Conventional Biotechnology & Modern Biotechnology

sinaumedia Literacy – Biotechnology has been known by humans since thousands of years ago. For example, in the field of food technology are brewing, bread and cheese which have been known since the 19th century, plant breeding to produce new varieties in agriculture, as well as animal breeding and reproduction. Check out a more complete explanation about Biotechnology below, Sinaumed’s:

With the advent of science and the improvement of biological tools, techniques were developed for increasing human living standards. One of the most important techniques is biotechnology.

Biotechnology itself is a branch of science that studies the use of living things (bacteria, fungi, viruses, etc.) as well as products from living things (enzymes, alcohol) in the production process to produce goods and services.

In other words, biotechnology is the science that deals with the application of biological systems and organisms to technical and industrial processes for human well-being.

Biotechnology has been used for more than 6000 years to produce desired products using microorganisms, such as bread, beer, cheese and others. Until now, the use of biotechnology has penetrated into almost various aspects of life which are fully explained in the Biotechnology book.

In the medical field, the application of this branch of science in the past was proven by the discovery of vaccines, antibiotics and insulin, although they were still in limited quantities due to imperfect fermentation processes. Significant changes occurred after the invention of the bioreactor by Louis Pasteur. With this tool, mass production of antibiotics and vaccines can be carried out.

Definition of Biotechnology

Biotechnology is a branch of science that studies the use of living things (bacteria, fungi, viruses, etc.) as well as products from living things (enzymes, alcohol) in the production process to produce goods and services.

Today, the development of biotechnology is not only based on biology alone, but also on other applied and pure sciences, such as biochemistry, computers, molecular biology, microbiology, genetics, chemistry, mathematics, and so on. In other words, biotechnology is an applied science that combines various branches of knowledge in the process of producing goods and services.

In the medical field, the application of biotechnology in the past was proven, among others, by the discovery of vaccines, antibiotics and insulin, although these were still in limited quantities due to imperfect fermentation processes. Significant changes occurred after the invention of the bioreactor by Louis Pasteur.

With this tool, mass production of antibiotics and vaccines can be carried out. At this time, biotechnology is developing very rapidly, especially in developed countries. This progress was marked by the discovery of various technologies such as genetic engineering, tissue culture, recombinant DNA, stem cell breeding, cloning, and others.

At this time, biotechnology is developing very rapidly, especially in developed countries. This progress was marked by the discovery of various technologies such as genetic engineering, tissue culture, recombinant DNA, stem cell breeding, cloning, and others. This technology allows us to obtain cures for genetic and chronic diseases that cannot be cured, such as cancer or AIDS.

Research in the field of stem cell development also allows stroke sufferers or other diseases that result in loss or damage to body tissues to recover as before. In the food sector, using genetic engineering technology, tissue culture and recombinant DNA, it is possible to produce plants with superior characteristics and products because they contain more nutrients than ordinary plants, and are also more resistant to pests and environmental pressures.

Its application at this time can also be found in environmental preservation from pollution. For example, in the decomposition of petroleum spilled into the sea by bacteria, and the decomposition of toxic substances (poisons) in rivers or seas using new types of bacteria. However, progress in the field of biotechnology is inseparable from various controversies that surround its technological development. For example, cloning technology and genetic engineering of food crops have come under fire from various groups.

 

History of Biotechnology

Biotechnology is a branch of science that studies the use of living things (bacteria, fungi, viruses, etc.) as well as products from living things (enzymes, alcohol) in the production process to produce goods and services. In other words, biotechnology is the science that deals with the application of biological systems and organisms to technical and industrial processes for human well-being. The following is the history of biotechnology development from time to time, Sinaumed’s:

  • 8000 BC: Collection of seeds for replanting. Evidence that the Babylonians, Egyptians and Romans practiced selective breeding (artificial selection) to improve the quality of livestock.
  • 6000 BC: Brewing, fermenting wine, making bread, making tempeh with the help of yeast. 4000 BC The Chinese made yogurt and cheese with lactic acid bacteria.
  • 1500: The collection of plants around the world.
  • 1665: Discovery of cells by Robert Hooke (England) through a microscope.
  • 1800: Nikolai I. Vavilov creates comprehensive research on animal breeding.
  • 1880: Microorganisms discovered.
  • 1856: Gregor Mendel begins recombinant plant genetics.
  • 1865: Gregor Mendel discovers the laws of passing traits from parents to offspring.
  • 1919: Karl Ereky, Hungarian engineer, first used the word biotechnology.
  • 1970: Researchers in the US managed to find a limiting enzyme that is used to cut genes.
  • 1975: Method of production of monoclonal antibodies developed by Kohler and Milstein.
  • 1978: Researchers in the US succeeded in making insulin using bacteria found in the large intestine.
  • 1980: Modern biotechnology is characterized by recombinant DNA technology. His prokaryotic model, E. coli, is used to produce insulin and other drugs, in human form. About 5% of people with diabetes are allergic to previously available animal insulin).
  • 1992: The FDA approves Calgene’s first GM food: “flavor saver” tomato (Flavr Savr).
  • 2003: Completion of the Human Genome Project
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Conventional Biotechnology

Conventional biotechnology is very limited in scope to the role of microorganisms using small-scale fermentation techniques. In the manufacturing process often uses simple equipment. Discussion on the role of microorganisms in biotechnology can also be read in the book Biotechnology Utilization of Microorganisms.

Examples of Conventional Biotechnology

  1. making tempeh,
  2. tape,
  3. bread,
  4. cheese,
  5. yogurt,
  6. soy sauce.

 

Modern Biotechnology

We are familiar with modern biotechnology with techniques that involve further genetic engineering to produce recombinant DNA and transgenic organisms that can be utilized to produce the desired product. Also find various practicums related to the basic principles of simple and modern biotechnology through the Biotechnology Practicum Guide book.

Examples of Modern Biotechnology

  1. DNA profile.
  2. DNA cloning.
  3. Genome analysis.
  4. transgenesis.
  5. Xenotransplant.
  6. Stem cells and tissue engineering.
  7. Test-tube baby
  8. Antibiotics
  9. Vaccine

Utilization of Biotechnology Technology

Biotechnology technology enables solutions to cure genetic and chronic diseases such as cancer or AIDS. Research in the field of stem cell development also allows stroke sufferers or other diseases that result in loss or damage to body tissues to recover as before.

In the food sector, using genetic engineering technology, tissue culture and recombinant DNA, it is possible to produce plants with superior characteristics and products because they contain more nutrients than ordinary plants, and are also more resistant to pests and environmental pressures. The application of biotechnology at this time can also be found in environmental preservation from pollution.

For example, in the decomposition of petroleum spilled into the sea by bacteria, and the decomposition of toxic substances (poisons) in rivers or seas using new types of bacteria. Advances in the field of biotechnology cannot be separated from the various controversies that surround its technological development. For example, cloning technology and genetic engineering of food crops have come under fire from various groups.

Biotechnology in general means improving the quality of an organism through the application of technology. The application of these technologies can modify the biological function of an organism by adding genes from other organisms or modifying the genes of that organism. Changes in biological properties through genetic engineering cause the “birth of new organisms” of biotechnology products with beneficial properties for humans. Biotechnology products, among others:

  • Insect-resistant corn. Insect-resistant cotton
  • Papaya is virus resistant
  • Enzymes that increase milk production in cows
  • Rice contains vitamin A
  • Bananas contain hepatitis vaccine

Examples of conventional biotechnology products, for example in the food sector are the manufacture of beer, bread and cheese which have been known since the 19th century, plant breeding to produce new varieties in agriculture, as well as animal breeding and reproduction. in the medical field, including the discovery of vaccines, antibiotics, and insulin, although these are still in limited quantities due to imperfect fermentation processes. Significant changes occurred after the discovery of the bioreactor by Louis Pasteur. With this tool, mass production of antibiotics and vaccines can be carried out.

Types of Biotechnology

Biotechnology has been used for more than 6000 years to produce desired products using microorganisms, such as bread, beer, cheese and others. In the medical field, the application of this branch of science in the past was proven by the discovery of vaccines, antibiotics and insulin, although they were still in limited quantities due to imperfect fermentation processes. Significant changes occurred after the invention of the bioreactor by Louis Pasteur.

With this tool, mass production of antibiotics and vaccines can be carried out. Broadly speaking, this branch of science is divided into two types, namely conventional and modern. As the name suggests, conventional biotechnology still uses simple processes and equipment. Usually, conventional types utilize microorganisms, for example in the fermentation process. Examples of these biotechnology products can be seen in the following examples.

Tempeh Ingredients: Soybeans Microorganisms: Rhizopus oligosporus Soy sauce Ingredients: Soybeans Microorganisms: Aspergilus soyae and Aspergilus wentii Tauco Ingredients: Soybeans Microorganisms: Aspergilus oryzae Yoghurt Ingredients: milk Microorganisms: Streptococcus, thermophilus, Lactobacillus bulgaricus Cheese Ingredients: Milk Microorganisms: Lactobacillus lactis, Lactobaccilus vulgaris Butter Ingredients: Milk Microorganisms: Streptococcus lactis Nata de coco Ingredients: Coconut juice Microorganisms: Acetobacter xylinum Meanwhile, modern biotechnology has used processes and equipment that are far more sophisticated. Typically, modern biotechnology involves genetic engineering or manipulation of genetic material.

This type of biotechnology is capable of creating transgenic plants and animals. In addition, modern biotechnology can be used for gene development, IVF testing, developing DNA vaccines, and repairing defective genes. Biotechnology has several types or branches of science, some of which are:

Red Biotechnology (Red Biotechnology)

Red Biotechnology (Red Biotechnology) is a branch of biotechnology that studies biotechnology applications in the medical field. Its scope covers the entire spectrum of human medicine, starting from the stages of prevention, diagnosis and treatment.

Examples of its application are the use of organisms to produce drugs and vaccines, the use of stem cells for regenerative medicine, and gene therapy to treat genetic diseases by inserting or replacing abnormal genes with normal genes. Further discussion can also be found in the Pharmaceutical Biotechnology book below.

Since red biotechnology has both pure research as well as practical medical applications, it is often based on the laboratory production of basic biological materials. Proteins, gene expression, and antibodies are studied as vectors that can be used to make genetically engineered cells or whole organisms, such as yeast or bacteria, that can be engineered to produce drugs and insulin to treat diabetic patients. The protein has also been altered to promote the production of enzymes in hamster cells that can be used in treating human heart disease.

Increasingly, such drug development, as in the field of cancer treatment, is highly toxic in normal-sized doses and must be administered in small, carefully controlled quantities to be an effective medical treatment. This makes the field of nanotechnology research for drug delivery an important aspect of red biotechnology as well. The red field of biotechnology involves creating new forms of drugs or cellular treatments for age-old diseases such as tuberculosis and resistant strains of malaria or viruses that do not respond to traditional antibiotics.

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This is a field that includes research involving the basic science of biological processes, diagnostic methods for detecting disease, and treatment in either conventional forms, such as medicine, or sophisticated forms, such as genetic manipulation. Red biotechnology uses this tiered approach to try to tackle some of humanity’s most widespread diseases, from hepatitis and AIDS to suppressing resistant strains of the influenza virus.

More in-depth discussions starting from the process of cell death, sarcopenia, muscle atrophy, and many more can also be found in the book Aging Biotechnology, The Role of Food in Skin Rejuvenation.

White or Gray Biotechnology

White/Grey biotechnology is biotechnology applied in industries such as the development and production of new compounds and the manufacture of renewable energy sources. By manipulating microorganisms such as bacteria and yeast, better enzymes and organisms have been created to facilitate the production and treatment of industrial waste.

Leaching (bleaching) oil and minerals from the ground to increase mining efficiency, and brewing with yeast. Bioremediation is a way to restore previously polluted environmental conditions so as to reach a certain reference biologically which can be combined physically and chemically, without causing damage and reducing waste permanently. The process of bioremediation of contaminated soil based on the processing location can be carried out in-situ (treatment where the polluted soil is located) and ex-situ (processing elsewhere). Some of the technologies used in bioremediation, namely:

  • Biostimulation: the use of nutrients (such as phosphorus and nitrogen) to trigger microbial biodegradation that occurs naturally.
  • Bioaugmentation: increasing biodegradation through the addition of microbes or enzymes in polluted environments.
  • Biofilter: separates organic gases by passing air through a carrier which can be compost or soil, containing microbes to degrade the materials passed.
  • Boreactor: handlers of contaminants in large tanks containing microbes or enzymes.
  • Bioslurry: treatment of soil contaminated with hydrocarbons using bacteria. This process is carried out in a pond that functions as a bioreactor.
  • Bioventing: carried out by spraying oxygen through the soil to stimulate microbial growth, used in soils contaminated with petroleum.
  • Composting: this technique is carried out by mixing contaminated material with compost, then incubating it at a relatively high temperature.
  • Landfarming: this method relies on biodegradation by using soil as a source of microbial inoculum. The use of this technique to promote microbial growth by spreading polluted soil in open fields, is used to clean up large amounts of oil spills in soil.

Green Biotechnology

Green biotechnology studies the application of biotechnology in agriculture and animal husbandry. In agriculture, biotechnology has played a role in producing pest-resistant crops, foodstuffs with higher nutritional content and plants that produce drugs or useful compounds.

Meanwhile, in the livestock sector, animals have been used as “bioreactors” to produce important products, for example, goats, cows, sheep and chickens have been used as producers of antibodies-protective proteins that help the body’s cells recognize and fight foreign compounds (antigens). Meanwhile, in the field of animal husbandry, animals have been used as “bioreactors” to produce important products, for example, goats, cows, sheep, and chickens have been used as producers of antibodies-protective proteins that help the body’s cells recognize and fight foreign compounds (antigens).

The purpose of artificial insemination in livestock is to improve the genetic quality of livestock, not to require superior males to be brought to the place needed so as to reduce costs, to optimize the use of superior male seeds more widely in the long term and to increase birth rates quickly and regularly, to prevent transmission or spread of sexually transmitted diseases.

Blue Biotechnology

Blue biotechnology or blue biotechnology is also called aquatic biotechnology or waters that control the processes that occur in the aquatic environment. One of the oldest examples is aquaculture, growing finfish or shellfish under controlled conditions as a food source, (an estimated 30% of fish consumed worldwide comes from aquaculture).

Developments in aquatic biotechnology include genetic engineering to produce disease-resistant oysters and vaccines against viruses that attack salmon and other fish. Another example is transgenic salmon that have excessive growth hormone resulting in very high growth rates in a short time. Genetic Engineering Genetic engineering is a basic procedure in producing a biotechnology product.

In general, genetic engineering modifies living things by transferring genes from one organism to another. Genetic engineering procedures in general include isolating genes, modifying genes so that their biological functions are better, transferring these genes to new organisms and forming products of transgenic organisms. There are 4 procedures for forming transgenic organisms, namely through the gene introduction process.

  • Form the desired gene sequence marked with a specific marker
  • Transforming the tagged gene sequence to the network
  • Cultivating tissue that already contains the transformed gene
  • Test the culture in the field. Through the process of mutation genesis Modifying the genes in these organisms by changing the sequence of nitrogen bases in the existing DNA to be replaced with other nitrogen bases resulting in a change in the nature of the organism. For example, plants that are not resistant to pests become pest resistant. · Human Genome Project The Human Genome Project is an international effort to identify all the genes present in the DNA in human cells and map their locations on each of the 24 human chromosomes. This project has unlimited potential for developments in diagnostic approaches to disease detection and molecular approaches to cure human genetic diseases. Applications in the medical field Aspects of medical biotechnology have been around for a long time,

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