The PKI Madiun Rebellion: Background, Objectives, and Characters

PKI Madiun: Background, Objectives, and Figures – For some Indonesian people, they must already know about the Indonesian Communist Party or what many people usually know by the acronym PKI. Basically, the emergence of the PKI itself has a fairly long history, even before it was formed as a party, members of the PKI had formed an organization called Indische Sociale Democratie Veereningen (ISDV) in 1913.

The emergence of the PKI in Indonesia can be said to have brought disaster to Indonesia because there were so many murders. That incident was a rebellion that has often been carried out by the Communists in Indonesia, there have been many victims. The murder incident committed by the Communists in Indonesia is known as the Madiun incident. In fact, at that time the regime in power in Cambodia, the Khmer regime (1975-1979) thought that the Madiun incident could be described as The Killing Field .

Indonesia has a quite dark past, even almost all Indonesian people know about this dark period. There are also quite a few who may have experienced the dark past of Indonesia in the past, to the point of experiencing trauma. One of the incidents that made some Indonesians not want something like this to happen again was the Madiun incident. This event occurred in 1948 from September to December.

There are several districts that experienced the Madiun incident, such as Madiun, Cepu, Ngawi, Kudus, Purwodadi, Ponorogo, Trenggalek, Magetan, Pacitan, and Pati. During this incident, many killings took place, from teachers, shops, clerics, organizations, to the majority of village heads.

The Madiun incident is also known as the PKI Madiun rebellion. This incident did not just happen or there was something behind the Madiun incident and the aim of the PKI Madiun rebellion also had several objectives. Then what is the background and purpose of the PKI Madiun rebellion?


Background of the PKI Madiun Rebellion

At the beginning of its appearance, the Indonesian Communist Party was regarded as an organization labeled as having a “radical” character. Before forming a party, the communists began to build it through an organization called Indische Sociale Democratie Veereningen (ISDV). The organization was formed during the Dutch East Indies colonial era or more precisely in 1913.

Meanwhile, in Europe around 1917 especially the Russian state began to form a republic with a communist ideology. With the presence of communism, colonized nations will be interested in using this ideology, including Indonesia (colonized by the Netherlands). This understanding is believed to give freedom to nations and countries that are being colonized. For that reason, the Indonesian communists immediately formed an Indonesian Communist Party (PKI).

The PKI was formed with the aim of building the spirit of the Indonesian people, especially workers, to fight or rebel against the Dutch East Indies government. It turned out that the PKI movement was getting bigger and bigger, many people, especially workers and peasants, were exposed to sweet promises or seductions from communists or PKI members, you could even say they had quite a big influence.

At that time, quite a lot of people worked as laborers and farmers, such as workers who worked at the post office, train office, factory, and others. One of the things behind the Madiun PKI rebellion was the Renville agreement that had been approved, so that the territory of the Republic of Indonesia was getting smaller and smaller. In fact, the Dutch colonial blockaded Indonesia’s economic pathways.

The Renvile Agreement that had been approved made Amir Syarifudin give his responsibility for forming the cabinet to the Indonesian President at that time, Soekarno. However, Soekarno handed over the task of forming a cabinet to Moh. Hatta. The mandate that had been given from Soekarno, then Moh. Hatta formed a cabinet without any interference from the left or the socialists.

After Amir Syarifudin began to resign from the management of the cabinet, he and his communist friends began to create an organization, the Indonesian Democratic Front (FDR). Not only forming the FDR, Amir Syarifudin also began to collaborate with organizations with leftist views, such as the Indonesian Communist Party, the Indonesian Farmers’ Front, which was shortened to BTI, the Indonesian Socialist Youth, which was shortened to Pesindo, and others.

In addition, the formation of a cabinet formed by Moh. Hatta, namely Reconstruction and Rationalization (ReRa) also became the background to the rebellion of the Madiun PKI. Ha this is because, the communist ideology that wants to be disseminated is not optimal, so for the communists carrying out the rebellion in Madiun is one way for communist understanding in Indonesia to spread to all corners of the region in Indonesia.

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The Madiun PKI Rebellion

The events of the PKI Madiun uprising can be said to have started from a change in the international communist movement and whose leader was Stalin. This change led to the emergence of two camps within the communist movement. The first is the imperialist and anti-democratic camp and the leader of this camp is the United States. Second, the anti-imperialist but democratic camp, the leader of this camp is the Soviet Union.

With the division of the stronghold, countries that have become communist members began to change direction. On the other hand, the PKI began to design a strategy by following the design of the Soviet Union’s red army. The draft was initiated by the minister of defense, Amir Syarifudin who was also a person who took part in the birth of the PKI. However, two of Indonesia’s great generals, General Soedirman and General Oerip Soemohardjo, rejected an idea issued by Amir Syarifudin. They think that the people’s army and combat troops are the Indonesian Republican Army (TRI) and not an army that uses concepts from foreign countries, namely the red army.

Amir Syarifudin did not give up easily, he began to develop his idea for the PKI to expand by creating an army political education in the form of an institution. The Minister of Defense, Amir Syarifudin began giving communist teachings and understanding to members of the army. Apart from that, he also gave military ranks so that members of the army would be more confident about taking part in army political education.

A surprising thing happened, a plan to develop the PKI was disrupted because President Soekarno began issuing orders regarding the Indonesian Republican Army (TRI) and its paramilitary units to be combined into one unit and changed its name to the Indonesian National Armed Forces (TNI). Amir Syarifudin, who heard the order, began to look for ways to develop the PKI. He started to create the community TNI as well as the Directorate General of the Navy whose headquarters were in Lawang. In addition, the Directorate General of the Navy began to re-create a Republic of Indonesia Marine Corps (TLRI). With the presence of TLRI it is hoped that the armed forces can develop the PKI in Indonesia.

However, the communist ideology that wanted to spread through the armed forces was thwarted by two great Indonesian Generals, namely General Soedirman and General Oerip Soemohardjo.

The spread of communism began to experience setbacks because Amir Syarifudin’s cabinet experienced rejection from KNIP after the Renville agreement took place. With this rejection, the cabinet designed by Amir Syarifudin did not progress, and even came close to failing. Amir Syarifudin did not give up on spreading communism, he started looking for a pro-communist party to join the People’s Democratic Front (FDR).

In the midst of FDR’s presence in Indonesia, there was a communist leader who had fled and came back to Indonesia and that figure was named Muso. After this presence, Muso began to take control to control the understanding of communism in Indonesia. Until finally, Muso became chairman of the Central Committee of the Indonesian Communist Party (CC PKI). The chair of this committee was previously held by Sardjono.

Muso also created a management structure, namely Amir Syarifudin who was appointed secretary in charge of the defense sector, Suripso who controlled all foreign affairs, MH Lukman headed the agitation and propaganda secretariat. DN Aidit who was given the task of taking care of everything concerning workers, and Njoto who served as the PKI representative.

Every member who had a position in the PKI began to develop communist understanding by making speeches to several areas such as Solo, Sragen, Madiun and Yogyakarta. Every speech made by the PKI management was aimed at bringing down the degree of the government of the Republic of Indonesia. They (the PKI), also threatened government officials such as village heads to join the PKI.

The Indonesian Communist Party (PKI) carried out a rebellion in the Indonesian state starting from the Madiun area, East Java. They carried out this rebellion starting at 03.00 which was marked by gun shots three times. When the gunshots sounded, they (PKI) began to carry out non-parliamentary movements. In fact, it was not only the non-parliamentary movements that were led directly by the PKI, but also the disarmament movement. Until finally the PKI succeeded in controlling the city of Madiun, starting from the police station, banks, telephone offices, and post offices.

It didn’t stop there, the PKI really wanted all of Indonesia to know that the city of Madiun had been controlled by it. The PKI wanted to announce that the city of Madiun had become a city that would stand alone or separate from the Republic of Indonesia. To do this, the PKI began to control Radio Republik Indonesia (RRI) and Youth Youth.

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The TNI who heard this news immediately went to work so that the understanding of communism did not develop more broadly. However, on September 19, 1948, Muso (chairman of the PKI) started to form the National Front, so that the city of Madiun was taken over by the PKI. The city of Madiun was taken because the TNI troops had not been cornered by the PKI.

Too many casualties from the PKI Madiun rebellion incident made the government of the Republic of Indonesia make a plan to find a middle way out of this conflict. Therefore, the people were given the opportunity to have a head of state leadership, wanting to be led by Muso or led by Soekarno and Moh. Hatta.

In the end, the Indonesian people preferred the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia (NKRI) led by Soekarno and Moh. Hatta. With the election of Soekarno, Soekarno took a stand through the Indonesian government to eradicate the PKI and its accomplices.

The Purpose of the Madiun PKI Rebellion

The rebellion carried out by the PKI in Madiun had several objectives, namely:

1. Aims to Change Pancasila Ideology with Communist Ideology

As the name implies, the ideology used by the PKI is communism. They communists really want to change the Indonesian state which previously used Pancasila ideology to become Communist ideology. This was because the communist members who joined the PKI really wanted to make Indonesia a communist country. With this aim in mind, the Indonesian people were divided into two camps, some of whom held fast to Pancasila and some of those who turned to communism.

2. Aims to Undermine Moh. Hatta (Reconstruction and Rationalization (ReRa)

The second objective of the PKI Madiun rebellion was to undermine the cabinet of Moh. Hatta Reconstruction and Rationalization (ReRa). The emergence of this cabinet because Amir Syarifudin handed it over to the President of Indonesia, Soekarno and Soekarno gave this task to Moh. Hatta. Therefore, one of the triggers to tear down Moh’s cabinet. Hatta was Amir Syarifuddin, because most of Indonesia’s territory had disappeared, so he was afraid that communism would not spread throughout the country.

3. Aims to Make Muso and Amir Syarifuddin President and Prime Minister

The third aim of the PKI was to make Muso and Amir Syarifudin President and Prime Minister. With this aim, they (the communists) really wanted to spread communism throughout Indonesian society. The aim of the PKI was to create divisions between people, so that they were divided into two camps. In fact, many people died because of the goals of the PKI.

PKI Madiun figures

Figures who played a role in the founding and development of the Indonesian Communist Party (PKI) are as follows.

1. Muso

2. Amir Syarifuddin

3. Colonel Dahlan

4. DN Aidit

5. Misbach

6. Alimin Prawirodirdjo

7. Darson

8. Seemaun

9. Henk Sneevlit

10. Abdul Latief Hendraningrat

11. Oetomo Ramelan

12. And so on

Impact of the Madiun PKI Rebellion

It is undeniable that the existence of a rebellion in a country will certainly cause impacts that can be detrimental to the nation and state. The following are the effects of the PKI Madiun rebellion.

1. Disrupted Development

Development carried out by the Indonesian state began to be hampered, so that development became disrupted and not optimal. If development is disrupted, people’s lives will become less prosperous.

2. Many people feel insecure

The existence of two camps at the time of the Madiun PKI rebellion made people feel anxious and insecure, especially for those who lived near Madiun. This sense of insecurity makes it difficult for people to communicate with their neighbors and relatives.

3. Many People Who Died

The PKI Madiun rebellion took a lot of lives, both from the TNI and from the PKI, so that many people felt sad because their family members abandoned them. In addition, the large number of fatalities gave rise to a dark history for the Indonesian state.

4. Interrupted Activity

The PKI Madiun rebellion disrupted the daily activities of the Indonesian people. The people were very afraid to do their activities because they were afraid that the PKI would injure them. This one impact also delays development and creates a sense of trauma.


The existence of the rebellion that occurred in Madiun carried out by members or accomplices of the Indonesian Communist Party (PKI) caused a lot of casualties. Not only that, the emergence of the PKI which was growing at that time made Indonesian society divided into two camps, some wanted the Indonesian state to be led by Muso and some wanted to be led by Soekarno and Moh. Hatta.

The large number of fatalities did not only come from the communists, but from the Indonesian state (not members of the PKI). Therefore, the PKI Madiun rebellion can be said to be one of the darkest times that the Indonesian state has ever experienced. Until now, the Madiun incident still causes hurt and hatred for some Indonesian people, especially for those who experienced these dark times.

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Source: from various sources