Contributing Sentences: Definition, Characteristics, How to Determine, and Examples

Contrasting Sentences – When composing sentences in a paragraph or paragraphs, does Sinaumed’s often pay attention to the cohesiveness between the sentences? If so, then Sinaumed’s has acted correctly, especially in the paragraph preparation process. Yep, it’s true that when compiling a paragraph consisting of these sentences, you have to pay attention to the cohesiveness and relationship between one sentence and another. This is done so that the reader understands the text.

Unfortunately, many people underestimate the cohesiveness between these sentences when composing paragraphs. As a result, in the paragraph there will be many discordant sentences. Then, what is the discordant sentence? What are the characteristics of discordant sentences contained in a paragraph? How do you arrange correct sentences so that there are no discordant sentences? So, so that Sinaumed’s understands this, let’s look at the following review!

Definition of Contributing Sentences in a Paragraph

Basically, discordant sentences are sentences that have nothing to do with the main idea, alias outgoing, but the topic of conversation in the paragraph. This discordant sentence can also be called a sentence that contradicts the main sentence. For example, the main idea in a paragraph is about outer space. But suddenly, there is a sentence that discusses the Day of Judgment. Of course, this sentence can be considered as a discordant sentence, because it is far from the topic of conversation, aka the main idea.

Discordant sentences in a paragraph become sentences that are not coherent. Even from the existence of this discordant sentence, it will actually lead to misunderstandings for the reader to understand the context of the writing because the sentence seems unclear. Discordant sentences are usually deliberately included in the questions to “trick” students and cause their answers to be confused. This was deliberately done so that students really focused and understood the contents of the writing as a whole. But if these discordant sentences are included in scientific writing, of course it is not allowed because it can make the writing inconsistent.

Characteristics of Contributing Sentences in a Paragraph

As with other types of sentences, this discordant sentence also has characteristics, you know! Well, here is a description of what are the characteristics of discordant sentences contained in a paragraph.

  • The sentence contradicts the main idea.
  • The sentence is not related to the previous sentences.
  • The sentence seems to stand alone and is not related to the whole sentence in the paragraph.

How to Find Contributing Sentences in a Paragraph

Usually, these discordant sentences are deliberately given by the teacher in the questions so that students can focus again when they are answering questions. In fact, not infrequently, the existence of discordant sentences will be used as a question. Then, how do you find discordant sentences in a paragraph? Well, here is the description!

  1. Read the entire paragraph provided. After that, determine what the main idea of ​​the paragraph is.
  2. Re-read each sentence in the paragraph while checking one by one whether the sentences are related to the main idea or not.
  3. If you find a sentence or two that talks about things out of context or the main idea, then that’s the off-key sentence!
  4. After finding a discordant sentence, try to understand it further. Is the sentence intentionally written by the author to obscure the reader’s focus or an unintentional error. If it’s not on purpose, you can provide feedback to the author.
  5. Mark with a pencil or pen the discordant sentences.

Example Sentence Contribute

Example 1

(1) One day, Sabda went for a trip to Mount Bromo with his friends. (2) Sabda did not forget to bring food and snacks for snacks during the trip. (3) Apart from that, Sabda also brought a change of clothes which he put in his bag. (4) Sabda likes to cook fried rice with cheese. (5) During the trip, Sabda always joked and laughed with his friends. 

So, from the paragraph contained in Example 1, it can be seen that the discordant sentence is in number (4). This is because the main idea in the paragraph is about Sabda traveling to Mount Bromo, but sentence number (4) suddenly discusses Sabda’s hobby. Of course these sentences are considered as discordant sentences and out of topic of discussion.

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Example 2

(1) Through language, humans can convey whatever is in their thoughts and feelings to fellow human beings. (2) Also through language, humans can pass on all their experiences and knowledge to their children and grandchildren. (3) Indonesian is the forerunner of Malay. (4) Imagine if humans didn’t speak, then this world would be very quiet. (5) Therefore, language plays an important role in human life. 

So, from Example 2 it can be seen that the discordant sentence is in number 3. This is due to the general idea of ​​the entire paragraph regarding the importance of the existence of language for human survival. But suddenly, sentence number 3 discusses that the forerunner of Indonesian is from Malay, which of course has nothing to do with the previous sentences. So, it can be concluded that sentence number 3 is a discordant sentence.

Example 3

(1) Sprouts are sprouts that come from seeds, namely green beans with a white part three centimeters long. (2) The shape of bean sprouts is relatively small compared to other types of vegetables. (3) Even so, bean sprouts also have many beneficial ingredients for human health. (4) Sprouts are rarely red, unlike hot peppers. (5) Sprouts of any kind contain a lot of phytochemical compounds that are efficacious for nourishing the body. 

So, from Example 3 it can be seen that the discordant sentence is at number 4. This is because the general idea in the entire paragraph is a description of bean sprouts and their benefits for the health of the human body. But suddenly, sentence number 4 discusses the color of bean sprouts which are not red like chili. This, of course, has nothing to do with the general idea. Therefore, it can be concluded that sentence number 4 is a discordant sentence.

Example 4

(1) It will rain. (2) The wind was blowing hard and the dust was flying. (3) The black cloud moved swiftly. (4) The birds were singing merrily . (5) Street vendors are busy packing their wares. 

So, from Example 4, it can be seen that sentence number 4 is a non-coherent sentence, aka discordant sentence. This is because the main idea in the whole paragraph describes the atmosphere when the weather is cloudy. While sentence number 4, suddenly discusses about

The Concept of Cohesion and Coherence in Discourse

The existence of discordant sentences in a paragraph will still be related to cohesion and coherence in a discourse. Sinaumed’s needs to know that discourse is the most complete unit of language realized in the form of a complete essay or report, usually in the form of a novel, book, article, speech, or sermon.

Well, cohesion is the harmony of the relationship between one element and another in a discourse so that a neat or coherent paragraph is created. In this cohesion, it will continue to use rules based on conveying old and new information. These rules can be in the form of reference rules, substitution rules, aborting rules, and conjunction rules.

How to Form Cohesion in Discourse

According to Moeliono et al (in the book Indonesian Standard Grammar ), states that cohesion in a discourse can be formed in the following ways.

1. Use of the Relationships of the Elements

The relationship of these elements must state the following.

  1. Contradiction, namely by using conjunctions in the form of: but or however.
  2. The advantages, namely by using conjunctions in the form of: instead or even.
  3. Exception, namely by using a conjunction in the form of: except.
  4. Concessive, namely by using conjunctions in the form of: even though or increasingly.
  5. Purpose, namely by using a connecting word in the form of: in order or so that.

2. Repetition of Words or Phrases

Namely the repetition of words or phrases contained in the discourse, with the aim that the context is clearer and the reader understands it well. However, the repetition of this word or phrase does not necessarily make it a discordant sentence or an ineffective sentence, because repetition is necessary. Example:

Karina bought Wendy a new novel . That’s because Karina knows that Wendy likes to read novels

3. Use of words that have different meanings but can be replaced by the same reference. 

Namely by replacing the word contained in the next sentence using another word whose meaning and reference are still the same. This is so as not to seem “boring” and varied. Example:

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Andrea Hirata was once educated at the Sorbonne University, France. The writer of the novel Laskar Pelangi is now working at PT. TelkomBandung. 

So, in this example of discourse, the phrase Andrea Hirata and the phrase the author of the novel Laskar Pelangi both have the same reference.

4. Substitution of Forms with Different References, But to the Same Group. 

Namely by replacing the word contained in the next sentence using a reference that is not the same. Although the reference is not the same, but still in the same category. Example:

Yuna walks in the middle of a rose garden . Arriving near the exit, he plucked a flower and pinned it on his clothes. 

So, in the example of the discourse, the words rose and a flower both have the same reference, namely in the category of flowers. After all, between a rose (flower) and a flower is the same grammatical relationship.

5. Replacement Through Metaphor

Namely in the form of a replacement that has a certain context and when you want to express it with a metaphor, you have to pay attention to the relationship between the two. Example:

Not surprisingly, Laura grew up to be a beautiful girl , with blue eyes and reddish skin. This is because the flower has a Dutch father, Diego. 

So, in this example, the word flower will usually have a metaphor with a beautiful girl. The relationship between the two is a metaphorical relationship and coherence will still occur in both.

6. There is a Lexical Relationship

Namely in the form of the use of words that have lexical relations, whether in the form of antonyms, synonyms, homonyms, hyponyms, or polysemy. Here’s an example:

Since Annesia left for the Netherlands, the flowers that usually bloomed in front of Nyai Ontosoroh’s house were no longer visible. Only the moon orchid still looks beautiful because of its resistance to heat. 

So, in this example, the words flower and orchid have a hyponymic relationship. Moon orchid as a specific word, while flower is a flower word.

7. By Demonstrating “Part-Whole” Relationships


The southern starfish has been embraced by the ocean. The skipper started the main engine and in the stern I saw a surge of foam bubbling up as three giant propellers crashed into the water. I was ambushed amidst the sound of roars and I held tightly to the steel bow rail when the ship began to be rocked by the waves of the west season, my head could not stop remembering one word: Ciputat.

In the example discourse, the word Bintang Laut Selatan and the ship are considered as a certain entity that has its parts. These parts can be the main engine, stern, and bow rail iron. Well, that means that in the discourse there is a part-whole relationship that makes it cohesive as well as coherent.

Requirements for Forming Unified Paragraphs

It should be noted, Sinaumed’s, that paragraph is part of a chapter contained in an essay and contains one main idea by writing it starting with a new line. The term paragraph is the same as paragraph. In a paragraph, there must be at least two to three sentences that clearly convey what the main idea is. When Sinaumed’s wants to write an essay, he must know what are the requirements for forming a coherent paragraph, so that the reader understands what the main idea of ​​the writing is. Well, here are some of the conditions for its formation.

1. Unity

All sentences contained in the paragraph together must unite to support the main idea. Therefore, a paragraph will be called a paragraph that is coherent and contains unity, if there are no discordant sentences that deviate from the main idea.

2. Coherence

Namely the cohesiveness or cohesiveness of the relationship between one sentence and the other sentences in the paragraph. The cohesiveness of this sentence can be established by the existence of relationship markers, both those related explicitly and implicitly.

a) Explicit Relationship Marker

  • Words reapeting


All contents of this nature are God’s creatures . God’s most perfect and noblest creation is human . Humans are permitted by God to take advantage of all the contents of nature in an effort to meet their needs. However, it is not permissible to hurt, torture, and waste nature’s contents

  • Pronouns


Giselle is Mr. Kangta’s daughter. Now, he has been sitting in class X high school. Every morning, his friends always approached him to leave. Likewise when they go home, they will go home together. 

  • Connecting words


All night, Johnny watched the Premier League football match on television. Therefore , he woke up late. As a result , he was late into the office. 

3. Development

The point is through the development of ideas or ideas by using supporting sentences.

4. Effective

That is, by compiling it using effective sentences, so that ideas or ideas can be conveyed appropriately.


Aflahah. (2012). Cohesion and Coherence in Discourse. OKARA, Vol 1, (7).