Understanding the Order of the Human Respiratory Organs and the Functions of the Respiratory System

Order of human respiratory organs – “The Human Respiratory System is a network of organs and tissues that help us breathe. The main function of this system is to take oxygen into the body and remove carbon dioxide from the body. That is the meaning of the respiratory system which includes the human respiratory organs according to Byjus.

Sinaumed’s, do you know about the correct order of the human respiratory organs? Previously, let’s study the respiratory system first.

Respiratory system

The respiratory system is a network of organs that can all help us to breathe. This system includes the airways, lungs, and blood vessels. In fact, the muscles that move our lungs are also part of the respiratory system.
The parts of this system work together to circulate oxygen throughout the body and remove carbon dioxide.

Sequence of Human Respiratory Organs

The following is a list of the order of the human respiratory organs, starting with the nose. Listen carefully so you can understand it, Sinaumed’s!

1. Nose

Regarding the nose, humans have two outer nostrils which are divided by a framework of cartilaginous structures or septum. This structure separates the right nostril and the left nostril.

In the nose, there are tiny hair follicles that cover the lining of the cavities and serve as the body’s first line of defense against foreign pathogens. Not only that, the hair that is often referred to as nose hair also provides additional moisture for the air we breathe.

2. Pharynx

Next, the space in the nose opens into a wide hollow space called the pharynx. This channel which is also sometimes referred to as the pharynx is generally related to air and food. Its function is to prevent the entry of any food particles into our throats.

There is also an elastic cartilage called the epiglottis which functions as a transition between the larynx and the esophagus. Thus, air can pass through the larynx to the lungs and food leads to the esophagus to continue the digestive system.

3. Larynx

The cartilage mentioned above provides a framework for air to reach the larynx. The larynx itself is at the front of the neck and is in charge of helping our breathing as well as our vocals. For this reason, this section is also often referred to as the ballot box informally.
When we swallow food, a fold called the epiglottis folds above the throat and prevents food from entering the larynx.

4. Throat (Trachea)

The trachea or windpipe lies after the larynx and extends down into the neck. Its walls are composed of C-shaped rings of cartilage, which give the trachea its hardness and allow it to expand completely.

Further than it seems, the trachea extends past the neck to the sternum and divides into two bronchi, one for each lung.

5. Bronchus

The bronchi are the two halves that separate from the trachea and enter each lung. Bronchus is further divided into secondary and tertiary bronchioles. Furthermore, these sections branch into small air sacs called alveoli.

Alveoli are tiny, single-celled air sacs with thin walls. With it, we can carry out exchanges between oxygen and carbon dioxide molecules to enter or leave the bloodstream.

6. Bronchioles

Next, air arrives at the bronchioles which are branches of the bronchi. The bronchial tubes are smoother, the walls are thinner. There are two left bronchioles, and also three right bronchioles. These branches will later form even finer branches, such as vessels.

7. Alveoli

Alveoli are dead ends in the form of air bubbles. The walls are thin and only cell-thick, moist, and adjacent to blood capillaries. The function of the alveoli is as a respiratory surface which has a total area of ​​50x the surface area of ​​the body, about 100 square meters. Thus, the area is sufficient to carry out gas exchange throughout our body.

8. Lungs

So, we come to the lungs, which many consider the “final destination” of breathing. The lungs themselves are indeed the main organs of respiration in humans and vertebrate animals. Located on either side of the heart, in the chest cavity. The lung is anatomically a spongy organ whose surface area is estimated to be between 50 and 75 square meters.

This organ has the main function as a facilitator of gas exchange between air and gas. Interestingly, our right lung is larger and heavier than the left. The lungs are generally gray to pink in color, and they take up most of the space in our chest.

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The lungs are also surrounded by a membrane (pleura). For each of the right and left lungs, they are separated by an area of ​​the mediastinum which contains:

  • Great heart and vessels
  • Throat
  • Esophagus
  • thymus gland
  • Lymph gland

This one organ also has 3 parts called lobes. In the left lung, there are 2 lobes.

Sinaumed’s, here is a brief description of what happens when we inhale:

  • Air enters the body through the nose or mouth.
  • Then, air moves down the throat through the larynx and trachea.
  • Air enters the lungs through tubes called mainstem bronchi.
  • One mainstem bronchus leads to the right lung and one to the left lung
    1. In the lungs, the main trunk bronchi divide into smaller bronchi.
    2. The smaller bronchi divide into smaller tubes (bronchioles).
    3. Bronchioles end in tiny air sacs (alveoli) where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide occurs.

After that, we then exhale carbon dioxide.

Trachea and Esophagus

Of course, there is a very distinct difference between the trachea or windpipe and the esophagus. However, there are still many who find it difficult to determine the difference. The trachea and esophagus are indeed two tubular structures found in the neck area of ​​the human body. They are located close to each other, but their functions are very different.

The trachea serves as the windpipe; closely related to human breathing. Meanwhile, the esophagus is the food channel. The following is a more detailed explanation of the two:


The esophagus is a hollow fibromuscular tube-like structure that connects the pharynx to the stomach. This organ is located at the back of the trachea and heart, and is about 25 centimeters long.

The esophagus passes through the diaphragm and the uppermost area of ​​the stomach. This organ is covered by a mucous membrane and is part of the digestive system, commonly referred to as the food pipe.

Trachea (Trachea)

The trachea is a wide, hollow, cartilaginous, tube-like organ located in the neck. As part of the respiratory system that connects the larynx and bronchi, the trachea is about 10-11 centimeters long.

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Features of the Respiratory System

The human respiratory system has important features, as follows:

In all living cells in the human body, energy is produced by the breakdown of glucose molecules. Oxygen is inhaled and then transported to the various organs mentioned above and used in burning food particles at the cellular level in a series of chemical reactions. The glucose molecules obtained are also used to form ATP energy or adenosine triphosphate.

Functions of the Respiratory System

Not only the characteristics, we certainly know that the respiratory system must have certain functions so that it is available in our body. This is the function of the respiratory system!

Inhalation and Expiration

This is the main function we can surmise: it assists breathing also known as pulmonary ventilation. The respiratory system allows air to be inhaled through the nose and travels through the pharynx, larynx, trachea, etc. until it enters the lungs.

In fact, air is exhaled through the same path. When we inhale, our diaphragm will be pulled down and create a vacuum so that airflow can reach the lungs. Instead, the diaphragm will relax upwards and encourage our lungs to deflate when we exhale.

Gas Exchange between the Lungs and the Blood Stream

Oxygen and carbon dioxide enter and exit the lungs via millions of microscopic sacs of alveoli. The oxygen we breathe will diffuse into the capillaries of the lungs, bind to hemoglobin, and pump it into all blood streams. Meanwhile, carbon dioxide from the blood will diffuse into the alveoli and exhaled through our breathing.

Gas Exchange between the Blood Stream and Body Tissues

Oxygen is carried throughout the body from the lungs by blood. Blood also releases oxygen when it reaches the capillaries. Through the capillary walls, oxygen is distributed into the body’s tissues. Meanwhile, the carbon dioxide that is formed diffuses into the blood and is brought back to the lungs to be released.

Vocal Cord Vibration

The muscles in the larynx move the arytenoid cartilages when we speak. This cartilage will push the vocal cords together. When air passes over the vocal cords during breathing, the vocal cords vibrate and produce sound. That’s why we can make our voices heard.


When air enters the nasal cavity during inhalation, some of the chemicals in the air bind to it and activate nervous system receptors on the cilia. Through the brain, signals are sent to the olfactory bulbs .

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How Do We Breathe?

This is a detailed explanation regarding how we breathe, Sinaumed’s.

When you inhale air into your nose or mouth, this is where breathing begins. The air will move down the back of the throat and into the throat. They are also divided into two airways called bronchial tubes.

For the lungs to perform at their best, these airways must be open. They should be free of inflammation or swelling and extra mucus. As air passes through the lungs, it divides into smaller airways called bronchioles. Bronchioles end in tiny, balloon-like air sacs called alveoli. Interestingly, our bodies have around 600 million alveoli.

Alveoli are surrounded by a network of tiny blood vessels called capillaries. Here, oxygen from the inhaled air enters the blood.

After absorbing oxygen, blood flows to our heart. The heart then pumps it through the body to the cells of other existing tissues and organs. When cells use oxygen, they make carbon dioxide into the blood.

The blood then carries the carbon dioxide back to the lungs, where it is expelled from the body when we exhale.

How the Respiratory System Cleans the Air

There is an innate method belonging to the respiratory system that can prevent harmful things from entering our lungs. For example, hair on the nose that helps filter out large particles. These tiny hairs called cilia move like sweeps to keep our respiratory tract clear.

However, if you inhale harmful things like cigarette smoke, the cilia can stop working, Sinaumed’s. Because of that, cigarette smoke can cause health problems such as bronchitis.
Then, cells in the trachea and bronchial tubes also create mucus which keeps the airways moist and helps keep things like dust, bacteria and viruses, and allergens out of the lungs.

Affecting Conditions

There are various conditions that can affect the organs and tissues that make up the respiratory system. Several conditions develop due to irritation from things we breathe in the air, including viruses or bacteria that cause infections. Other conditions occur as a result of disease or advancing age.

Conditions that can cause inflammation (swelling, irritation and pain) or affect the respiratory system include:

  • Allergies: Inhaling proteins, such as dust, mold, and pollen, can cause respiratory allergies in some people. This protein can cause inflammation in the airways.
  • Asthma: A chronic (long-term) disorder, asthma causes inflammation of the airways which can make breathing difficult.
  • Infection: Can cause pneumonia (pneumonia) or bronchitis (inflammation of the bronchial tubes). Generally, these infections include the flu or influenza, or a cold.
  • Certain diseases: Disorders that can compromise the ability of the respiratory system to deliver oxygen throughout the body, such as lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
  • Aging: Lung capacity decreases with age.
  • Damage: The respiratory system becomes damaged and can cause breathing problems.

Diseases of the Respiratory System

Common diseases of the respiratory system include:

  • Asthma _ The airways narrow and create too much mucus.
  • Bronchiectasis . Inflammation and infection make the bronchial walls thicker.
  • COPD . A long-term condition that gets worse over time. These diseases include bronchitis and emphysema.
  • Pneumonia . The infection causes inflammation in the alveoli. They may fill with fluid or pus.
  • tuberculosis . This respiratory disease is caused by bacteria. The infection usually affects the lungs, but may also involve the kidneys, spine, or brain.
  • Lung cancer . The cells in our lungs change and grow into tumors. This is often due to smoking or other chemicals we inhale.
  • Cystic fibrosis . The disease is caused by a problem in a gene and gets worse over time. This causes a lung infection that doesn’t go away.
  • Pleural effusion . Too much fluid builds up between the tissues that line the lungs and chest.
  • Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis . Lung tissue becomes scarred and unable to work as it should.
  • Sarcoidosis . Small clumps of inflammatory cells called granulomas form, often in the lungs and lymph nodes.


It is important for us to be able to clear mucus, lungs and airways for respiratory health.

To maintain the health of the respiratory system, Sinaumed’s must:

  • Avoid various pollutants that have the potential to damage the airways, such as cigarette smoke, chemicals, to radon (a radioactive gas that can cause cancer).
  • Wear a mask if we are in a situation where we may be exposed to smoke, dust or various other types of pollutants for various reasons.
  • Do not smoke.
  • Eat a healthy diet with lots of fruits and vegetables and drink water to stay hydrated.
  • Exercise regularly to keep your lungs healthy.
  • Prevent infection with frequent hand washing and a yearly flu vaccine.

That’s what Sinaumed’s can do to maintain the health of the respiratory system. Thus the discussion about the order of the human respiratory organs to the function of the respiratory system. Hopefully all the discussion above can be useful for Sinaumed’s.