Organs of the human body – In the human body there are various types consisting of cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems. The parts that compose and form the human body perfectly are called organ systems.
This system consists of various types of organs with specific structures and functions. Directly or indirectly, every organ system is interdependent, without the cooperation of other organs, this process does not occur in the body.
According to Brum (1994) Humans have nine organ systems namely the digestive system, respiratory system, circulatory system, excretory system, motor or movement system, reproductive system, nervous system, integumentary system and endocrine system.
Organ systems in humans as a group of organs that support each other and work together so that the body continues to function as it should. Health is the most important thing, so that the health of the human body is determined by whether or not the function of the organ system is good.
Definition of Human Body Organs
An organ is a collection of tissues that have one or more functions. Based on its location, the organs of the body are divided into two, namely internal organs and external organs. The organs in the body consist of the heart, kidneys, stomach and intestines. As for the external organs of the body are the nose and skin.
Of the various types of human organs work together and form an organ system in the human body. If one organ does not function properly, it will have an impact on other organs of the body.
Therefore, it is very important to maintain the function of the organ systems so that the body’s health is maintained.
Parts – Parts of the Organ System of the Human Body
Based on its function, the organ systems of the human body can be divided into several parts, including the following.
1. Sense System
The five senses or commonly called the sensory system in humans which consists of 5 senses. The five senses consist of eyes, ears, nose, tongue and skin. Each of them has its own function. The eyes are for seeing, the ears for hearing, the nose for smelling, the tongue for tasting, and the skin for feeling.
The skin itself is part of the integumentary system, which is the system that covers the internal organs of the body. Aside from being the sense of touch, the skin also functions to protect the body from harmful microorganisms and chemicals, regulates body temperature and keeps the body from losing fluids too quickly.
2. Cardiovascular System
The cardiovascular system is also known as the circulatory system. The cardiovascular system consists of the heart (cardio) and blood vessels (vascular) . This system is responsible for ensuring blood circulation to run smoothly, namely by pumping and circulating blood throughout the body so it is often called the transportation system.
Blood itself is a means of transportation for oxygen, nutrients, and other important substances such as hormones to be circulated throughout the body. In addition, blood is responsible for carrying toxic substances such as carbon dioxide so that they can be removed from the body. The circulatory system in the human body is the heart and blood vessels.
The heart is in charge of pumping blood throughout the body. Besides the heart, there are blood vessels that can support the circulatory system. Blood circulating in the veins throughout the body is called a closed loop. Blood vessels are divided into capillaries, arteries and veins according to their function.
The human circulatory system as a closed circulatory system because blood will flow in and out of the body through the blood vessels and blood will flow through the heart twice. Therefore, it is called a dual circuit which has the following elements.
a. Systematic Circuit
Systematic circuit is usually called the main circuit. Systematic blood flow as blood flow that removes oxygen-rich blood from the left ventricle of the heart / ventricle and will distribute it to the body’s tissues. Oxygen is exchanged for carbon dioxide in body tissues. The carbon dioxide-rich blood is then transported through the veins to the right atrium of the heart.
b. Pulmonary Circulation
Pulmonary circulation as a circulatory system that will carry blood from the heart to the lungs and back to the heart. Carbon dioxide-rich blood from the right ventricle is carried via the pulmonary artery to the lungs, where it is exchanged for oxygen-rich blood in the lung sacs and flows through the pulmonary veins to the left atrium of the heart.
3. Respiratory System
One of the organ systems that have a vital role for human survival is the respiratory system. This system functions to take oxygen from the inhaled air and remove carbon dioxide as the rest of metabolism from the body.
The respiratory system organs themselves consist of two parts, namely the upper and lower respiratory system organs. The organs of the upper respiratory system include the nasal cavities, sinuses, pharynx and webs. The lower respiratory system organs themselves include the trachea, bronchi, diaphragm and lungs.
In the respiratory system respiration occurs which is the process of exchanging gases between organisms and the environment. Oxygen is the main requirement when breathing, besides that it is also needed for burning or oxidizing food such as sugar or glucose. This process helps produce energy for daily activities such as growth, maintaining body temperature, burning somatic cells and muscle contraction.
Not only produces energy, breathing also produces carbon dioxide and water vapor. So that the respiratory system is supported by organs with various forms and functions.
The respiratory system also has a different structure and function. The lungs can be compared to the two synovial bursa of the stomach where the inside is connected to the outside air via the airways.
The inside is very large and consists of alveolar eye sacs with very thin walls. Gas exchange occurs in the alveoli. During the breathing process, the oxygen taken can oxidize the food produced by the digestion of food.
4. Digestive System
Every human being needs food from plants and animals. Food that enters the stomach and is digested or broken down into smaller and simpler parts or molecules. This process will take place in the digestive system. Food is absorbed by the digestive tract and circulated throughout the body in the form of small molecules.
This digestive system allows the body to be able to receive food, then it is processed into nutrients and energy that are more easily absorbed by the body. The process of food metabolism will become energy and nutrition which involves the digestive system consisting of several organs such as the mouth, esophagus, stomach, liver, pancreas, intestines and anus.
In the digestive system, pulping is divided into two, namely mechanical pulping and chemical pulping. Mechanical digestion as a process of changing food from coarse to small or refined. This process takes place on the teeth in the mouth.
Chemical digestion is a process that uses enzymes to change food from complex substances into simpler substances, which occurs in the mouth, stomach and intestines. These enzymes contain chemicals that the body produces to drive the chemical reactions of food in the body.
The organs of the human body involved in the digestive system are as follows.
The process of digesting food begins where food enters the mouth and the oral cavity begins in the digestive tract. Mechanical and chemical contamination occurs in the mouth. Organs that work in the mouth such as the tongue, teeth and salivary glands. Which play a role in the mechanical digestion of food by chewing, namely the tongue and teeth.
Digested food in the mouth is sent to the esophagus. The esophagus is shaped like a hose or water tube with a length of about 25-30 cm. it begins in the chest, behind the neck, behind the pharynx and behind the heart and ends in the abdomen through the septum of the body cavity in front of the spine.
The stomach as a digestive tract that expands like a pouch, is located at the top of the left abdominal cavity and is partially covered by the liver and spleen. The shape of the hull is like the letter J.
The liver is located below the septum of the body cavity and fills most of the upper part of the right abdominal cavity. The liver itself produces bile and collects in the gallbladder.
The pancreas is located on the posterior abdominal wall and to the left of the spleen. The end is in the duodenal loop. This pancreatic duct leads to the duodenum along with the bile duct.
f. Small intestine
The small intestine is a tube that is about 2.5 cm in diameter. When stretched, the small intestine can reach a length of about 6 meters.
The small intestine can absorb nutrients. Substances that cannot be absorbed are pushed into the large intestine.
The lower part of the intestinal axis eventually leads to the anal canal which then expels the feces.
5. Reproductive System
The reproductive system in men and women is different. For males, the reproductive system includes all the organs used during sexual intercourse to produce offspring such as the penis, testicles, epididymis, and vas deferens.
Meanwhile, the female reproductive system includes all the organs needed for sexual intercourse, pregnancy and childbearing. These reproductive organs include the vagina, uterus, ovaries and fallopian tubes.
The human reproductive system is divided into male and female reproductive organs.
a. Male Reproductive Equipment
The male reproductive organs are divided into two, namely the external reproductive organs and the internal reproductive organs. The external genitalia consist of the penis and scrotum. The external reproductive organs consist of the testes, vas deferens, urethra and gonads.
b. Female Reproductive Equipment
In the female reproductive organs can be divided into two, namely the external reproductive organs and internal reproductive organs. Examples of external female reproductive organs are the vulva, labium and genital tract. The vulva is the outer opening in the female reproductive organs which is surrounded by a pair of right and left lips. These lips are called labia. The vulva leads to two channels, namely the urinary tract and genitals / vagina.
While the female reproductive organs consist of the ovaries, genital tract and vagina.
6. Urogenital System
The urogenital system consists of the kidneys, urinary tract, bladder and urethra. This organ system has the function of filtering toxins, excess fluids and electrolytes, such as potassium and sodium in the blood.
After being filtered, the blood will be reabsorbed to be circulated throughout the body. While the remaining waste and toxic substances that have been filtered will be excreted through the urine.
Besides functioning to dispose of urine, the urogenital system is also useful for regulating the amount of electrolytes and body fluids and can ensure the acid-base level or blood pH is at normal levels.
7. Nervous and Musculoskeletal System
The nervous system consists of all the nerve cells in the body, both sensory nerves and motor nerves. This nervous system allows humans to feel, understand and respond to the surrounding environment. In addition, the nervous system also has a role in the body to move together with the musculoskeletal system.
The musculoskeletal system consists of muscles (musculo) and bones (skeletal). In general, this system has the function of moving the body, maintaining body posture and balance, generating body heat through metabolism and protecting organs in the body.
8. Endocrine System
This system includes the hypothalamus in the brain and a series of glands whose job it is to produce hormones. The role of hormones is to control various bodily functions such as breathing, metabolism, reproduction, movement, growth, sensory perception and sexual development.
The glands of the body that are part of the endocrine system are the thyroid gland, adrenal glands, pancreas, testes and ovaries.
9. Excretion System
This system is a human organ system that has the function of removing metabolic waste products and other substances that are considered toxic by the body. This system consists of the skin, liver, large intestine, lungs and kidneys.
The skin is an excretory tool that removes dirt in the form of sweat. This sweat contains waste products especially salt. The structure of the human skin itself consists of the epidermis, dermis and hypodermis.
The liver has a function related to the digestive system. Among them the function of the liver is related to the function of excretion, namely to produce bile. Bile is produced when red blood cells are broken down.
The location of the lungs on the left and right of the human chest cavity which is protected by the ribs. The lungs consist of two parts. The right lung has three lobes and the left lung has two lobes.
The kidneys will filter the blood and act as a means of excretion, allowing residues in the blood to be excreted in the form of urine. Urine that is released every day is the result of the urinary system. This system can maintain the body’s water balance, maintain the volume and composition of fluids in the body and regulate the pH of fluids.
10. Immune System
The immune system or commonly called the immune system includes specialized cells such as white blood cells and lymphocytes and the lymphatic system which consists of the spleen, liver, thymus gland and lymph nodes.
The immune system has a role to detect the presence of harmful or toxic substances, cancer cells and various causes of infection such as viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites. Then, the immune system will produce antibodies to destroy these harmful substances or cells.
The functions of organ systems in humans are different, but will be interrelated and mutually support one another. Keeping the organ systems functioning optimally is very important to ensure that the body stays healthy.
Apart from that, several things are needed to maintain the health of the body’s organs, for example by living a healthy lifestyle, carrying out regular health checks to the doctor, especially if we are at risk of experiencing certain diseases.
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