Kingdom Fungi: Definition, Structure, Classification & General Characteristics

sinaumedia Literacy does not have chlorophyll. Thus it cannot carry out photosynthesis and produce its own food, so that fungi are then also called heterotrophic organisms because they resemble animal cells. Check out a more complete description of the following Fungi, Sinaumed’s!

 

DEFINITION OF MUSHROOMS

The word mushroom comes from the Latin word fungus. Fungi (fungi) reproduce asexually which produces spores, buds, and fragmentation. Meanwhile, by sexual means on zygospores, ascospores, and basidiospores. Mushrooms (fungi) live in damp places, sea water, fresh water, acidic places and form symbosis with algae to form moss (lichenes). According to Gandjar (2006) fungi or fungi are eukaryotic cells that do not have chlorophyll, grow as hyphae, have cell walls containing chitin, are heterotrophic, absorb nutrients through their cell walls, excrete extracellular enzymes into the environment through spores, and reproduce sexually and asexual. Meanwhile, according to Campbell (2003) Fungi are eukaryotes, and most of them are multicellular eukaryotes.

In learning more deeply about plants, as well as the structure and function of the tissues in them, the book Structure & Function of Tissues in Plants is here to explain the ins and outs of plants in depth.

MUSHROOM BODY STRUCTURE

The mushroom body is composed of basic components called hyphae. Hyphae form a network called mycelium. The mycelium arranges pseudo networks to form fruiting bodies. Hyphae themselves are thread-like structures composed of pipe-shaped walls. This wall surrounds the plasma membrane and cytoplasm of hyphae. The cytoplasm contains eukaryotic organelles. Most hyphae limited by transverse walls or septa. Septa have large pores that are large enough for ribosomes, mitochondria, and cell nuclei to pass from cell to cell. However, there are hyphae that do not have septa or hyphae that are senocytic. The senocytic hyphae structure is produced by multiple divisions of the cell nucleus which are not followed by division of the cytoplasm.

  • Obligate parasite: This is the nature of a fungus that can only live on its host, while outside its host it cannot live. For example, Pneumonia carini (a yeast that infects the lungs of people with AIDS).
  • Facultative parasite: Fungi that are parasitic if found a suitable host, but are saprophytic if not found a suitable host.
  • Saprophyte: Is a decaying fungus and modifier of the composition of dead organic matter. Saprophytic fungi absorb food from dead organisms such as fallen wood and fallen fruit.

Most saprophytic fungi secrete hydrolase enzymes on food substrates to decompose complex molecules into simple molecules so that they are easily absorbed by hyphae. In addition, hyphae can also directly absorb organic matter in a simple form released by its host.

The way of life of other fungi are doing symbiotic mutualism. Fungi that live in symbiosis, in addition to absorbing food from other organisms, also produce certain substances that are beneficial to their symbionts. Mutualism symbiosis of fungi with plants can be seen in mycorrhizae, namely fungi that live on the roots of legume plants or on lichens. Fungi inhabit various environments and are associated with many organisms. Although most live on land, some fungi live in water and are associated with aquatic organisms. Fungi that live in water are usually parasitic or saprophytic, and most are from the Oomycetes class.

In studying the stems and leaves of other plants as well as other aspects of plants, the book Plant Anatomy is the right choice because it discusses various aspects of plant composition in a clear and concise manner.

FUNGUS REPRODUCTION

Reproduction in fungi consists of two, namely generative (sexual) and vegetative (asexual) reproduction. Here’s the explanation Sinaumed’s!

GENERATIVE (SEXUAL) REPRODUCTION

Usually, fungi reproduce generatively due to changing environmental conditions or other emergency conditions. The offspring produced by themselves are genetically diverse and more adaptive to environmental changes. Generative reproduction is preceded by the formation of sexual spores which have different types of hyphae. Hyphae (+) and hyphae (-) with haploid chromosomes approach and form gametangia (organs that produce gametes). The plasmogamous gametangium is the fusion of the cytoplasm and then forms a dikaryotic (heterokarotic) zygosporangium with a pair of haploid nuclei that have not yet united. This zygosporangium has a thick and rough cell wall that allows it to survive in harsh and dry environmental conditions.

If the environmental conditions improve, the zygosporangium will become karyogamous (fusion of nuclei) so that the zygosporangium has a nucleus with diploid chromosomes (2n). A zygosporangium with a haploid core (2n) will undergo mitotic division to produce haploid zygospores within the zygosporangium. Haploid zygospores will germinate to form short-stemmed sporangia with haploid chromosomes. Haploid sporangium will produce haploid spores that have genetic diversity. If the haploid spores land on the right spot, the spores will germinate into haploid fungal hyphae. Hyphae will grow to form a mycelium network which is all haploid.

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VEGETATIVE (ASEEXUAL) REPRODUCTION

In unicellular fungi, vegetative reproduction is carried out by forming shoots which will grow into new individuals. In multicellular fungi, this is done by hyphae fragmentation and vegetative spore formation. Hyphae fragmentation (hyphae termination), hyphae fragments that break off grow into new individuals. Formation of vegetative spores in the form of sporangiospores and conidiospores. Mature fungi produce spongiophores (spore box stalks). At the end of the sporangiophore there is a sporangium (spore box). Inside the spore box, cell division is carried out by mitosis and produces many sporangiospores with haploid chromosomes (n). The other types of fungi produce conidiophores (conidia stalks). At the end of the conidiophore there is a conidium (conidiospora box). Inside the conidium, mitotic cell division occurs which produces many conidiospores with haploid chromosomes (n). Both sporangiospores and conidiospores, if they fall in the right place, will grow into new hyphae which are haploid (n).

In studying the characteristics, structure, and anatomy of plants. You can make the book Plant Anatomy by Sri Mulyani ES as a reference where it discusses the organs that make up plants, namely roots, stems, leaves and flowers.

CLASSIFICATION OF MUSHROOMS

Based on the structure of the body and the way of reproduction, fungi are divided into 4 divisions, namely:

ZYGOMYCOTA DIVISION

Zygomycotina is also known as the coenocytic true fungus. The well-known type of fungus from this group is the black bread mold or Rhizopus sp. The Zygomycotina division has members that live in almost all terrestrial habitats, most of them living as saprophytes. The body is multi-celled, in the form of threads (hyphae) that are not insulated, and do not produce flagellated spores. Zygomycotina reproduction occurs asexually and sexually.

In sexual reproduction, this fungus produces zygospores. While asexual reproduction by germination (germination) spores. The spores are stored in the sporangium (spore box). When the spores mature, the sporangium bursts open, allowing the spores to be carried by the wind. If the spores fall in the right place, they will grow into new hyphae. Zygomycotina has several types that are easy to find in everyday life. Some of them are mushrooms in food. These types of mushrooms include:

  • Rhizophus stolonifera: This fungus appears as white threads, has rhizoids and stolons. It is a saprophyte that lives on soybean meal and is useful in making tempeh.
  • Rhizophus nigricans: This fungus can produce fumaric acid.
  • Mucor mucedo: This fungus lives as a saprophyte. Often found in bread, food scraps and livestock manure. This mushroom mycelium develops in the substrate. Has a sporangium which is equipped with a sporangiophore.

ASCOMYCOTA DIVISION

Ascomycotina is also known as the sac fungus. Is a fungus that reproduces sexually by making ascospores in the ascus (ascus = sac or sac or coffers). Ascus is a kind of sporangium that produces ascospores. Several asci are usually clustered and gathered to form a fruiting body called an ascorcarp or ascoma. Askomata can be shaped like a bowl, bottle, or like a balloon).

The hyphae of Ascomycotina are generally monokaryotic (uninucleate or have a single nucleus) and the cells are separated by simple septa. So, the ascus is the general structure that belongs to members of the Ascomycotina Division. There are bodies that are unicellular and some are multicellular. Live as saprophy t and parasite. Some types of them can also be symbiotic with living things, blue-green algae and one-celled green algae to form lichens.

The life cycle of Ascomycotina begins with ascospores which grow into branching threads (hyphae). Then, one of several cells at the end of the hyphae differentiates into ascogonia, which are much wider than normal hyphae. While the other end of the hypha forms anteridium. The anteridium and ascogonium are located close together and have a number of haploid nuclei. Here are some examples of fungi belonging to the Ascomycotina Division:

  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Is a microscopic fungus, single-celled and does not have a fruiting body, often referred to as yeast, yeast, or yeast. In human life, S. cerevisiae is used in the manufacture of bread, tape, peuyeum, wine, beer and sake. The process that occurs in the manufacture of these foods is fermentation.
  • Penicillium spp: As saprophytes on substrates that contain a lot of sugar, such as rice, bread and ripe fruit. On the sugar substrate, this fungus looks like blue or greenish stains. These two types of mushrooms are commonly used in flavoring or scenting of cheese.

BASIDMYCOTA DIVISION

The Basidiomycota division includes about 25,000 species. This mushroom is easy to recognize because it generally has a fruiting body like an umbrella. Although some mushrooms of this division are edible, some mushrooms can also be deadly. Several other types of Basidiomycota can also harm plants, for example causing death in field crops. Examples of Basidiomycotina:

  • Volvariella Volvacea
  • Auricularia Polytricha
  • Puccinia Graminis
  • Amanita Phalloides
  • Agaricus Campertis
  • Lycoperdon
  • Lentinus Edodes
  • Ezobasidium Vexans

DEUTEROMYCOTA DIVISION

The life cycle of deuteomycota, in the way of asexual reproduction by producing conidia or producing special hyphae called conidiophores. This fungus is saprophytic in many types of organic matter, as a parasite on high-level plants and destroys cultivated plants and ornamental plants. This fungus also causes disease in humans, namely dermatokinosis (ringworm and tinea versicolor) and causes weathering of wood. An example of this fungus is monilia sitophila, namely oncom mushrooms. Often used for making oncom from peanut meal. Monilia can also grow from bread, food scraps. Examples of fungi Division Deuteromycota:

  • Aspergillus: Is a fungus that lives in a medium with a high degree of acidity and sugar content.
  • Epidermophyton and Mycosporium: Both types of fungi are parasitic in humans. Epidermophyton causes athlete’s foot, while Mycosporium causes ringworm.
  • Fusarium, Verticellium, and Cercos: These three types of fungi are parasites on plants. If this fungus is not eradicated with fungicide it can be detrimental to the plants it attacks.
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With so many types of mushrooms, one way to differentiate them is through the cells and tissues in them being one of the factors. In studying tissue in plants, the Textbook of Plant Tissue Culture can be used as a reference by Sinaumed’s.

 

MUSHROOM BENEFITS

Human use of mushrooms for food preparation or preservation and other purposes is extensive and has a long history. The study of the historical and sociological uses of fungi is known as ethnomycology. Recently, methods have been developed for the genetic engineering of fungi, which allow the metabolic engineering of fungal species. For example, genetic modification of a yeast species that easily grows at a fast rate in large ferments. Here are some other benefits of various types of mushrooms:

  • Zygomycetes species are useful in making food for example Rhizopus. Several species of members of the Zygomycetes include Rhizopus sp, Pliobolus sp and Muncor sp. The Role of Ascomycotina in Life.
  • Role in Fermentation: For example in the process of making tape, namely the fungus Aspergillus oryzae, the process of making bread, namely the fungus Saccharomyces cereviceae, the process of making soy sauce, namely the fungus Aspergillus wentii, the process of making oncom, namely Neurospora sithophila, the process of making cheese by Penicellium camemberti and Penicellium requoforti , last The process of making alcohol by Saccharomyces ovale
  • Medical Field: Alexander Flemming was the first to know about the efficacy of penicillin, which is an antibiotic substance produced by the fungi Penicillium notatum and Penicillium chrysogenum. However, these drugs (antibiotics) were only developed on a large scale after World War II. This fungus can grow everywhere, especially on ripe fruit and appears as green or blue stains.
  • Agriculture: There is no doubt that fungi as saprophytic organisms are very important in helping restore soil fertility. Saprophytic fungi destroy woody leaves so that they become minerals again.

Various types of mushrooms can be consumed, and one example is the oyster mushroom which generates large profits for its entrepreneurs. Learn how to cultivate oyster mushrooms in the book Big Profits in Cultivating Oyster Mushrooms.

 

NEGATIVE EFFECTS OF MUSHROOM (FUNGI)

Mushrooms not only have benefits for humans, but can also be detrimental to humans, to the point of damaging plants. Here are some of them Sinaumed’s:

  • Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus niger are types of fungus that often live in the middle ear canal and cause a disease known as otomicos. In addition, the Deuteromycetes fungus often causes a skin disease called dermatomikos.
  • An example of parasitic fungi in animals is Aspergillus fumigatus. This fungus lives and causes bird lung disease. In general, an infectious disease caused by Aspergillus is known as aspergillosis.
  • Parasitic fungi on cultivated plants, for example Phytophthora infestans, also known as lanas fungus, are parasites on potato plants. This fungus causes rotting shoots or leaves of potato plants. Another type of lanas fungus is Phytophthora nicotianae, a parasite on tobacco leaves. While Phytophthora palmifora parasites on coconut plants.
  • Mushrooms that produce poison, although many mushrooms are delicious to eat, not a few also contain poisons that cause death in both livestock and humans. Example: Aspergillus flavus, which produces aflatoxin poison, Amanita phaloides produces falin poison, which can damage red blood cells.

Thus the definition, structure, reproduction, classification, role and negative impact of fungi in everyday life, I hope this is useful, Sinaumed’s. Eager to learn!

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