Kingdom Plantae Material: Definition, Characteristics, & Classification of Plantae

sinaumedia Literacy – Did you know, some evidence shows that there have been algae on land since 1.2 billion years ago. Algae as part of the Plantae or plants have existed since the Ordovician period (450 million years ago) to the Silurian period (420 million years ago). Linnaeus then classified the entire division of organisms into 2 kingdoms, namely animalia and vegetabilia (plantae). Let’s get to know plant organisms or plantae more closely, see the full explanation below, Sinaumed’s.


Kingdom Plantae or better known as plants is a multicellular eukaryotic organism with a cell wall and chlorophyll. Chlorophyll is a green leaf substance that functions in the process of photosynthesis, so that plants are able to make their own food (autotroph). This is the difference between Kingdom Plantae and Kingdom Animalia.

Outside the formal context, the word “plant” refers to organisms that have certain characteristics such as being able to carry out photosynthesis, produce cellulose, and be multicellular. There has been much criticism regarding fungi, including parts of the kingdom plantae, because fungi obtain food not through the process of photosynthesis, but from the remains of organic matter.

In addition, the building blocks of the cell walls of fungi are not the same as those of plants, they are more similar to those of animals. Therefore, the fungi were removed from the kingdom Plantae and made a separate kingdom called the kingdom fungi. Most types of algae are also excluded from the kingdom plantae because they do not have chlorophyll.

With such a variety of cells that make up plants, the tissues in them, make the various types of plants that exist. In the Textbook of Plant Tissue Culture you can learn about plant tissue culture.


Plants are said to have evolved before animals and are located at the very beginning of the food chain. Without plants, most organisms could not survive. Plants can thrive even in the harshest conditions. Even the cold tundra regions of the Earth even contain some vegetation. Here are some of the characteristics of plantae that you need to know:

  • Multicellular or having many cells
  • Autotrophs, can make their own food
  • Eukaryotic, is a cell that already has a cell nucleus membrane.
  • There is a cell wall made of cellulose
  • Live on moist land or water
  • Can store food reserves in the form of starch (starch)
  • Obtain food by means of photosynthesis assisted by sunlight
  • Reproduce sexually (pistils and stamens) or asexually (grafts, shoots, cuttings and others)
  • It has roots that are useful for absorbing water and strengthening plants
  • It has leaves to collect sunlight which is used to produce glucose. Having organs and organ systems Having flowers as a means of sexual reproduction.
  • Having alternation of offspring in its life cycle is called metagenesis. Metagenesis in kingdom plantae is the life cycle of a plant that displays an alternation of generations. The cycle is composed of the gametophyte generation which is a multicellular individual producing haploid gametes and the sporophyte generation which is a multicellular individual which produces spores produced by spore-producing cells (sporogenic cells).



Pteridophyta or ferns already have a carrier network (kormus) and true organs. Ferns reproduce asexually by means of spores. This plant undergoes metagenesis. In general, ferns live on land, especially in tropical rain forest areas. However, there are several types of nails that live floating in water.

Pteridophyta are plants that already have true stems, roots and leaves, reproduce by spores (spore-forming cormophytes) and experience an alternation of generations. In addition, ferns also have chlorophyll, xylem and phloem vessels, and fibrous roots. Get to know more closely about the characteristics of the following Pterydophyta (fern plants), Sinaumed’s:

  • Spores are produced on sporophylls, especially on the underside of the leaves.
  • Stems, roots and leaves can be easily distinguished.
  • Young leaves on ferns grow coiled (circinnatus).

Types of Pterydophyta (ferns):

  • True ferns (Pteriopsida): This species has true stems, roots and leaves. On young leaves grow roll (circinnatus). The highest number of species is about 12,000 species. Example: Suplir (Adiantum cuneatum) and Semanggi (Marsilea crenata).
  • Ancient ferns (Psilopsida): This species produces one type of spore (homospore). The gametophyte lacks chlorophyll and nutrients obtained from symbiosis with fungi. The number of fern species is almost extinct, namely the remaining 10-13 species. Example: Psilotum and Rynia.
  • Horsetail nails (Spenopsida): This type is called horsetail because of the shape of the stem that looks like a horse’s tail. The habitat of this plant is in subtropical or humid places. Sporangium in the form of strobilus, bisexual gametophyte and has chlorophyll. This type of fern is a homosporous fern (produces one kind of spore) with about 15 species. Example: Equisetum.
  • Wire ferns (Lycopsida): Wire ferns can produce two kinds of spores (heterospores), the gametophytes do not have chlorophyll. The gametophyte also consists of two, namely bisexual and unisexual. The number of species of wire nails is about 1000 species. Example: Lycopodium and Selaginela.
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Bryophytes do not have true organs such as stems, roots or leaves, and do not have xylem and phloem vessels. Bryophyta have a small rhizoid that allows them to stick to the ground. Bryophyta usually grows in moist and shady areas. Bryophyta is a transitional plant between cormophytes (kormophytes) and thallus plants (talophytes). Similar to pteridophyta, bryophyta also undergoes metagenesis and undergoes an alternation of generations. The characteristics of Bryophyta (Moss Plants) include:

  • Moss plants are macroscopic in size 1-2 cm, and some are up to 40 cm in size.
  • Kormophytes are plants that can be differentiated into stems, roots and leaves.
  • It has two forms of generation, namely the sporophyte generation and the gametophyte generation.
  • It is a transitional plant because there are plants in the form of thallus (sheets, namely liverworts), and plants that already have a body structure similar to true stems, roots and leaves (leverbs).
  • Talophytes are plants that cannot be distinguished between stems, roots and leaves.
  • Moss plants are pioneer vegetation (a pioneer plant or grows before other plants can grow).

Some moss plants that live in rainforest areas can be used as erosion barriers and used to absorb water. Marchantia can also be used as a medicine for liver disease, and spatial ornaments. Some of these plant species, such as Sphagnum, can be used as an eye and skin remedy. Types of Bryophyta (Mosses) include mosses, liverworts, and hornworts.

  • Bryopsida (leaf moss): It is a true moss because its body shape resembles a small plant that has true stems, roots and leaves. Live in groups to form thick, velvety beds. Example: Spagnum and Polytricum.
  • Hepaticopsida (liverworts): Is a moss with two houses (deoceus). This type of lichen is talus-shaped, lobulated like the shape of a human heart. Moreover, this type of lichen forms a zygote. Asexual reproduction by fragmentation in the formation of spores and gemmacups (buds). Gemmacup is a distinctive structure that exists on a gametophyte which is a cup and contains a collection of small mosses. Gemma can be dispersed and released by water which then grows and forms new moss. In sexual reproduction by means of fertilization between the ovum and sperm. For example: Marchantia polymorpha
  • Anthocerotopsida (hornworts): The gametophyte of this moss is similar to that of liverworts, but the location of the sporophyte is different. The hornwort sporophyte has an elongated capsule that grows like a horn from the gametophyte. Example: Anthoceros laevis.

phylum Spermatophyta (seed plants)

The characteristics of Spermatophyta (seed plants) include having 2 subdivisions, namely closed seeds (Angiospermae) and open seeds (Gymnospermae) and having seed or flower organs produced by flowers or strobilus. The benefits of Spermatophyta (seed plants) in everyday life are as a staple food.

Examples include: rice, sago, corn and wheat as well as shade, oxygen source, carbon dioxide absorber and water storage. Examples include: pine, mahogany, teak and Angsana. For building materials and furniture, examples are meranti and teak. The types of Spermatophyta (seed plants) include:

  • Closed seed plants (Angiospermae): Angiosperms are plants whose ovaries are inside the ovaries. The characteristics of Angiosperms include wide and flat leaves, leaf bones are finger-shaped, pinnate, parallel or curved. Live as shrubs, trees, shrubs and herbs. Breeding tools are in the form of stamens and pistils. Has true flowers with ornaments in the form of crowns and flower petals, based on the number of seed pieces, angiosperms are divided into two classes, namely monocots or seed plants with one or single pieces and dicots which have two institutional leaves (dicotyldons).
  • Open seed plants (Gymnospernae) are plants whose ovaries are not covered or protected by ovaries. The characteristics of gymnospernae include that gymnospernae have separate genitals, where eggs are found in female strobilus and pollen is found in male strobilus., ovaries are arranged in strobilus, strobilus or conifers are conical reproductive organs, stems and roots have cambium, so that it can grow larger, the leaves are stiff, thick and narrow, the leaf bones are not varied, do not have true flowers, the roots are in the form of a mount, usually trees or shrubs do not have herbs. Gymnospernae is divided into 4 classes including:
  • Ginkgoinae : Is a native plant originating from mainland China. The tree height can reach 30 meters, and the leaves are fan-shaped and fall easily. The seeds and pollen of these plants were obtained from different individuals. There is only one species of this plant, namely Ginkgo biloba.
  • Cycadinae plants are dioecious, which means they have only female strobilus or only male strobili. Example: Cycas rumphii (pilgrim fern).
  • Gnetinae: Members of the group of this plant species, namely in the form of shrubs, trees and lianas (climbing plants). The leaves are oval or oval in shape with pinnate leaf veins. Example: Gnetum gnemon (melinjo).
  • Coniferinae : This plant has a characteristic that is always green all year round (evergreen). Strobilus conical. Example: Pinus merkusii (pine), Agathis alba (resin), Araucaria sp., Cupressus sp., Sequoia sp., Taxus sp. and Juniperus sp.
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Kingdom Plantae are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that have chlorophyll and a cell wall. There are about 400,000 species in the kingdom Plantae. In the food chain, this kingdom acts as a producer. Kingdom plantae is very useful for human life, starting from ferns which are useful as green manure in rice plants, can be used as vegetable ingredients, can be used as ornamental plants and processed as wound medicine.

Moss plants with Sphagnum species can also be used as skin, liver and eye medicine. Some moss plants that grow in the rain forest also function as a barrier to erosion and absorb water. Here are some other benefits of plantae, including:

  • Several types of Kingdom Plantae, such as rattan and teak trees, can be used as building materials, paper, furniture, playing cards, sports equipment and musical instruments.
  • Some types of Kingdom Plantae, such as flax, are capable of producing linen fiber. Linen fibers are used in a variety of household textiles (towels, tablecloths, etc.), fittings (curtains, wall coverings and wall hangings) as well as in the manufacture of clothing.
  • Most of the nutrition that humans get comes from plants, such as corn, rice, potatoes, wheat and cassava as staple foods or sources of carbohydrates. In addition, there are also vegetables, fruits, spices and nuts as sources of protein, vitamins and other nutrients. Apart from food, kingdom plantae can also be used as a beverage, such as tea, coffee, beer, wine and other alcoholic beverages. Sugarcane is used to make sugar and flavorings such as monosodium. The manufacture of margarine and cooking oil uses ingredients from plantae, such as corn, palm oil, soybeans, olives and sunflowers.
  • Several types of plants from kingdom plantae can also be used as ornamental plants, such as orchids, roses, sun, and other plants that are useful for beautifying your environment or your yard. Plants can also be used as a venue for artistic creations such as bonsai plants (Adenium Bonsai, Bougenville Bonsai, Azalea Bonsai, Dutch Tamarind Bonsai, Tamarind Bonsai, Banyan Bonsai, Kimeng Bonsai, to Pine Shrimp Bonsai)
  • Plants can also be used as industrial materials, such as soap, rubber, paint, wax, tannins, shampoo, cosmetics, perfume, oil, ink, plastics, and so on.
  • Many types of plants from the kingdom plantae can be used as medicinal ingredients, such as herbal medicines, food supplements and pesticides, as well as:
    • Ginkgo biloba extract which is used as a medicine to increase stamina, is able to relieve dizziness, to treat the dangerous disease cancer.
    • Rane nails can be processed into wound healers.
    • The guava tree leaves can be used as a medicine for stomach ache.
    • Marchantia polymorpha can be used as a medicine for inflammation of the liver or treating hepatitis.