The oldest kingdom in Indonesia – The development of the kingdom in Indonesia has been influenced by the entry of Hinduism and Buddhism. The teachings of Hinduism in India cannot be separated from the role of the Aryans, the Middle Foreign nomadic peoples. Where the Aryans entered Indian territory around 1500 BC. The nation then developed the system and also the beliefs of the Hindu community. This belief system that has been developed by the Aryans is the worship of many Gods.
In Hinduism, there are three main Gods, namely Brahma or the God of Creation, Vishnu or the God of Protectors, and also Shiva or the God of Destruction. Then, a caste system developed which differentiated society based on its function, namely there was the Brahmin Caste, namely priests, the Kshatriya Caste, namely nobles, the Vaisya Caste, namely farmers and traders, and the last was the Sudra Caste, namely workers.
Then, around the 5th century BC came Buddhism. The figure from Buddhism is Siddhartha Gautama (563 BC-483 BC). Buddhism teaches about self-control and attaining nirvana through the Eight Paths of Truth.
The process of the spread of the two religions to Indonesia, based on historical findings, the oldest kingdoms in Indonesia were influenced by Hinduism and Buddhism. Below are some lists of the oldest kingdoms in Indonesia based on the History book.
The Oldest Kingdom in Indonesia
Once upon a time, before Indonesia embraced the democratic system as it is today, Indonesia was a country with quite a large number of kingdoms and also large ones. Many relics and also stories from the history of the kingdom that we can even meet today. There are several big and oldest kingdoms in Indonesia that we don’t get at school. In fact, in fact the findings of the latest archaeological experts, the kingdom has been proven to be the oldest kingdom in Indonesia, what are those?
1. The Kingdom of Kandis (BC)
This one kingdom is believed to have existed since before Christ, which preceded Moloyou or Dharmasraya. In the Kandis Kingdom, there are two figures who are considered to exist the most, namely the Patih and Tumenggung. Lubuk Jambi’s ancestors are believed to have come from the descendants of Waliyullah Raya Iskandar Zulkarnain, whose real names are Maharaja Aris, Maharaja Depang, and also Maharaja Diraja. The three of them split up and looked for a new place to live.
Maharaja Arid went to Banda Ruhum, then Maharaja Depang went to Bandar Cina, and Maharaja Diraja went to Pulau Emas or Sumatra. When anchored on Pulau Emas, Maharaja Diraja and his entourage founded a kingdom called the Kandis Kingdom which was located in Bukit Bakar or Bukit Bakau. The area is known as a fertile and green area, of course it is also surrounded by clear rivers.
2. Salakanagara Kingdom (130-326 AD)
The Salakanagara Kingdom was the first kingdom to be established in the West Java area according to existing historical records. In fact, based on the Wangsakerta Pustaka Rajyarajya i Bhumi Nusantara, it is explained that Salakanagara was the earliest kingdom in the archipelago. Many experts and historians admit this, such as Husein Djajadiningrat, Tb. H Achmad, Hasan Mu’arif, and also Halwany Michrob in their research.
They both compiled their findings in writings, reviews, and also in books. For its founder, it is said that Dewawarman was a traveling ambassador, trader, and also a nomad from Pallawa, Bharata or India who stayed because he married the daughter of the local prince.
3. Kingdom of Kutai
The Kutai Kingdom is one of the oldest kingdoms in Indonesia. Where this one kingdom is estimated to have existed since the 5th century AD. Kutai itself is located on the banks of the Mahakam river, East Kalimantan. Based on the results of its historical heritage, there are seven inscribed stones or Yupa. The slate is written in Sanskrit and Pallawa letters.
Then based on its social life, the Kingdom of Kutai is characterized by the existence of divisions in its society. There are Brahmins and Kshatriyas. Where the people in the Kutai Kingdom were influenced by Hinduism. This was proven by King Mulawarman and also the Brahmins who built a shrine to honor the gods in Hinduism.
4. The Kingdom of Tarumanegara
The next oldest kingdom in Indonesia is the Tarumanegara Kingdom, where the center of government is in Bogor, West Java. Based on the written evidence found, the Tarumanegara Kingdom was influenced by Indian Hindu culture.
It is estimated that this one kingdom developed in 400 to 600 AD. There are seven kinds of inscriptions from the Kingdom of Tarumanegara which are scattered in various districts. Based on the Ciaruteun inscription, King Purnawarman embraced Hinduism and worshiped Lord Vishnu. His territory includes West Java, which stretches from Jakarta, Bogor and Cirebon.
5. Ho-ling Kingdom
The Kingdom of Ho-ling or Kalingga is located in Central Java. Evidence of the existence of this one kingdom is based on sending envoys from China to this kingdom in 647 and also 666 AD. The existence of the Ho-ling kingdom was based on a Buddhist priest named I Tsing.
The priest revealed that Hwining had come to Holing in AD 664. He translated Buddhist scriptures from Sanskrit into Chinese. The Ho-ling Kingdom was ruled by Queen Sima, a female king. Queen Sima is known as a fair and wise leader. People in this kingdom sell gold, silver, and also rhino horn.
6. Malay government
The location of this Malay Kingdom was in the Jambi region or along the Batanghari River. There are also those who state that the kingdom is in Peninsular Malaysia. This Malay kingdom is described in the 13th century book Pararaton and also Negarakertagama. The book describes Kertanegara as Raja Singasari’s Pamalayu expedition. The purpose of the expedition was to intercept the Mongol Empire under the rule of King Kublai Khan who wanted to control Southeast Asia. Raja Singasari then presented the Amoghapasa Buddha Statue to the Malay people.
7. The Kingdom of Srivijaya
The Srivijaya Kingdom was founded around the 7th to 15th centuries. Where this kingdom controlled trade in the South China Sea region and also the Malacca Strait. The Sriwijaya Kingdom was discovered based on the Kedukan Bukit Inscription, namely in 683 AD, the Talang Tuo Inscription (684 AD), the Kota Kapur Inscription (686 AD), the Siddhayatra Inscription, the Telaga Batu Inscription (683 AD), and the Karang Berahi Inscription. King Balaputradewa made the Sriwijaya Kingdom grow very rapidly.
The government expanded its territory into trade routes. Apart from that, the Sriwijaya Government also established diplomatic relations with the Cola Government in India and also the Chinese Government in the north. In addition to trade routes, the government is also developing education. Sriwijaya became the center of Buddhist education in Southeast Asia.
8. The Ancient Mataram Kingdom
The Ancient Mataram Kingdom was founded in the 8th to 11th centuries AD. Where this one kingdom was originally in Central Java, then moved to East Java. There are several inscriptions such as the Canggal Inscription, the Kalasan Inscription, the Balitung Inscription, and the Klurak Inscription. The Ancient Mataram Kingdom was ruled by two dynasties, namely the Sanjaya dynasty which embraced Hinduism. While the Syailendra dynasty adhered to Buddhism. The Sanjaya dynasty ruled the northern part of Central Java, while the Syailendra dynasty controlled the southern part of Central Java.
9. Government of Kediri
The Kingdom of Kediri was discovered based on the existence of the Sirah Keting Inscription (1140 AD), the Padlegan Inscription (117 AD), the Hantang Inscription (1135 AD), the Jaring Inscription (1181 AD), and the Kamulan Inscription (1194 AD). Where the Kingdom of Kediri was ruled by several kings such as Jayawarsa (1104 AD), Jayabaya (1135 AD), Sarveswara (1161 AD), Aryaswara (1169 AD-1171 AD), Ganara (1182 AD), Kameswara (1182 AD-1185 AD). M), and Kertajaya (1190 AD-1222 AD). King Jayabaya is known as the great highway, because he managed to unite the Kingdom of Jenggala and also the Kingdom of Kediri. Not only that, King Jayabaya was also known as a fortune teller. The majority of people in the Kediri Kingdom traded gold, silver, areca nut, and also sandalwood.
The kingdom of Kediri began to collapse in 1222 AD due to losing the war. At that time, Ken Arok in Ganter managed to defeat the Kingdom of Kediri. The collapse of this one kingdom ended the rule of the Isyana dynasty.
10. Isyana Dynasty Kingdom
The Isyana dynasty is one of the oldest kingdoms in Indonesia, which was established around 929 AD. Where this kingdom was led by Mpu Sindok after parting with Hindu Mataram because the kingdom had fallen. The Isyana dynasty was in the East Java region with the Syailendra dynasty leading the kingdom.
The Isyana dynasty left so much evidence of its existence in several inscriptions written about the royal heirs. The Pucangan inscription has become one of the most numerous royal evidences to date.
11. The Majapahit Kingdom
Certainly, the next oldest Hindu kingdom in Indonesia is the Majapahit Empire. This famous kingdom was founded in 1292 AD and existed for a long time, namely around 193 years. In 1331 AD, Gajah Mada succeeded in quelling the Sadeng Rebellion, then was appointed Patih Mangkubumi Majapahit.
When appointed as governor, Gajah Mada vowed to unite the Archipelago under Majapahit rule. This oath later became known as the Palapa Oath. Under the leadership of Hayam Wuruk and also Gajah Mada, Majapahit reached the peak of its glory. But unfortunately, various political intrigues from within the kingdom eventually made the Majapahit Empire break up and collapse.
12. Kanjuruhan Kingdom
The Kanjuruhan Kingdom is one of the Hindu-style kingdoms found in the East Java region and is centered in the city of Malang. The Dinoyo Inscription is believed to be one of the strongest written evidences from the Kanjuruhan Kingdom. The most famous Kanjuruhan king was King Gajayana. Where this King left Badudu Temple and also Wurung Temple.
13. The Kingdom of Sunda
Based on the text written in the Wangsakerta Manuscript, it is believed that the Kingdom of Sunda was established to replace the Kingdom of Tarumanegara. This kingdom was founded by Tarusbawa in 591 Caka Sunda or 669 AD. Some of the well-known areas of the Sunda Kingdom are Banten, DKI Jakarta, West Java, and most of Central Java.
14. The Kingdom of Sekala Brak
This kingdom is also widely known as the Sekala Brak Hindu Kingdom, because this kingdom is indeed Hindu. However, after the arrival of four masters from Pagaruyung, the name of this kingdom was changed to Keaksian Sekala Brak. The kingdom of Sekala Brak is located on Mount Pesagi, Lampung. Where this kingdom is also believed to be the forerunner of the current Lampung ethnicity.
Oldest Islamic Kingdom in Indonesia
After knowing some of the oldest kingdoms in Indonesia which are Hindu and Buddhist. Now we will turn to discussing the oldest Islamic kingdom in Indonesia. Here are some more explanations:
1. The Kingdom of Perlak
The Kingdom of Perlak, also known as the Peureulak Sultanate, is an Islamic kingdom in East Aceh. This oldest Islamic kingdom in Indonesia eventually joined the Samudra Pasai Kingdom. The Perlak Sultanate is an Islamic empire in Indonesia which rules in the Perlak region, East Aceh.
Aceh now between the years 840 to 1292 perlak is famous as a perlak wood producing area. This type of wood is very good for shipbuilding. Therefore, the area is known as Negeri Perlak.
Natural products and also a very strategic position made Perlak develop as a fairly advanced trading port in the 8th century. The port has been visited by ships originating from Arabia and Persia. This made the Islamic community in the area begin to develop, especially as a result of mixed marriages between Muslim merchants and local women.
2. Kingdom of Ternate
Beginning in the mid-15th century, Islam was totally adopted by the kingdom, then the application of Islamic law also began to be enforced. The Sultanate of Ternate, also known as the Kingdom of Gabi, is one of the four Islamic kingdoms in the Maluku Islands and is one of the oldest Islamic kingdoms in Indonesia.
Where this kingdom was founded by Baab Mashur Malamo in 1257. The Sultanate of Ternate played an important role in the eastern region of the archipelago between the 13th and 17th centuries. Where the Sultanate of Ternate enjoyed its glory in the half of the 16th century thanks to the spice trade and also its military strength.
In its heyday, its power spanned the Maluku region, eastern, central, northern Sulawesi, and the southern part of the Philippine Islands as far as the Marshall Islands in the Pacific.
3. The Kingdom of Samudra Pasai
The Samudra Pasai Kingdom is in the North Aceh region. Islam entered in the 13th century which was marked by the discovery of the Tomb of Sultan Malik as-Saleh in 1297. This kingdom was founded by Meurah Silu or who later used the Arabic title, Malikul Saleh, around 1267. Where this kingdom was visited by Ibn Batutah and also Marco Polo.
The heyday of the Samudra Pasai Sultanate was during the time of the third sultan of Samudra Pasai, namely Sultan Mahmud Malik Az-Zahir. During the time of this Sultan, Samudra Pasai was visited by an explorer and traveler from Morocco named Ibn Battuta. According to Ibn Battuta, the sultan was a very devout Muslim and embraced the Shafi’i school of thought.
During the reign of this Sultan, Samudra Pasai became the center of trade in the Southeast Asian region and today still uses gold coins as its currency. Many merchants from India, Arabia, and also China who traded there. In addition, there are also many merchants who are Muslim. Apart from trading, they are also active in spreading the teachings of Islam.
Thus the explanation of the oldest kingdom in Indonesia. Hopefully all the discussion above can add to your insight.
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