Reproduction is carried out by plants and animals but the system that distinguishes the two. In plants there are various types of reproduction methods, namely generative and vegetative reproduction, but all of these things must be in accordance with existing regulations. Generative reproduction is a very common development carried out by living things. However, it cannot be denied that the reproduction between animals and plants has something in common, that is, they both use gamete cells to produce new offspring. Animals use egg cells and sperm cells, while plants use various methods. One example of many plants that reproduce by spores.
In general, plants reproduce to add new individuals so as not to experience plant extinction and to maintain the balance of the ecosystem. The balance of the ecosystem will be maintained depending on the use of plants, if the use of plants is disturbed, the balance of the ecosystem will also be disturbed.
A. Definition of Spores
Spores are a collection of several cells covered by a protective layer (haploid or diploid). In addition, spores are relatively small in size and difficult to see with the naked eye using a microscope. Spores themselves have a dormant nature in every type of plant. Dormant is a condition in which they do not develop and are not active. Therefore it can be concluded that dormant cells are only able to grow in an environment that meets the existing conditions or requirements will develop into new individuals.
Spores and seeds can be said to reproduce almost the same because the goal is to be disseminated to obtain new offspring. When viewed from the side of anatomy and evolution both can be said to be the same, because basically seed plants can be seen from the point of view of evolution which produces spores.
B. Types of Spores
After knowing the meaning of spores, let’s look at the types of spores. Many people say that spores are plants that do not have seeds, such as ferns and mosses. The types of spores can be distinguished based on several things, one of which is based on its function, including:
1. Spores are a common means of dispersal for plants that have non-seeds, such as mosses, fungi and Myxozoa. However, this section is also known as the diaspora.
2. Endospores and exospores are spores of certain bacteria that have been formed whose purpose is as a means of survival against extreme conditions.
3. Chlamydospore, also known as chlamydospore, has a function that is almost the same as the endospore, but what distinguishes it is the part that is produced in the form of function.
4. The zygospore is a haploid dispersal tool from the function of the Zygomycota, in which these spores have thick walls and are able to grow madas and become conidium (zygosporangium).
C. Examples of plants that reproduce by spores
Plants capable of spore reproduction include ferns, mosses, suplir plants, mushrooms, rane plants, azolla plants, water ferns, ferns, deer plants and algae. In general, the location of the spores can be seen on the leaves of the plant which are on the back, in the form of powder and stored in the spore city known as the sporangium.
In the process of propagating spores from ferns, there are two stages in their life cycle (metagenesis). The two stages are known as gametophyte and sporophyte. In ferns, the form of the sporophyte phase (plants with spores) will produce spores, while the form of gametophyte generation (plants with gametes) is called a prothallus or prothallium, which is a small plant in the form of sheets with a green color that is almost similar to liverworts, but does not have roots, stems and leaves.
In the process prothallium will grow from spores that fall from damp places. Then the prothallium will produce anteridium (male sex cells) and archegonium (egg cells) with a very small size that is difficult to see directly with the eye without the help of special tools. In the process of fertilization the egg cannot be carried out alone but requires the help of water as a medium for spermatozoids to move by swimming towards the archegonium to fertilize the egg. This will continue with the fertilized ovum which will develop into a zygote and then will grow into a new sporophyte.
Some examples of ferns such as the Selaginellales and Salviales groups have relatively very small male spores known as microspores, while female spores are known as megaspores or macrospores. This symptom is known as heterospory, but groups with the same spore size are known as homospores.
However, if one looks at or pays close attention that seed plants or Spermatophyta also have a life cycle like heterosporous ferns, but have evolved much further and lead to the conclusion that at the gametophyte stage they are unable to live independently and must be supported by life from the sporophyte. The spores produced will immediately grow into pollen (jatan) or embryo sacs (female).
1. Moss Plants
Moss plants are very small green plants that grow in damp places, such as growing on the banks of rivers, on bricks and on soil with high humidity levels. In breeding, continuing offspring to create new individuals is somewhat unique. Metaginesis is a way to continue offspring which is characterized by alternation between sexual and asexual generations. In the gamete-producing generation, the spore-producing generation is known as the gamtophyte to the sporophyte.
2. Nail Plants
Ferns are widely known by the public with various names, but in general they are known as ferns which are included in ferns. This fern is one of the plants belonging to the Tracheophyta or true vascular system which does not produce seeds as a continuation of offspring, but by releasing spores. In addition, ferns belong to the cormus group, which means that the real body parts consist of roots, stems and leaves. In this fern plant does not produce seeds, but is able to reproduce spores. In the sporangium for ferns it can be found on the underside of the leaves, if the leaves are turned inside out the sporangium will be visible on the edges of the fern leaves.
3. Mushroom Plants
Mushrooms or fungi are plants that have a single cell and those that have many cells and do not have chlorophyll. Basically fungi or mushrooms are eukaryotic organisms. Where fungal cells have walls consisting of several chitin. In addition, mushrooms do not have flowers and do not bear fruit and do not have seeds. Mushrooms generally reproduce in spores with various shapes and colors and often grow in moist soil, receiving little light and soil containing organic compounds that are useful as a food source. The mushroom body itself contains almost 90% water content. This spore-producing fungus can usually be found in damp areas, for example in dead plants and animals and stale food. In the tempeh mushroom itself, the location of the sporangium is at the bulging end of the hyphae. The hyphae will form threads which will then form the mushroom body.
4. Rane plant
Rane plants are classified as vascular plants which belong to the Semennellaceae tribe. In this rane plant reproduces in a free spore which is considered as part of the Pteridophyta plant. This rane plant has characteristics such as small and simple leaves called microphytes which resemble flat scales and are not stemmed, but this right is capable of producing two types of spores that differ in size. In the growth part, the branches and leaves are not in the form of open rolls or like true nails. In general, rane plants reproduce by means of spores, which are generally similar to mosses and mushrooms.
5. Water Ferns
In water ferns, this includes ferns. The habitat of this water fern can be found in areas that are drained by water, such as in rice fields and even river areas. This water fern is affected by the presence of water flow, if the water gets less or even disappears, the water fern will slowly die. In this water ferns reproduce spores.
6. Azolla plant
The azolla plant is included in the water fern plant which in its leaves floats above the surface of the water and its roots hang under the water. In the opinion of the community, the azolla plant is known as ganggeng, catfish eyes or springs. This azolla plant is often found in areas that are inundated by water such as ditches, ponds, rice fields, rivers or lakes. However, on the other hand, azolla plants are able to live in tropical areas, for example in American and Asian countries and even Indonesia. In general, the size of the azolla plant is very small, ranging from 1 – 2 cm with a glossy light green, red green and orange green leaf color on the leaves. Basically the azolla plant is a plant that is weak against cold temperatures which can cause the plant to die.
7. Suplir Plants
Suplir plants are included in the group of plants that function as decoration for a certain room or corner. Suplir plants are plants of the surname Adiantum. This suplir plant reproduces generatively through the spore stage which is located on the underside of the mature leaf. Suplir plants have a unique and distinctive shape and appearance which in general can be distinguished from other types of ferns. The leaves of this suplir plant are not elongated but tend to be rounded. Spores are protected by the sporangium which is protected by indusium. On the underside of the leaves on the edges there are groups of indisium (sorus) which are protected by leaf folds. On the stalk is black and shiny which has fine scales when mature.
8. Kiambang Plant
The kiambang plant is a type of water fern that can float on the surface of the water. In general, kiambang plants can be found in fish ponds and so on, in rice fields and in lakes or rivers where the water flow is calm. Based on several opinions, the kiambang plant includes plants originating from southeastern Brazil and northern Argentina. The common feature of the kiambang plant is that it has a horizontal rhizome which is located below the surface of the water and two types of leaves that float and submerge. In mature ferns, many will produce egg-shaped spore sacs which will naturally contain infertile spores. Kiambang plants do not have true roots, but the submerged leaves function as roots. Where there are three leaves that are coiled, meaning two leaves are floating and one is submerged. When the leaves are floating, their position is opposite to the others with a round to oval shape. If one looks closely, the upper surface of the leaves of the kiambang plant has rows of cylindrical papillae consisting of four hairs at the distal end.
9. Fern Plants
Ferns are classified as ferns. In this fern plant spore breeding can be seen on the back of the fern leaves. The color that appears is black dots, these spots are a collection of various spores that have coalesced and exist. However, for some time the spores in the form of spots will break and then the spores will come out which will then fly due to angina. When the spores fly, they fall to the ground and then grow and develop into new ferns. In addition to wind, spores can also be spread through water and carried by animals indirectly. However, spores carried by these animals are rare.
Algae is one of the plants that do not have roots, stems and leaves in shape. However, algae contain chlorophyll which is autotrophic, which means they are able to make their own food. Algae bodies consist of one cell or unicellular, but there are also many cells or multicellular. In unicellular algae they live as phytolactones, while for multicellular algae they can live as benthos, nekton and periphyton. The location of the spores or sporangium on the algae is located on the body of the algae itself, where each spore is equipped with whip hairs or vibrating bladders which function as a dai’s geral in water. In general, spores in algae are known as zoospores. The development of spores in this algae depends on the surrounding conditions, when getting a suitable and suitable place,
If we look again at the ten examples of these plants, there are several plants that can be consumed by humans, one of which is the fern plant, which many people use as food to make vegetables. In addition, the community believes that plants are safe for consumption if they are managed correctly and properly.
The following is a classification of spores based on several categories such as function, life cycle, and mobility.
Based on function
Diaspora is a type of spore that functions as a means of dispersal for non-seed plants.
b. Bacterial spores (endospores and exospores)
Endospores and exospores are also commonly known as bacterial spores. This is because the formation comes from bacteria, in contrast to other types of spores which are produced through a process of division.
Bad environmental situation will change the surviving bacteria into cysts. When they turn into cysts, the bacteria enter a resting stage which is resistant to all environmental threats such as extreme dry or cold weather, even when the temperature reaches 120 degrees Celsius and for years. This cyst plays an important role as a protector. This ability is also called the defense function.
In this process, the bacteria will begin to form spores. Spores produced inside the cell are known as endospores, while spores formed outside the cell are known as exospores. If it can survive all the onslaught of the bad ecosystem, the bacterial spores will grow into the organisms from which they were formed, namely bacteria.
Similar to bacterial spores, chlamydospores also have a defensive function. However, the fundamental difference between the two lies in the origin of their formation. Bacterial spores originate from bacteria, while chlamydospores form from fungi. Chlamydospores have thick walls due to their ability to survive in unfavorable conditions.
Like diaspora, zygospora also has a function as a means of dispersal. Zigospores are a type of spore produced by the zygomycota fungus and function as a haploid dispersal tool.
Based on origin during life cycle
Meiospores are spores produced by meiosis. By this origin, meiospores are haploid organisms and are capable of growing haploid daughter cells or haploid individuals. Examples are the gametophyte precursor cells of seed plants found in flowers (angiosperms) or cones (gymnosperms), and the zoospores that result from meiosis in algal sporophytes such as ulva.
Microspores are meiospores which produce male gametophytes or pollen in seed plants.
Megaspores or also called macrospores are meiospores that produce female gametophytes. In seed plants the female gametophyte is formed inside the ovule.
Mitospores, also known as conidia or conidiospores, are spores produced by mitosis. Mitospora is included in the characteristics of ascomycetes. Fungi that only have mitospores are called mitossporic fungi or anamorphic fungi.
Based on mobility
The following are types of spores that are categorized according to their ability to move.
Zoospores are a type of spores that move. Zoospores move by means of one or more flagella. Usually zoospores are found in some varieties of algae and fungi.
Not all types of spores can move, some of them are not endowed with this ability. In contrast to zoospores, aplanospores are a type of spore that cannot move.
Autospores are spores that are similar to aplanospores, which are spores that do not move.
Balistospores are spores that are expelled either forcibly or naturally from the fruiting bodies of the fungus as a result of internal forces, such as pressure buildup. Most basidiospores are also ballistospores and another important example is the spores of the genus pilobolus.
Statismospores are not much different from ballistospores, in that they are both released from the fruiting bodies of the fungus. If the ballistospores are ejected due to internal forces, on the other hand, the statismospores are ejected as a result of external forces, such as raindrops or passing animals. An example of statismospora is the puffball .