordable price.
- Involve the various roles of small and medium traders and cooperatives in rice distribution.
- Carrying out reforms in banking matters.
Abdurrahman Wahid (1999–2001)
Abdurrahman Wahid’s Term of Office: From 20 October 1999–23 July 2001
Deputy President Abdurrahman Wahid: Megawati Soekarnoputri (From 20 October 1999–23 July 2001)
Cabinet Name: National Unity Cabinet (from 29 October 1999–23 July 2001)
The first election in the reform era was held on June 7, 1999. The results of this election then showed that PDIP had received the most votes (33.74 percent), followed by Golkar (22.44 percent), PKB (12.61 percent), PPP ( 10.71 percent), and PAN (7.12 percent). The MPR, which was later formed through the results of the 1999 election, was then tasked with electing a president and vice president.
At that time, there were two presidential candidates, namely KH Abdurrahman Wahid and Megawati Soekarnoputri. Then, on October 20, 1999, the MPR chose Abdurrahman Wahid as the fourth president of the Republic of Indonesia, accompanied by Megawati Soekarnoputri as his deputy.
Born on August 4, 1940, Abdurrahman Wahid, or Gus Dur as he is familiarly called, has a very strong religious education background. Nevertheless, his national insight also need not be doubted.
Megawati Soekarnoputri (2001–2004)
Term of Office of Megawati Soekarnoputri: From 23 July 2001–20 October 2004
Deputy President Megawati Soekarnoputri: Hamzah Haz (Started from 23 July–20 October 2004)
Name of Megawati Soekarnoputri’s Cabinet: Gotong Royong Cabinet (Started from 10 August 2001–20 October 2004)
Despite having the title of daughter of the late first president of Indonesia, Megawati still failed to win the presidency in the 1999 election. This was due to the political maneuvers initiated by Amien Rais through the Central Axis (PAN, PK, PBB, PPP) so that she was then able to push Gus Dur to be elected as president.
Apart from that, the slogan ABM (Originally Not Mega) was also touted by the rival political party PDI-P. However, Abdurrahman Wahid’s resignation after being impeached by the MPR then opened up a golden opportunity for Megawati. On July 23, 2001, Megawati Soekarnoputri was then officially sworn in as the fifth president of the Republic of Indonesia, replacing Abdurrahman Wahid, based on MPR Decree No. 3
In 2001, as Indonesia’s first female president, Megawati’s government was then faced with many problems, one of the most crucial of which was seeking efforts to restore the economy and uphold the law.
Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono (2004–2014)
Term of Office of Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono: Starting from 20 October 2004–20 October 2014
Deputy President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono:
Muhammad Jusuf Kalla (Starting from 20 October 2004–20 October 2009)
Boediono (Starting from 20 October 2009–20 October 2014)
- United Indonesia Cabinet I (Starting from 21 October 2004–20 October 2009)
- United Indonesia Cabinet II (Starting from 22 October 2014–22 October 2014)
The sixth president in the order of Indonesian presidents is Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono or SBY. Even though in previous periods these elections had been held, in fact SBY and Jusuf Kalla were president and vice president who were directly elected by the people.
Not much different from the previous government, the policies pursued by the cabinet formed by SBY then focused on improving the economy. It can be said, the economic conditions in this era then became better.
In fact, Indonesia managed to pay off the IMF debt. In addition, SBY-Kalla also succeeded in resolving various problems with the Free Aceh Movement (GAM) through the Helsinki Agreement. The threat of terrorism was later mitigated by the arrest of the Bali Bombing terrorists and JW Marriott.
Joko Widodo (2014–present)
Joko Widodo Term of Office: Starting from 20 October 2014–present
Vice President Joko Widodo:
Muhammad Jusuf Kalla (Starting from 20 October 2014–20 October 2019)
Ma’ruf Amin (Starting from 20 October 2019–present)
- Working Cabinet (Starting from 27 October 2014–20 October 2019)
- Indonesia Onward Cabinet (Starting from 23 October 2019–present)
From the furniture business to eventually entering politics, Born on June 21, 1961, his involvement in politics began when he was still in Solo. Having experience leading the Indonesian Furniture Manufacturers Association (Asmindo) then made a member of the organization participate in encouraging Jokowi to participate in the 2005 Solo Election.
As it turned out, he was later elected as Mayor of Solo for the 2005–2010 and 2010–2017 periods. From mayor, Jokowi rose again to become governor for DKI Jakarta province in the 2012–2017 period together with Basuki Tjahaja Purnama (Ahok). Experience as a governor then became a springboard to rise to a higher level, namely the presidency.
Supported by the PDI-P, the Jokowi-Jusuf Kalla pair then won the election in 2014 and were finally inaugurated on October 20, 2014 as the new Indonesian President and Vice President pair to date.
Pak Kalla and the President
2004-2009 was the most dynamic period at the Palace. For the first time, the President and Vice President were directly elected by the people. A pair of leaders with unique and opposite characters presents dynamics and questions: who are the real leaders?
In an effort to find answers to these questions, this book comes from the notes of Kompas journalist Wisnu Nugroho on the Kompasiana blog. An insignificant story related to Vice President Jusuf Kalla’s relationship with President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono which raises anxiety, is shared in a mischievous and humorous manner.
The insignificant story about the Vice President’s other side in Mr. Kalla and his President’s book frees us from the image trap that has so far trapped Mr. Kalla as a businessman. After being free from the image trap, hopefully we can answer the question: who is the real leader?
President Jokowi (Indonesia’s New Hope)
Jokowi’s presence has contributed to a new nuance in the world of Indonesian politics, especially when he was running for president. Likewise, his companion figure, Jusuf Kalla, has enriched the predictions of the government under the leadership of Jokowi and JK.
All of this discussion is summarized in the collection of writings that you are currently holding. This book is not the first time to review the figure of Joko Widodo or Jusuf Kalla. However, being the first to publish the writings and analysis of ordinary citizens who are members of Kompasiana.com who discussed Jokowi and JK as well as when they were presidential and cawapres pairs
It begins with an analysis of the strength of Jokowi’s branding—and also Prabowo’s—during the presidential election and ends with a letter from a resident of Solo to Jokowi and JK. President Jokowi: Indonesia’s New Hope, a collection of writings by 21 selected Kompasiana members, for Indonesia.
Position of Vice President According to Indonesian Constitutional Law
This book describes various conflicts between presidential institutions (President and Vice President) in Indonesia which are based on objective and subjective factors as indicators attached to the two institutions.
This book is very useful for Constitutional Law and Comparative Constitutional Law courses because it explains the comparative method as a special approach. This means that the author uses a comparative method in analyzing the various duties and powers of the Vice President in several countries, such as the United States, the Philippines, the People’s Republic of China, Iraq, India, Bulgaria and Cyprus.
That is the order of the President of Indonesia from the beginning to the present.