Get to know the Order of the Human Digestive System and Its Correct Role

The order of the human digestive organs – As living things, in our bodies, food will go on an extraordinary journey to increase energy intake as well as being the support of life. Starting from the mouth to the anus, the journey that food takes is with the digestive system. In the midst of the journey, we will get the benefits of food: nutrients and energy will be transferred throughout the body.

Enzymes and digestive organs help the human digestive system work. After passing through the digestive system, nutrients will be absorbed from food and distributed throughout the body via the bloodstream. Leftover food whose “contents” have been absorbed must be removed from the body in the form of feces.

Step by step, this is an explanation of how the digestive system works and the order of its organs, Sinaumed’s!

What Is the Digestive System?

The digestive system is a system that consists of the digestive tract which is also often referred to as the GI tract, plus the pancreas, to the gallbladder. The alimentary canal itself is a series of hollow organs joined by a long, twisting tube, which runs from the mouth to the anus.

The hollow organs that are included in the digestive tract, such as the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine and large intestine, to the anus. The liver, pancreas and gallbladder are included in the digestive system as solid organs.

Basic Biochemistry: Digestion and Absorption of Food

In the small intestine, there are three parts. The first part is the duodenum . In the middle, there is the jejunum and at the end is the ileum. Meanwhile, things that are in the large intestine are the appendix, cecum, large intestine, rectum. There is a finger-shaped pouch attached to the cecum, called the appendix.

The cecum itself is the first part of the large intestine after which it is called the large intestine. Meanwhile, the end of the large intestine is the rectum.

In our digestive tract, there is a normal bacterial flora or microbiome that aids in digestion. In addition, parts of our NIH circulatory system and external links also help. They work with hormones, nerves, blood, bacteria, and our digestive organs in digesting the food and fluids we consume every day.

Order of the Human Digestive Organs

Sinaumed’s, let’s get to know the order of the human digestive organs before discussing the importance and how to maintain their health. Check it out below!

1. Mouth

The beginning of the digestive tract is the first organ we should all be familiar with: the mouth. In fact, digestion begins even before we actually take a bite of food in our mouths. When we see and smell the aroma of bread or rice with delicious side dishes, our salivary glands are active.

When we start eating, we chew our food into smaller, easier-to-digest pieces. The food mixes with saliva and begins to break down into simpler forms for the body to absorb and use. When we swallow, our tongue presses the food into the esophagus.

2. Esophagus

The esophagus is located in the throat, to be precise, near the trachea or windpipe. Food enters the esophagus from the mouth when we swallow. A small fold called the epiglottis will fold over the throat at that time, so that food doesn’t mistakenly enter the trachea which is the respiratory tract. If that happens, we will choke.

With muscle contractions that form peristalsis in the esophagus, food will be delivered from our mouth to our stomach. However, a ring-like muscle at the bottom of the esophagus called the esophageal sphincter must relax to allow food to enter. The muscle then contracts and prevents stomach contents from moving back up into the esophagus.
If the esophageal sphincter doesn’t contract and food travels back up into the esophagus, you may experience heartburn or acid reflux.

3. Stomach

The stomach is a hollow organ that functions as a “container” that holds food when it is mixed with gastric enzymes. With these enzymes, food continues the process of breaking down into a form that the body can use more and more. The cells in the lining of our stomach secrete strong acids and enzymes that are tasked with doing so.

After that, the food will be delivered again to the small intestine.

4. Pancreas

Digestive enzymes are enzymes released by the pancreas into the duodenum which will break down proteins, fats and carbohydrates. This organ also creates insulin and passes it on to the bloodstream. For information, insulin is the main hormone for sugar metabolism in our body.

5. Gallbladder

The gallbladder organ is in charge of storing and concentrating bile from the liver and then releasing it into the duodenum in the small intestine which will help absorb and digest fat.

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6. Small intestine

This is the small intestine which has three segments: the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. The 22-foot-long muscular tube that breaks down food with enzymes from the pancreas and bile from the liver is the small intestine. This organ also has peristalsis which facilitates the movement of food and mixing with digestive juices from the pancreas and liver.

In the small intestine, the duodeni, is in charge of processing sustained digestive slowdowns. Meanwhile, the lower jejunum and ileum are tasked with absorbing nutrients into the bloodstream.

Food that is processed in the small intestine is initially semi-solid and ends in a liquid form. This is because of the contribution between water, bile, enzymes, and mucus in the change in consistency. Food is moved to the large intestine after the nutrients have been absorbed and the remaining food has passed through the small intestine.

7. Colon

The process of “waste” food until we empty our stomach comfortably will be the responsibility of the large intestine. This organ is a 6-foot-long tube of muscle that connects the small intestine to the rectum. The large intestine consists of the cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, and sigmoid colon which are connected to the rectum.

Food waste or dirt left over from the digestive process will pass through the large intestine with peristalsis, and initially in liquid form and finally into a solid form. After the stool has passed through the large intestine, water is released and the feces are stored in the sigmoid colon until movement directs them to the rectum once a day or two.

Generally, it takes about 36 hours for stool to pass through the colon. Most of the dirt that is there is leftover food and bacteria. Some useful functions will be carried out by good bacteria, such as processing waste and food bacteria, synthesizing various vitamins, to protecting us from harmful bacteria.

When the large intestine is full of stool, it empties its contents by directing it into the rectum to make us begin the process of elimination, aka defecating.

8. Rectum

The 8-inch straight space is the rectum which connects the large intestine to the anus. The rectum itself is in charge of receiving feces from the large intestine, signaling to us that there is feces that must be removed, to hold feces until “evacuation” occurs. When something in the form of gas or feces enters the rectum, the sensor will send a message to our brain which finally decides the possibility of excretion.

If according to our brain, the dirt can be expelled at that time, then the sphincter will relax and the rectum will contract to throw it away. If the stool cannot be removed at that time, the sphincter will actually contract and the rectum will accommodate, so that the feeling of heartburn will temporarily disappear.

9. Anus

The last part or organ of the digestive system is the anus. The anus itself is a canal that is 2 inches long, consisting of the pelvic floor muscles and the two anal sphincters (internal and external). The upper lining of the anus can detect rectal contents. This is what allows us to know whether the contents are solid, liquid, or just gas.

At the anus, there is a sphincter muscle that surrounds and functions to control stool. An angle is created between the rectum and anus due to the pelvic floor muscles. This angle is useful for preventing stool from coming out when it shouldn’t.

The internal sphincter itself is always tight except when feces enters the rectum. Thus, we will not be able to defecate unconsciously, like when we sleep soundly.
When the urge to go to the toilet, we will rely on the external sphincter to hold the stool until it reaches the toilet. After that, then he relaxes to expel feces.
How Important and What is the Role of the Digestive System?

Our bodies need nutrition from food and drink in order to stay healthy and work properly. That is why the digestive system is so important. Nutrition itself, including protein, fat, vitamins, carbohydrates, NIH external links, minerals, and water. With the digestive system, nutrients can be broken down into parts that are small enough for our bodies to absorb and use as energy for cell growth and repair.

Here are the details:

  • Protein breaks down into amino acids.
  • Fats are broken down into fatty acids and glycerol.
  • Carbohydrates break down into simple sugars.

Every organ in our digestive system can help move food and liquids along the digestive tract. They also break down the food and liquid into smaller, and even smaller, parts.
After that, then our body can absorb and transfer nutrients to various places in our body. When the large intestine absorbs water and food waste into stool, hormones and nerves help control the digestive process.

The First Step Overcoming Digestive Problems




What Happens To Digested Food?

Most of the nutrients in our food are absorbed by the small intestine. Meanwhile, the circulatory system will pass it on to other parts of the body for storage or use. In that case, special cells help nutrients that are absorbed pass through the intestinal lining into the blood. So, the blood will carry sugar, amino acids, glycerol, to vitamins and salts to the liver. After the nutrients are processed, they will be sent directly to the body when needed.

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There is also a network of vessels that carry white blood cells and lymph throughout the body to fight infection, absorb fatty acids, and vitamins, which is called the lymph system.

Our bodies will also be able to use amino acids, sugars, fatty acids, and glycerol to build substances for energy, growth, and cell repair.
How the Body Controls the Digestive System

Our hormones and nerves work together to help control the digestive process. Signals flow within the digestive tract and back and forth from the GI tract to our brains.


The cells that line the stomach and small intestine make and release hormones that control how our digestive system works. These hormones tell the body when to make digestive juices and send signals to the brain that we are hungry or full. Our pancreas also creates an important hormone for digestion, Sinaumed’s.


We have nerves that connect the central nervous system, namely the brain and spinal cord, to the digestive system and control some of the digestive functions. For example, when we see or smell food, the brain will send a signal that causes the salivary glands to make our mouth water to prepare ourselves to receive food.

We also have an enteric nervous system (ENS), which is the nerves in the walls of the digestive tract. When food stretches against the walls of the digestive tract, our ENS nerves release many different substances that speed up or delay the movement of food and the production of digestive juices. Nerves send signals to control the action of our intestinal muscles to contract and relax to push food through our intestines.

Disturbances in the Digestive System

What are some common conditions that affect the digestive system?

There are temporary and long-term or chronic conditions, diseases, and disorders that affect the digestive system. So, it’s normal that we sometimes have conditions such as constipation, diarrhea, or heartburn from time to time.

If you often experience digestive problems like this, be sure to contact your doctor. This could be a sign of a more serious disorder that requires medical attention and treatment.

Short-term or temporary conditions that affect the digestive system include:


Constipation generally occurs when we have bowel movements less frequent than usual. When constipated, our stools are often dry and hard, making it difficult and painful to have a bowel movement.


Diarrhea is when we have loose or runny stools. Diarrhea can be caused by many things, including bacteria, but sometimes the cause isn’t known.


Swollen hemorrhoids, enlarged veins that form inside and outside our anus and rectum. They can be painful, uncomfortable and cause rectal bleeding.

Stomach Flu (Gastroenteritis)

Stomach flu is an infection of the stomach and upper small intestine that is usually caused by a virus. Usually, this lasts less than a week. In fact, millions of people get the stomach flu every year.


Ulcers are sores that develop on the lining of the esophagus, stomach or small intestine. The most common causes of boils are infection with a bacterium called Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and long-term use of anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen.


Gallstones are small pieces of solid material formed from digestive juices that form in the gallbladder, the small organ beneath our liver.

How to Maintain Digestive Health

If you have a medical condition, always ask your doctor about what we should do. Don’t forget to eat to stay healthy and be able to manage the condition. In general, the following are ways to maintain a healthy digestive system:

  • Drink water often
  • Eat fibrous
  • Eat a balanced diet
  • Eat foods with probiotics or take probiotic supplements
  • Don’t rush and chew your food well
  • Do sports exercises
  • Avoid cigarettes and alcohol
  • Manage stress

Anatomy Physiology Textbook and Digestive System Disorders




The digestive system in our body already has its own role. Therefore, if there is a part of the human digestive system that is injured or sick, the digestive system may not work well. Therefore, we should maintain a healthy lifestyle so that the digestive organs can function properly.

One healthy lifestyle that can be done to maintain the digestive system is to eat nutritious food. Thus the discussion about the order of the human digestive organs , hopefully this is useful, Sinaumed’s.

That is an explanation regarding the digestive system and the sequence of our digestive organs. If you want to learn more about digestion and our body, you can buy the book via . So, you can be #MoreWithReading .