The Islamic Empire in Indonesia (Archipelago) and Its History

Islamic Kingdoms in Indonesia (Nusantara) and Its History – According to various historical sources, Islam entered the archipelago for the first time around the 6th century AD. When Islamic kingdoms entered Indonesia in the 13th century, various Hindu-Buddhist kingdoms had also ended their heyday.

The Islamic empire in Indonesia that was developing at that time also became part of the formation of various cultures in Indonesia. Then, one of the factors that made Islamic empires more glorious a few centuries ago was because they were influenced by trade routes originating from the Middle East, India and other countries.

History of Islamic Kingdoms in Indonesia Archipelago

The growing development of Islamic kingdoms in Indonesia around the 13th century was also supported by the factor of the maritime trade traffic of the archipelago at that time. Many Islamic traders from all over the world, such as Arabs, Persians, Indians and Chinese, entered the archipelago.

These Islamic traders eventually mingled with Indonesian society. The increasing spread of Islam in the homeland through this trade also brought many changes from the cultural side to the administration of the archipelago at that time.

The emergence of various Islamic-style kingdoms spread throughout the archipelago marked the beginning of a change in the government system and culture in Indonesia. The involvement of Islamic kingdoms in Indonesia also played a role in the spread of Islam to all corners of the country.

In understanding the history of the Islamic empires in the archipelago, you can read the book Getting to Know the Islamic Empires of the Archipelago below, because it contains an introduction to the various Islamic empires in the archipelago in their time.

 

The First Islamic Empire in Indonesia

The Kingdom of Samudera Pasai is the first Islamic kingdom in Indonesia located in Aceh

Some of the oldest Islamic kingdoms in the country which are evidence of traces of Islamic heritage and can still be witnessed today include the Kingdom of Perlak (840-1292), the Kingdom of Ternate (1257), the Kingdom of Samudera Pasai (1267-1521), the Kingdom of Gowa (1300 -1945), the Sultanate of Malacca (1405-1511), the Islamic Kingdom of Cirebon (1430-1677), the Kingdom of Demak 1478-1554), the Islamic Kingdom of Banten (1526-1813), the Kingdom of Pajang (1568-1586), and the Islamic Mataram Kingdom ( 1588-1680).

As the first Islamic kingdom, the Samudra Pasai Sultanate is often admired by various people. One of them is the world explorer from Italy Marco Polo which you can read in the book Tracing the City of Islamic Glory.

 

Islamic Empire in Java

1. Kingdom of Demak

The Kingdom of Demak was the first Islamic kingdom on the island of Java. This kingdom was founded by Raden Patah in 1478. The Demak kingdom developed as a trading center as well as a center for the spread of Islam at that time. The spread of Islam at that time was greatly influenced by the services of the trustees both on the island of Java and those outside Java such as the Moluccas to the East Kalimantan region.

During the reign of Raden Patah, the kingdom of Demak built a mosque which at that time was also assisted by the saints or sunan. Then, the culture that developed in the Demak kingdom also received support from the trustees, especially from Sunan Kalijaga. The life of the people around the Demak Kingdom was also regulated by Islamic rules but still did not abandon their old traditions.

During the period of the Islamic kingdoms in Java, there was a political and religious transformation from the Hindu-Buddhist kingdoms to the Islamic kingdoms in Java and you can read about this in the book Genealogy of Islamic Empires in Java by P. Mardiyono which is below.

 

 

2. The Kingdom of Banten

The next Islamic kingdom in Indonesia is Banten which is at the tip of the island of Java, namely the Banten area. The sign of the spread of Islam in this region began when Fatahillah seized Banten and began spreading Islam. Islam spread well at that time because it was influenced by many foreign traders such as from Gujarat, Persia, Turkey, and so on. Banten Grand Mosque is one of the results of Islamic heritage which was built around the 16th century AD.

3. Sultanate of Cirebon

The Cirebon Sultanate entered as a well-known Islamic sultanate in the West Java region around the 15th and 16th centuries AD. The Cirebon area is also included in the strategic area of ​​inter-island trade routes.

This kingdom was founded by Sunan Gunung Jati. Before establishing the Cirebon kingdom, Sunan Gunung Jati first spread Islam in the Land of Pasundan. He also traveled to Mecca and Pasai. Sunan Gunung Jati also succeeded in eliminating the power of the Padjadjaran kingdom, which at that time was still Hindu.

Islamic Kingdom in Maluku

1. Jailolo Kingdom

The Jailolo kingdom was located on the north coast of the island of Seram and parts of Halmahera. This kingdom is included in the oldest kingdom in the Maluku region. According to the history of the Jailolo kingdom, it was established in 1321 and began to convert to Islam after the arrival of the preacher from Malacca.

2. Kingdom of Ternate

According to the history of the kingdom of Ternate, it was established around the 13th century AD. This kingdom is in North Maluku and has Simpalu as its capital. The spread of Islam in the kingdom of Ternate was influenced by scholars from Java, Arabic and Malay.

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Later, this kingdom officially embraced Islam after king Zainal Abidin learned about Islam from Sunan Giri in 1486 AD. As a center for the spice trade, many traders from all over the world stop by in the Ternate region.

3. The Kingdom of Tidore

This kingdom is located on part of the island of Halmahera and partly on the island of Seram. The Kingdom of Tidore embraced Islam around the 15th century AD. Cirali Lijitu is the sultan of Tidore who first embraced Islam and has the title Sultan Jamaludin.

Sultan Jamaludin embraced Islam thanks to a preacher named Sheikh Mansyur. This kingdom itself is famous for its trading economy in the spice sector. According to historical sources, the Tidore kingdom at that time had an alliance called Ulisiwa which consisted of the Halmahera, Makyan, Kai, Jailolo and other islands in the eastern region of Maluku.

4. Kingdom of Bacan

The power of the Bacan kingdom has covered all the islands of Bacan, Obi, Waigeo, Solawati to the West Irian region. The spread of Islam in the Bacan kingdom itself began when a Mubalig from another Maluku Islamic kingdom came and started spreading Islam.

The first king of the Bacan kingdom was named Zainal Abidin. When leading the Kingdom of Bacan, Zainal Abidin also began to apply Islamic teachings and rules in the Kingdom of Bacan.

Islamic Kingdom in Sulawesi

1. The Sultanate of Buton

The Kingdom of the Sultanate of Buton is an Islamic kingdom located in Southeast Sulawesi. According to history, this kingdom has been around for a long time even before Islam entered Sulawesi. This kingdom appeared as early as the 14th AD.

The kingdom of the Buton Sultanate itself initially had a Hindu-Buddhist style, but as Islam grew in the Sulawesi region, this kingdom later changed to an Islamic-style kingdom.

The Kingdom of Buton controlled many areas in the Buton archipelago, including its territorial waters. The name Buton has indeed been famous since the Majapahit era. Even in the Negarakertagama book and in Gajah Mada’s Palapa Oath, the name Buton is often mentioned. To this day the Sultanate of Buton still exists and is a place frequented by many travelers.

2. The Sultanate of Banggai

The next Islamic kingdom in the Sulawesi region was the Banggai kingdom. The Kingdom of Banggai is located in the East Peninsula region of the island of Sulawesi and the Banggai Archipelago. The Sultanate of Banggai has been around for a long time, namely around the 16th century AD.

To this day, the Kingdom of Banggai still exists and is always visited by many visitors. In fact, this kingdom has also experienced downturns as a result of losing to the Majapahit kingdom. However, after the fall of the Majapahit kingdom, the Banggai Kingdom revived and became an independent kingdom again and had an Islamic character.

Kingdom of Gowa Tallo

As the name implies, the Kingdom of Gowa Tallo actually consists of two kingdoms that form a union or alliance. The union of the two great kingdoms in the Sulawesi region then had such a big impact.

The Kingdom of Gowa itself controlled the highlands, while the Tallo region controlled the coastal plains. The influence that was strong enough to make these two royal alliances a kingdom that was very influential on trade routes in the eastern region of the country. History also states that the kingdom of Gowa Tallo was established before Islam entered Sulawesi, or to be more precise, around 13 AD.

This kingdom finally joined to become part of the Republic of Indonesia in 1946 with Andi Ijo Daeng Mattawang Karaeng Lalolang Sultan Muhammad Abdul Kadir Aidudin as its last king.

2. The Kingdom of Bones

When compared to other Islamic kingdoms in the Sulawesi region, the kingdom of Bone was a fairly small kingdom. Because of its position as a small kingdom, at that time the Kingdom of Bone was heavily influenced by the Kingdoms of Gowa and Tallo.

The power of the Gowa Tallo kingdom was indeed very large in every small kingdom at that time. Therefore, due to the influence of the Gowa Tallo kingdom, the Bone kingdom finally made its kingdom an Islamic kingdom.

The Islamic religion itself entered the kingdom of Bone during the reign of King Bone XI or around 1611 AD. After that, Islam spread even more because it was well received by the people in the territory of the kingdom of Bone.

3. Konawe Kingdom

The Konawe Kingdom is in the Southeast Sulawesi region. Before having an Islamic style, this kingdom was originally a Hindu-style kingdom. However, as Islam developed in Konawe, around 18 AD, the Konawe kingdom slowly began to experience changes in the government system and eventually became part of the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia.

Some of the kingdoms mentioned above were the most victorious Islamic empires in the Sulawesi region in the past. Although some of them have collapsed, several kingdoms have also become cultural heritage that should be maintained.

A number of Islamic kingdoms in the Sulawesi region is strong evidence that the influence of Islam in Sulawesi is growing rapidly. When several kingdoms still adhered to a Hindu-Buddhist style, slowly but surely, the spread of Islam in Sulawesi took over the Hindu-Buddhist style to become an Islamic-style kingdom.

Islamic Kingdoms in West & East Nusa Tenggara

1. Sultanate of Bima

This sultanate was founded on February 7, 1621 AD. The arrival of Islam in the Bima kingdom began when in 1540 AD preachers and traders from the Demak Sultanate came and spread Islam.

The spread of Islam continued and was continued by Sultan Alauddin around 1619. He sent preachers from the Sultanate of Luwu, the Kingdom of Tallo and the Kingdom of Bone.

2. The Sultanate of Sumbawa

According to Zolinger, before entering Lombok, Islam first entered Sumbawa, around 1450-1540. Islamic teachings were brought directly by Islamic traders from Java and Sumatra.

The collapse of Majapahit power made many small kingdoms in the island of Sumbawa become independent. The conditions made it easier for the entry of Islam into the Sumbawa sultanate. Around 16 AD, Sunan Prapen, who was a descendant of Sunan Giri, entered the island of Sumbawa and spread Islam to Hindu kingdoms.

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3. Kingdom of Dompu

The Kingdom of Dompu was located in the present-day Dompu Regency. This kingdom is in the area of ​​Bima Regency and Sumbawa Regency. The majority of the local population has now embraced Islam with Islamic traditions and culture.

The descendants of the king or known as the Dompu Aristocracy still exist today. They are often called Ruma or Dae. The Dompu Palace, which was a symbol of ancient power, has now been converted into the Dompu Grand Mosque.

Islamic Empire in Borneo

1. Kingdom of Selimbau

The first Islamic kingdom in the Kalimantan region was the Selimbau Kingdom. This kingdom is located in the Selimbau sub-district, Kapuas Hulu Regency, West Kalimantan Province. Before embracing Islam, the Selimbau kingdom was the oldest Hindu kingdom in West Kalimantan.

For many years, the Selimbau Kingdom was ruled by a hereditary line that numbered 25 generations. Starting from the kings who were Hindus to the reign of the Islamic Kingdom.

2. Mempawah Kingdom

This kingdom is an Islamic kingdom located around the Mempawah Regency area, West Kalimantan. The name Mempawah itself is taken from the term Mempauh which means the name of a tree that grows in the headwaters of the river which became known as the Mempawah River.

During its development, the government of the kingdom was divided into two periods, the first being the period of the Hindu-style Dayak kingdom and then the Islamic-style Sultanate period.

3. The Kingdom of Tanjungpura

One of the oldest kingdoms in West Kalimantan is the Kingdom of Tanjungpura or often also called Tanjompura. This kingdom has experienced several times the transfer of the royal capital.

Initially the capital of the kingdom was located in Negeri Baru or in the current Ketapang Regency, after that it moved again to the Sukadana area which became the North Kayong Regency. Then, in the 15th century AD it changed its name to the Matan Kingdom when its King Sorgi or Giri Kesuma converted to Islam.

4. The Hedgehog Kingdom

The Hedgehog Kingdom or also known as the Ismahayana Hedgehog Kingdom is a kingdom located in Landak Regency, West Kalimantan. The Hedgehog Kingdom itself has a long historical chronicle. Some written sources regarding this kingdom are quite limited.

However, various archaeological evidence in the form of royal palace buildings or palaces to various royal attributes that can still be seen today are proof of the existence of this kingdom. According to the history of the Landak kingdom, it was also divided into two phases, thematic of which was the period of the Hindu-style kingdom and then became the Islamic-style kingdom which began around 1257 AD.

Taian Kingdom

This Islamic kingdom is located in the Tayan Hilir sub-district, Tayan Regency, Kapuas Raya Province. The founder of the Tayan kingdom was Putra Brawijaya who came from the Majapahit Kingdom. His name is Gusti Likar or often called Lekar.

Gusti Lekar himself is the second son of Panembahan Dikiri who is the King of Matan. The first child of Panembahan Dikiri was named Duli Maulana Sultan Muhammad Syarifuidin who later succeeded his father as King of Matan.

Sultan Muhammad Syarifudin himself was the first king to convert to Islam thanks to the services of Sir Syech Syamsuddin. He then received a gift in the form of a small Qur’an and a ring with red emerald eyes that were obtained directly from the King of Mecca.

6. The Paser Sultanate

Previously the Paser Sultanate was called the Kingdom of Sadurangas which was a kingdom that was established around 1516. At that time the kingdom was led by a Queen named Putri Di Dalam Petung.

Before the Queen married Abu Mansyur Indra Jaya, Princess Petong still adhered to animism or the belief in worshiping spirits. Through the marriage path between Ratu Petong and Abu Mansyur Indra Jaya, the Panzer Sultanate began to embrace Islam. In addition, trade routes originating from various Muslim traders also played a major role in the spread of Islam in the Paser Sultanate.

Books Related to the Islamic Empire in Indonesia (Nusantara)

History of Islam in Java

It is not easy to study the history of Islam, especially in Java, because of the limited data on when and how Islam came and developed in Java. The narrative that is understood to date is that Islam entered Java brought by Muslim traders as well as preachers and then developed more creatively by the saints, especially Walisongo.

However, is this narrative enough to explain the history of Islam in Java?
Historians differ. Their various research results have been recorded based on different perspectives and study focuses, thus presenting a diversity of understanding. The many publications of books on the history of Islam in Java, including this book, can certainly enrich our understanding of how Islam is in the Land of Java.

However, this book explains three main points, namely the beginning of the arrival of Islam, the spreaders of Islam and the strategy for spreading Islam in Java. The strength of this book lies in explaining the social conditions of the Javanese people, the origins of the Javanese, and the condition of pre-Hindu-Buddhist Java. Thus, the study of this book is more comprehensive than other books.

Genealogy of Islamic Kingdoms in Java

This book presents the history of the kingdoms in Java from the Hindu-Buddhist period to the transition to the Islamic period. The focus point raised in this paper is how the political and religious transformation from Hindu-Buddhist kingdoms to Islamic kingdoms in Java took place.

In a popular language style, this book intends to provide a light and easy-to-understand explanation of the transition of civilization in Java in the past.

Traces of Islam in Javanese Culture

Religion and culture are strong bonds for society so that they are always connected with noble values, with social values, and with the warmth of the past. At a time when change is happening rapidly, religion and culture provide space to build social cohesiveness and a means to achieve spiritual peace.

The role of Islam in Javanese culture cannot be ignored for the development of society and culture. This book appears as an attempt to see the traces of Islam in Javanese culture. Islam in Java is growing rapidly and becoming a strong and strengthening fabric with social values ​​that exist in society.

This book is intended to provide an overview of the existence of Islamic values ​​in Javanese culture and how the creations, initiatives and creations of Javanese people are seen again as treasures to explore local wisdom, while continuing to encourage the development of superior and competitive human beings, so that readers can retrace the rich treasures. noble values ​​of religion in Javanese culture.

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