One example of bilateral cooperation between Indonesia and other countries can be seen at the time of the tragedy of the sinking of the KRI Nanggala-402. In this tragedy, many countries helped search for the KRI Nanggala-402 ship. However, not only that, there are many examples of bilateral cooperation that have been carried out by Indonesia.
The main reasons Indonesia and other countries help each other are to work together in strengthening friendship, creating world peace, increasing economic growth, and so on. In this article, sinaumedia.com will discuss specifically what are the examples of bilateral cooperation as well as the differences from other international cooperation.
Definition of International Cooperation
Cooperation between international countries is actually a relationship that is forged between two or more countries in various fields to achieve common goals. Examples of cooperation between countries that often occur are usually student exchanges, imports, exports, stocks, investments, and so on.
Factors triggering cooperation between countries are known due to similarities and differences. For example, the Indonesian state has advantages in terms of natural resources, such as coal. In addition, there is a Japanese country that has advantages in the field of technology. The advantages possessed by each country are the main trigger for international cooperation in exports and imports.
Not only that, geographical conditions can also trigger cooperation. This can be seen in the cooperation between Indonesia and European countries for the palm oil commodity. Palm oil can be found in Indonesia and hard to find in Europe. As a result, countries in Europe chose to import from Indonesia.
Kinds of International Cooperation
Of the several examples of international cooperation above, there are several collaborations that often occur, ranging from cooperation between two countries, cooperation by multiple countries, to cooperation between countries due to regional and regional relations. So, the following is an explanation of the various types of international cooperation, namely:
1. Bilateral Cooperation
Bilateral cooperation is cooperation involving two countries in the form of diplomatic relations, trade, education, and culture. In establishing bilateral cooperative relations, Indonesia tends to prioritize values of mutual respect, not interfering in other countries’ internal affairs, refusing to use violence, and prioritizing consensus.
An example of bilateral cooperation is the cooperation between Indonesia and Japan which has been incorporated in the Indonesia-Japan Economic Partnership Agreement (IJEPA) since 2008. In addition, another example of bilateral cooperation is cooperation between Indonesia and Saudi Arabia regarding the pilgrimage.
Some other examples of bilateral cooperation, viz
- Special strategic partnership or special strategic partnership Indonesia – Korea which has a focus on defense and trade.
- Indonesia – Korea Comprehensive Economic Partnership or commonly called Indonesia – Korea Comprehensive Economic Partnership or IK-CEPA.
- Cooperation between Indonesia and the United States in handling Covid-19 as well as cooperation in increasing the trade balance
- Indonesia-Brazil cooperation in an effort to improve the genetic quality of animal protein and the development of national livestock.
- Plantation export cooperation between Indonesia and Germany, in the form of coffee, tea, tobacco and palm oil. Apart from that, Germany also exports several electronic goods that cannot be made in Indonesia.
- Indonesian-German cooperation in business investment, for example Krakatau Steel and the Nusantara Aircraft Industry (IPTN).
- The collaboration is in the form of an exchange of Indonesian and Japanese students and students in the field of technology.
- Indonesia’s cooperation with several other countries in Asia Pacific related to economic and trade agreements in Asia Pacific.
2. Regional Cooperation
In addition to bilateral cooperation, there is also regional cooperation which includes cooperation between countries in one region. An example of regional cooperation carried out by Indonesia to date is ASEAN (the Association of Southeast Asian Nations). This organization for countries in the Southeast Asian region has 10 member countries.
The form of cooperation that occurs in ASEAN is like international cooperation in the fields of politics and security. cooperation in the social and cultural fields, to cooperation in economic matters based on production and a single market.
In addition, ASEAN member countries also often conduct student exchanges as a form of regional cooperation in the field of education. In the industrial sector, ASEAN is also a media in cooperation for the ASEAN Cooper Fabrication Projects mining industry in the Philippines and Singapore.
3. Multilateral Cooperation
The next international cooperation is multilateral cooperation. This cooperation is the opposite of bilateral cooperation because it is global in nature. That is, multilateral cooperation is cooperation carried out by several countries without any regional or regional boundaries.
Multilateral cooperation usually has two types of members, namely main members and active members. Main members can be said to be countries that have middle powers, while active members are small countries that have a limited role. The limited role can also be understood as a power smaller than the main members.
An example of multilateral cooperation is the United Nations or the United Nations, which until now has 193 member countries. Within the UN itself there are four main pillars, namely peace, security, social, and economy which are oriented towards global development.
In addition, there are also several other multilateral international collaborations, such as the North American Free Trade Agreement or (NAFTA), the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries or (OPEC), the United Nations (UN), the World Trade Center. Organization (WTO), International Monetary Fund (IMF), World Bank or World Bank Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), Islamic Cooperation Organization (OIC) Non-Aligned Movement (NAM), and so on.
International Cooperation Objectives
As previously explained about the meaning and types of international cooperation. International cooperation from several countries is carried out with the aim of obtaining mutual benefits. So, here are some other objectives of international cooperation, namely:
1. Strengthen Friendship
The first goal of international cooperation is to strengthen friendship between countries. By establishing cooperation, relations between countries become more harmonious. This can avoid feelings of hostility between countries.
2. Creating World Peace
In accordance with the first goal, friendship between countries can be harmoniously established so as to create world peace. World peace itself is a dream for everyone. This is because world peace is able to lead to a better life later.
3. Increasing Economic Growth
The next goal of international cooperation is to support and increase economic growth for the country. Economic growth is one of the important factors for a country to establish cooperation with other countries.
For example, Indonesia, which is a developing country, aims to become a developed country. These reasons make Indonesia need various types of international cooperation, such as exports and imports.
4. Expanding the Workforce
The goal of increasing economic growth is in line with the next objective, namely expanding the workforce. By carrying out international cooperation, a country can more easily carry out student exchange programs. This program will certainly be very useful for forming experts in the future.
The existence of experts in the future can have a positive impact on the future progress of the country. In addition, citizens who are already experts can create new jobs and expand the existing workforce in the country.
5. Improving Progress in Various Fields
Then, the purpose of international cooperation is to increase progress in various fields. A country that establishes international cooperation with other countries has the hope of bringing equality of progress in various existing fields.
6. To Complement State Needs
In an effort to complement the needs of the country, international cooperation is very important in achieving it. Based on geographical conditions and different climatic conditions, it can make it difficult for the country to meet the country’s needs, namely harvesting food from agricultural products.
For example, like Indonesia, which can be said to be a country with an agrarian culture. Indonesia certainly has more rice reserves than countries that don’t really have agricultural land, such as the majority of countries on the European continent. This is a reason for other countries to establish international cooperation with Indonesia in order to complement their country’s needs.
7. Prevent Conflict
With the establishment of a cooperation between countries in the international world, the potential for a conflict can also be reduced. Cooperation has proven to be able to awaken and strengthen brotherhood between countries. This sense of brotherhood can bind the two countries to lower their egos and prioritize cooperation.
So, the ultimate goal of international cooperation is to prevent conflict. Conflict is certainly one of the forerunners to destroy world peace. Therefore, the existence of cooperation will form a close friendship with the cooperating countries.
Benefits of International Cooperation
There are seven objectives of international cooperation carried out. In addition, there are several benefits that can also be obtained by a country when doing cooperation. So, here are the benefits of international cooperation, including:
- International cooperation is able to advance the country’s economy, the economy of a country can be said to be advanced as can be seen from the travel or export and import transactions of goods and services that are carried out.
- International cooperation can lead a country to have opportunities or opportunities to seek knowledge and technology from more developed countries.
- International cooperation can strengthen the country’s bargaining power and position in the eyes of the international community.
- International cooperation is a way for foreign countries to provide investment to a country more easily.
- International cooperation can increase the demand for goods and services from a country, so that the basic price per unit in that country can be further reduced.
- International cooperation allows countries to participate in importing goods at higher prices.
- International cooperation provides the potential for a smarter workforce, increasing skills to creativity. In a cooperation, the workforce is required to have good skills and competence to carry out export activities to other countries quickly.
- International cooperation will facilitate a country in obtaining raw materials and auxiliary materials that can be used for the production process.
- International cooperation can make a country able to have more new jobs, so that it can reduce unemployment.
- International cooperation is able to maintain the price stability of goods by importing and exporting goods that are surplus or lacking to other countries.
- International cooperation can enable a country to experience accelerated national development, through loan schemes from the World Bank and so on.
- International cooperation can make a country take precautions against the damage and loss of culture.
- International cooperation can make a country have a more advanced state defense and security sector.
Examples of Bilateral, Multilateral and Regional Cooperation
International cooperation is cooperation between countries carried out by countries around the world, without any territorial or regional boundaries. The following are examples of bilateral, multilateral and regional cooperation, including:
1. World Trade Organization (WTO)
The World Trade Organization, abbreviated as WTO, is an international cooperation that has the aim of being able to discuss and solve problems related to trade from one country to another. Within the WTO, there are several principles that must be obeyed, namely the principles of trade liberalization, non-discrimination, and the stability of trade relations between countries.
2. International Monetary Fund (IMF)
The second example of international cooperation is the International Monetary Fund, or what can be called the IMF. The IMF is an example of cooperation formed within an organization in the form of providing loans to countries that are in need of funding.
Countries that usually need funds from loans are countries with unstable currency values and unable to pay debts. The IMF was formed as a solution to various international financial problems, especially the unstable currency value of a country.
3. South East Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO)
The third example of an organization as international cooperation is the South East Asia Treaty Organization or commonly called SEATO. This organization is a cooperation that stands with the aim of preventing the growth of communism in the Southeast Asian region. This cooperation was established based on a military pact.
4. Australia, New Zealand, United States (ANZUS)
The fourth example of international cooperation is ANSUZ. ANSUZ itself is a military pact that stood to prevent the development of communism in the three regions of the country, namely Australia, New Zealand or New Zealand, and the United States or the United States.
5. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
NATO or the North Atlantic Treaty Organization is an example of cooperation that was born from a military pact. As the name implies, NATO has the scope of countries that are in the North Atlantic. NATO itself has three objectives, namely eliminating all forms of international political disputes, preventing military threats that occur in international circles, trying to resolve disputes in a peaceful way and defending member countries from NATO.
6. Asian-African Conference (KAA)
Next, there is the Asian-African Conference or abbreviated KAA. We have often heard of this organization. The Asian-African Conference is a non-aligned organization that was founded in 1955, or more precisely April 18 to 24. The Asian-African Conference was established with the aim of creating peace and tranquility in the lives of countries in the Asia-Africa region.
It should be noted, there were many newly independent countries in this period on the continents of Asia and Africa. The Asian-African Conference is a form of cooperation between several newly independent countries in world life, including Indonesia.
Thus, examples of bilateral, multilateral, and regional cooperation. Hopefully all the discussion above is useful for you. For those of you who want to find books about various other international collaborations, you can get them at sinaumedia.com .
To support Sinaumed’s in adding insight, sinaumedia always provides quality and original books so that Sinaumed’s has #MoreWithReading information.