Fables: Definition, Types, and Examples – When we were little, we would often hear various fairy tales, be it from parents, teachers, or through animated shows with the theme of animals as characters from these fairy tales. Because, seeing the cute behavior of animals that can talk like humans is something that cannot be found in the real world and as small children we really like to hear stories or watch them through our television screens at home.
At school also in Indonesian lessons we will find material that intersects with stories, myths, legends etc. as teaching materials that we must learn at school. Through this lesson, we will find out that there is something called a fable in one type of fable that exists in a part of Indonesian literature.
In ancient prose, a fable is a unique type of story. Not only in Indonesia, fairy tales and fables have developed abroad. Several cartoons and animations also use this genre as their main plot.
But do you know or do you still remember about the lesson that discusses the fable? If you don’t know or have even forgotten how the form of the fable is in the discussion this time, we will try to discuss the topic of the complete meaning of fable along with its characteristics, types and examples below.
Fables are stories that tell about the lives of animals who behave like humans. Fables are fictional or fantasy (imaginative) compositions. Sometimes fables choose minority characters in human form. Fables are also often called stories that contain morals because they have messages related to morality. The characters in fables are all animals. Animals are told that they have reason, behavior, and that they can speak like humans. Human characters and souls are also depicted in this way through animal figures. The purpose of the fable is to provide a moral lesson by demonstrating human vices through animal symbols. Through animal characters, the writer wants to influence the reader to imitate good, not to imitate evil.
Surely we already know about the childhood animated show about a group of squirrels entitled Happy Tree Friends which is an animated series that accompanied us when we were little. The main story follows the daily life of a group of squirrels and their fun activities. The characters of these squirrels are squirrels who work like humans and are described as being able to move like humans. Having a unique and somewhat thriller plot , this series is very popular with many groups, from children to adults, and the Happy Tree Friends series , for example, is a cartoon genre featuring fables.
According to the definition in the Big Indonesian Dictionary (KBBI), a fable is a story that describes the character and human spirit that unites with animals as the actors of the story. In general, fables are a collection of stories featuring animal characters who can think and socialize like humans. Quoted from the Journal of Indonesian Language and Literature Education, fables are beautiful stories about animals who can speak well, act like humans, and are often interspersed with moral messages. Therefore, this type of story is widely used as a symbol and mirror of human life.
Always referring to the same source, in its structure allegorical text is a tool to insert advice or social criticism without demeaning anyone. The nature of fables that are easy for children to understand, makes this reading a way of conveying moral messages for character building. Meanwhile, fable explanations are also found in several children’s story books.
For example, the book Fables That Inspire and Change Your Life: Meaningful Stories from the Animal World for Success in Life. In this book it is explained that fables are short stories or fairy tales that describe the character and character of people who are likened to animals. The features found in these animals are considered representative of human nature. From all the descriptions above, in short, fables are stories that are full of messages about morality and character. All of these moral messages are embedded and equated with the behavior and interactions of animals which are described as being able to move like humans.
Fables in general are stories that contain various messages of goodness by embodying the characters of animals that live like humans, from the way they speak to the way they act. According to sources regarding research on the origins of prose fables, the term fable first came from the Latin fabula, which has a similar meaning to the Greek term legend.
Fable itself can be interpreted as a story full of moral values that describes the mind and character of humans using animals. As a text, fable belongs to the fictional or non-real genre. However, it is not uncommon for human figures to be presented in fables as supporting stories.
Like writing or other forms of literature, fables are structured as an integral part of the narrative. Some allegorical constructions, which begin with an orientation, continue through complication and completion, until they end with a coda.
What is a fable in its structure? Fables such as fairy tales are arranged in the form of text, animation or cartoon. Fables are said to have a different structure from other types of fantasy fiction. The following is the structure of the fable:
Fable is a story that starts from the beginning, aka orientation. This first paragraph will introduce the characters in the story, setting, place and time. Then introduce a theme or background and so on.
Sequel is the complication or climax of the story. This part of the fable tells about the protagonist who faces a climax of trouble. This is the essence of a fairy tale.
The resolution allegory is part of the allegory that tells how to solve the problems faced by the protagonist. Usually in a fable, the main character will explain how to solve the problem in a unique and creative way.
The structure of the coda fable is the part of the story that explains the changes in each character. In this section, the moral message or message is conveyed to the readers.
Types of Fables
- Classic Fables
Classical fables are works of fantasy fiction that have existed since ancient times, but it is not known exactly when they started. Classical fables were often passed down orally from generation to generation. For example the story of the mouse deer and the crocodile, the crow and the eagle, the buffalo and the bird, the ant and the grasshopper, etc.
Characteristics of Classical Fables:
- Classical Fables is very concise and clear.
- The theme that appears is very simple.
- Classic fables that contain moral messages or advice to their readers.
- The animal nature of the classic fable remains.
- Modern Fables
Features of a modern fable:
– The plot of a modern fable can be short or long.
– Main stories tend to be more complex.
– Modern fables are sometimes epic or narrative, with prose telling the story of the hero.
– The character of every modern fable that is created is unique. For example, the shape of the animal has a big head, but the body is also big, but the legs are small.
Characteristics of Fables
In addition to the several structures above, another characteristic of fables is the use of animals as the main characters.
The following are characteristics of animal fables or allegories:
– The characters are animals with human personalities and behaviors.
– The theme of the story is social relations.
– The conflict in the story is taken from human life.
– Has a place framework, time frame, and plot.
– Often use third-person point of view.
– At the end of the story there is a message or mandate.
A detailed description of the characteristics of the fable is as follows:
The theme is the main idea or story idea in a fable.
Characters are actors in fables who are presented in the form of animals as a picture of human life or its embodiment.
The plot or course of the fable story is a plot that follows one another and usually all events are connected by a causal event.
Setting is the time and place where events occur and describes the atmosphere in the story. The setting itself usually has 3 parts, namely setting the time, setting the place and setting the atmosphere.
- Point Of View
Point of View is essentially a technique used by the author to tell stories. For example, first person point of view or third person point of view.
The real fable is that it has a message or moral that can also be written in the story. Therefore, a parable can be understood as a good message conveyed by the author to the reader. Messages in fables are often presented clearly or expressed directly in written form. However, there are several authors who also convey the message either implicitly or implicitly.
Examples of Fable Stories
- Examples of Fable Stories About Diversity or Pluralism
This is an example of a fable story that tells about acknowledging diversity.
Goro, a wild boar, stands in the middle of the forest. It was a very dark and humid day which is Goro’s favorite kind of day. Immediately, water began to slowly descend in unison across the sky.
“The rain has come!” shouted Goro enthusiastically. Goro began to sing in the middle of the forest while dancing around the trees. He saw a little cub hiding behind the dense trees.
“Hey monkey, the rain has come, don’t hide!” Goro shouted at the monkey who was afraid of being stifled and was dodging the raindrops.
Beruk sighed and looked deeply at Goro: “Goro, I don’t like rain. Do you see how small I am compared to you? The streams of rainwater will wet me and make me cold because my feathers are soaked in the rain! I’m not a fat wild pig like you whose fur is thick and protected by fat that warms your body, I’m just a poor little ape cub that’s the reason I’m hiding, “said Beruk.
That’s why monkey, you have to face your biggest fear of water and can’t be less confident with your size! I have often been drenched when the rain came and got wet under the sky. Don’t be afraid of pain, rain is a blessing not a disaster.
While laughing, Goro was jumping up and down for joy enjoying the rain and left the monkeys behind.
Beruk can only look at Goro with annoyance and worry. Beruk cannot be exposed to rain because it is small and gets sick easily. Then Goro shouted again, “The rain is coming! The rain has come! Oh, hey all the animals come out! I love rain, how about you? Goro stopped under a shady tree and talked to a deer who was also enjoying the rain with his herd. The deer grinned and said to Goro.
“I’m not afraid of rain, Goro. Look, I live with my flock in the rainforest. How can I enjoy the rain like you, Goro? I’m bored. The deer left with the herd again.
“Humph! How sad is your life Deer! If you can, like me, live in this forest with joy, enjoy the rain that flushes this forest from drought, maybe you will be more grateful than feeling dry. Enjoy the rain as if this is the last rain in your life.
What Goro said really woke Deer’s heart. The deer stared at its entire herd, its body, then looked up at the sky like Goro. The deer was sadly running from one side of the forest to another. Goro danced merrily in the rain in the middle of the forest and hummed again.
When Goro went under a tree, he saw a bird perched on a branch and reprimanded it. Goro thinks that birds like monkeys and deer cannot be grateful for rain.
“Hey Bird, why don’t you want to go out and enjoy the rain? Afraid your fur will get wet? Or are you afraid of cold like a monkey? Or can’t you appreciate the beauty of the rain like a deer? After saying that, Goro laughed ugly and guffawed.
The bird looked at Goro who was still smiling “Hey Goro, can you come here? “
You mean Bird?”
“Could you come up here, Goro?”
“You mean Bird? I can’t!” Goro pouted and looked down at his stocky body and legs. Goro regretted his short legs and fat body so he couldn’t climb up a tree.
“Goro, did you know that the Creator makes us unique? I can’t enjoy the rain like you and the deer, but I can fly high in the sky.
The bird wisely said: “I mean Goro, we each have our strengths. Monkeys can’t get caught in the rain like you because their bodies are weak and get sick easily, but they can climb trees and swing from one branch to another which you can’t. Deer can’t be as grateful as you because they are bored and need something new, but they have a loyal herd of friends. You can’t offend them! Goro
started to realize that what he did was wrong. Goro secretly began to think that his actions were not good. He shouldn’t brag about his profits and offend his friends.
“I’m sorry, Bird,” said Goro, looking sadly at him. monkeys and deer from a distance also watched their conversation.
“I’m sorry monkey, deer, I have offended you all this time.”
Since then, Goro has started to like his friends and they are good friends together.
Moral: All living things were created in a unique way by God. As good beings, we must take care of each other’s feelings by using kind words and upholding diversity.
That’s a brief discussion of the meaning of fable. The discussion this time does not only discuss the definition of a fable, but also discusses the characteristics of a fable, the structure of the fable, its characteristics and examples of fable stories. Fables or fairy tales about animals are prose works that have existed for a long time and have been taken into account in the development of literature in Indonesia. As a fairy tale about animals, fables succeed in attracting young children’s interest in adding insight and as age-appropriate entertainment compared to small children who watch too many soap operas or adult films which can damage their morale because in fables there is also a message that is useful in life that can give good influence on children.
Thus a review of the meaning of fable.