Organizational Culture: Its Characteristics & Examples of Organizational Culture

Sinaumed’s, Organizational culture generally shapes the behavior of employees in an organization. So that when someone enters an organization or company, he will then follow the customs, habits and culture that dominate the organization. Check out a more complete explanation of the meaning, function, characteristics and types of organizational culture below:

Definition of Organizational Culture

Organizational culture as a characteristic of an organization then becomes a guideline for the organization in a way that differentiates it from other organizations. Organizational culture itself functions as norms of behavior and values ​​that are understood and accepted by every member of the organization and which are used as the basis for organizational rules.

In addition, organizational culture can also be defined simply as how things are done. Organizational culture involves a set of experiences, expectations and values ​​contained therein which are then reflected in member behavior, philosophy, practice, internal work, interactions with the environment outside the organization, and expectations for the future.

There are also those who describe that organizational culture then involves rules, assumptions, language, symbols, norms, vision, systems, beliefs, habits, symbols, and written and unwritten values ​​(Needle, 2004). Organizational Culture is also known as the basic philosophy of the organization that shapes the beliefs, norms, and values ​​that exist within it which are fully discussed in the Second Ed Organizational Culture book.

Definition of Organizational Culture According to Experts

As explained in the previous definition of organizational culture, leaders then play an important role in shaping the organizational culture. Therefore the function of organizational culture in general is further divided into several things, including increasing employee loyalty to a company. It can also be used as a tool for organizing members, as a tool for reinforcing organizational values, as a mechanism that controls behavior in the work environment so that can encourage all structures to improve performance both in the short and long term.

Organizational culture also serves as a determining factor in management, what can then be done and what cannot. Sinaumed’s can find learning about organizational culture and how to build and develop organizational culture in the Organizational Culture book.

Several experts in the field of sociology have explained the notion of organizational culture, here are some of them:

Mondy and Noe (1996)

According to Mondy and Noe, organizational culture is a system of shared values, beliefs, and habits in an organization that interact with its formal structure and then creates behavioral norms.

Sarpin (1995)

According to Sarpin, the definition of organizational culture is a system of values, beliefs, and habits within an organization that interact with one another’s formal system structures to then produce organizational behavior norms.


According to Schein, the definition of organizational culture is a pattern of various basic assumptions that are found, created, or developed by a group with the aim of learning organizations to overcome and overcome problems that arise as a result of adaptations of external and internal integration that are already going well.

In this way, organizational culture must be taught to all new members as the right way to perceive, think and feel these issues.

Nawawi (2003)

According to Nawawi, the relationship between culture and organizational culture includes “organizational culture is a belief and values ​​that become the main philosophy that is firmly held by members of the organization in carrying out or operationalizing organizational activities”.

Hodge, Anthony, and Wales (1996)

According to Hodge, Anthony, and Wales, organizational culture is a construction of two levels of characteristics, namely organizational characteristics that cannot be observed and which can be observed.

Larissa A. Grunig

According to Larissa A. Grunig organizational culture is the totality of values, hopes, symbols, meanings, assumptions, which in organizing a group are then able to work together.

Luthans (1998)

According to Luthans, organizational culture is the values ​​and norms that guide the behavior of a member of the organization. All of these members will then behave according to the dominant culture so that later they can be accepted by their organizational environment.


According to Susanto, the definition of organizational culture according to Susanto is values ​​which are then used as guidelines for human resources to make it happen, dealing with external problems and efforts to adjust organizational integration, so that each member of the organization is then required to understand the existing values ​​and how they should behave. or behave.

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According to Robbins, organizational culture is a system of shared meaning that is owned by each member that distinguishes one organization from another.

Gareth R.Jones

According to Gareth R.Jones The definition of organizational culture is a shared perception that is owned by each member of the organization, or a system of shared meaning.

Walter R. Freytag

According to Walter R, the definition of organizational culture is the various assumptions and values ​​that are realized or not realized that can unite an organization. These assumptions and values ​​determine the behavior patterns of members of the organization.

Functions of an Organization

For the Continuity of the organization’s business functions include Facilitating Making Planning. Organizational functions in management include making it easier for you to plan. Organizational functions include facilitating management in making analysis and evaluation reports on company or business performance. The following are some explanations regarding organizational functions for business continuity:

1. Obtain Various Information

The function of the organization is not only as a place for a group of people in a company to achieve common goals. But organizational functions can also be used as a place to get information. In a corporate organization, of course you will meet other members.

Because in the organization you will meet other members. Apart from that, you can also get various kinds of information from other members, apart from physical information, you can also get information by holding an online meeting with other colleagues. With organizational functions you will then get various important things that support the continuity of your business.

2. Helps Achieve a Target

Organizational functions in a business include making it easier for you to break down work carried out in an activity plan, and the organization will then be grouped into one group according to each position.

And after being grouped, it will be made into a structure by giving each task in the organizational group, the purpose of this organization is to achieve a target to be achieved.

3. Develop Public Speaking Skills

By becoming a leader, public speaking is the most important thing in communicating with many people and even other business people. But in public speaking there is still a leader who does not refer to skills in public speaking.

To practice this you can then start yourself by practicing speaking to organizations, such as an employee, or other organizations. This organizational function can also develop and train oneself in public speaking, such as expressing opinions, giving speeches, and so on.

Starting from speaking in front of fellow members of the organization, it is hoped that this public speaking ability will continue to develop into a wider environment.

4. Train Leadership Soul

In a business, training the spirit of leadership is very necessary, you don’t have to look up and down one’s position, every human being must also have a leadership spirit, both for himself and for others.

It is this organizational function that greatly influences the spirit of leadership and if you then become a leader in a company, it is hoped that you will have the character of a leader who can bring your organization and business forward and develop. As well as in the organization, leaders will also be taught how to make a wise decision without harming any party.

5. Facilitate Employee Task Determination

The next organizational function is to facilitate the company in distributing the tasks of employees. So that the tasks given by employees do not overlap. And of course, the existence of these organizational functions makes employees more optimal in working in each of their respective fields. This will then accelerate the company or business in achieving each predetermined target.

6. Increase morale

The function of the organization in a company or business is that the organization will make employees work together with other employees, according to the job description given. And with the existence of such an organization, there will be a solid relationship between employees in the company.

7. Simplify Salary Calculations

The organizational function within a company also assists business owners in overcoming financial difficulties and calculating employee remuneration. In this calculation, the compatibility with the workload, the responsibilities given, and in accordance with the position of the employee concerned are also seen.

Where if this employee then has a high position level position, then he will have greater responsibility and the remuneration received will also be greater.

The existence of an organization makes the calculation of employee salary expenses more efficient. You can learn various functions and other aspects through the book Behavior & Organizational Culture.

Characteristics of Organizational Culture

According to Samdeep and Lylesusman in Siswanto and Sucipto he classifies eleven characteristics of a superior corporate culture. Namely among others the unshakable belief that people are the company’s most important resource. Here are some other characteristics of organizational culture:

  •   Entrepreneurial support or rewarding employees who help the company achieve its mission.
  •   Control based more on loyalty and commitment than rules and compliance.
  •   Commitment to goals is higher than their commitment to personal group goals.
  •   Top management commitment in producing superior products or other services.
  •   Belief in the importance of rituals, ceremonies and corporate heroes.
  •   Belief in the importance of information, both good news and bad news.
  •   Awareness of upward communication is more important than downward communication. Top management support for training and development commitment to always be superior to its competitors.
  •   A view that values ​​truth as well as risk taking and creativity.
  •   According to Fremont E Kast and James E. Rosenzweig in Siswanto and Sucipto (2008: 146) concluded that there are eight cultural characteristics that bring an organization to success including the tendency to act close to customers, autonomy and entrepreneurship, productivity, providing value stimulation, surviving. on organizational cultural values ​​that are adhered to, simple, easily understood by employees.
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Types of an Organization

Organizational culture is one of the opportunities to build Human Resources through aspects of changing attitudes and behavior that are expected to be able to adapt to ongoing and future challenges. Organizational culture which is often referred to as a certain pattern of attitudes, beliefs and feelings that form the basis of an organization is discussed in the book Organizational Culture.

Organizational culture is an invisible social force, and can move people in an organization to carry out work activities. The organization itself consists of various types, based on various considerations, respectively, as follows:


Based on personal organizational relationships

subdivided into formal, official organizations, usually those that already have legal entities and informal organizations formed due to common interests or personal needs or the need for a common goal.

formal organization

formed by a group of people or society that has a structure that is well formulated, and explains the relations of authority, power, accountability and responsibility, and has the force of law.

Types of Business Organizations Based on Their Objectives and Existing Structures also explain how the forms of communication channels are formed. Then shows the tasks specified for each member.

Examples of formal social organization

Among them are the Church, public schools, public charity, hospitals, public clinics, political organizations, Community assistance in matters of legislation, Volunteer service organizations, Trade unions.

Informal Organization (Unofficial)

Membership in informal organizations can be achieved both consciously and unconsciously, and it is often difficult to determine the exact time a person has been a member of these organizations.

The exact nature of the relationships between members and even the goals of the organizations concerned are not specified. Examples of informal organizations include informal meetings such as dinner together.

Informal organizations can be converted into formal organizations if the relationships within them and the activities carried out are structured and formulated.

Sole Proprietorship

Based on the number of people in a single organization with all tasks coming from one leader and a commission organization that has a board for each field of work.

Private Company According to Law no. 3 of 1982 Compulsory Company Registration Article 1B, what is meant by a company is any form of business that carries out any type of business that is permanent and continuous in nature and is domiciled within the territory of the State of Indonesia with the aim of obtaining profit or profit.

In other words, the Company is a business entity owned by one individual. All profits derived from this business entity are owned by the processor and the manager also bears all the risks involved.

In the establishment of an individual company then it is not regulated in the Criminal Code and no agreement is made. Because, only founded by one entrepreneur only.


Based on the party using the principle of benefit

Mutual benefit organizations, namely organizations whose benefits are primarily enjoyed by their members, such as cooperatives, while service organizations , namely organizations whose benefits are enjoyed by customers, such as banks, business organizations , organizations engaged in the business world, such as companies.

commonwealth organization n

is an organization whose benefits are mainly enjoyed by the general public, such as health service organizations. For example hospitals, health centers.

  • Based on life in society there are various types of organizations including health, education, agriculture and other types according to the fields in society.

Based on the functions and objectives served, namely political organizations, custodians such as caring for the environment, integrative and production specifically according to their goals, Based on parties who use the benefits of the organization there are mutual benefit organizations that are enjoyed by their members, commonwealth organizations that are enjoyed by the general public, service organizations enjoyed by special customers and business will be enjoyed by consumers.

For example, if there are managerial matters in the government environment and various problems related to them, it is very important to have in-depth and detailed discussions within the organization. Sinaumed’s can find a complete discussion in the book Building Organizational Culture in Government Agencies.

In a traffic power is divided into 3, namely line or straight, that is, power only flows from the leadership of the organization, the line or staff leadership will be assisted by the chief of staff who is directly and functionally under them, whose functions will be led by people who are experts in their fields. .