Know How Animals Reproduce: Generative and Vegetative

Types/How Animals Breed – Basically, breeding is one of the basic characteristics of animals as living things. This breeding must be done by animals to avoid extinction.

In general, animals reproduce sexually or generatively, however, there are also types/methods of animals that reproduce vegetatively or without sexual or asexual activity.

Types/Methods of Generative Breeding Animals

Sexual reproduction/breeding or commonly referred to as sexual reproduction, occurs when male gametes (sperm) meet female gametes (eggs). Sexual reproduction can be divided into three types namely oviparous, viviparous and ovoviviparous.

Sinaumed’s can also read the book Various Ways of Animals to Reproduce to find out in detail the types/how animals reproduce. You can get this book at

1. Oviparous

Oviparous is the type/way animals reproduce by laying eggs. This reproduction is usually carried out by birds and reptiles. After fertilization, the resulting embryo grows and develops in the eggshell. The embryo receives nutrients and food reserves from the egg released from the mother’s body.

Hence, the oviparous embryo develops in the egg outside the mother’s body. Some of the characteristics of oviparous animals are the absence of mammary glands and ears. Examples of animal laying eggs are as follows.

a. Chicken

Chickens are animals that reproduce by laying eggs. After the hens lay their eggs, the eggs go through an incubation process that lasts about 20-21 days to keep the eggs warm.

From the outside, you can see that the chicken has no auricles. Similarly, having no nipples indicates that the hen has no mammary glands and is unable to nurse young.

b. Swan

Geese reproduce in an oviparous way, just like chickens, reproduce by laying eggs. These goose eggs are larger than other birds and the incubation process lasts up to 20 days.

c. Dove

Apart from chickens and geese which are often kept as pets, pigeons are an example of oviparous animals which are also commonly kept by humans. Much smaller than the two eggs above, pigeon eggs only need to incubate for 17-19 days.

d. Lizard

Yes, small lizards that are often found on roofs and walls of houses are also included as examples of oviparous animals. Lizards usually hide their eggs in a hidden place such as the back of a cupboard or bark to prevent them from being attacked by predators.

e. Siamese fighting fish

Betta fish are in great demand, because of their beautiful color, are highly sought after for collection and use as house and aquarium pets. Betta fish are also classified as laying animals or laying eggs.

This betta egg shape resembles the bubbles that are found on the sides of water pools and aquariums. Solid fish eggs only take 3 days to hatch.

f. Frog

Frogs are amphibians that reproduce by laying eggs. However, unlike normal egg-laying animals, the male frog fertilizes the eggs which the female releases into the water. Eggs fertilized by male frogs grow and hatch into tadpoles or tadpoles in the water. The tadpole undergoes metamorphosis, exposing lungs and legs, and then grows into an adult frog.

g. Butterfly

The caterpillars that we usually find in trees are actually butterfly larvae. This butterfly is a type of arthropod or insect that reproduces by laying eggs or oviparous. Adult butterflies lay their eggs on the surface of leaves, which develop into the larvae and caterpillars we know. The caterpillar then sleeps in a cocoon and turns into a small butterfly and grows into an adult butterfly.

h. Platypus

Most mammals reproduce by giving birth, but there are also some mammals that reproduce by oviparity or laying eggs. An example is the platypus. This animal is a monotreme. Monotremes reproduce by laying eggs, but still have mammary glands and rear their offspring through the folds of the mammary gland on the mother’s abdomen.

i. Crocodile

Another example of an oviparous or egg-laying animal is the crocodile. Crocodiles are called oviparous animals because they are amphibians that reproduce by laying eggs. crocodiles dig holes in mounds of earth and lay their eggs. As a rule, a female crocodile protects her nest and youth.

However, depending on the species of crocodile, crocodiles can lay 7-95 eggs at the same time during one spawning period. Crocodile eggs take about 80 days to hatch.

j. Ant

These animals are usually found in parks to rooms in the house. Ants are also included in the example of egg-laying or oviparous animals, Queen ants can lay around 100,000 to 300,000 eggs in a few days.

The breeding of these eggs is carried out by the queen with the male having to mate with the queen. The hatched eggs then grow into new worker, soldier, male or queen ants.

Characteristics of Oviparous or Egg-Laying Animals

As already mentioned, different breeding patterns also result in different characteristics of the animals themselves. Like egg-laying animals, it has different characteristics from other animals. Here are some things that can distinguish egg-laying animals from other animal species.

a. No auricles

People who have difficulty distinguishing animals with oviparous reproduction can see it in their ears. The first feature of oviparous or egg-laying animals is the absence of auricles. Therefore, it is very easy to tell oviparous animals apart when looking at them in person.

b. Has no mammary glands and does not suck milk

we can recognize the species that breed during the nursing process. The characteristics of oviparous animals are that they do not breastfeed their young because they do not have mammary glands.

c. The mother incubates the eggs until they hatch

When you see a mother laying eggs in a nest or cage, you can see that the mother is sitting down to incubate the eggs. This is done so that the eggs stay warm and alive.

d. Eggs are outside the mother’s body

As previously explained, the characteristics of oviparous animals are that eggs are released outside the mother’s stomach, develop and hatch.

2. Viviparous

Viviparous is reproduction by giving birth. After fertilization, the embryo grows and develops in the uterus. In the womb, the embryo receives nutrients from the food that the mother digests through the placenta. Some characteristics of embryonic animals are bodies protected by mammary glands, ears and hair. Examples of animals that give birth are as follows.

a. Pope

Maybe there are still many who think that whales are included in the fish group. Of course, whales live underwater. But it turns out that whales are a group of mammals that reproduce by giving birth.

b. Seals

Another calving animal known to live in water is the seal. These mammals are carnivores that are found in cold waters. Like other mammals, these animals reproduce in a viviparous way.

c. Dolphins

Another group of fish that reproduce by giving birth are dolphins. These fish are also called dolphins, and are also known as freshwater dolphins, but now their existence is gradually being threatened and they are classified as protected animals.

d. Cat

Cats are another animal that reproduces by viviparity or giving birth. These furry animals take about 9 weeks to conceive young.

Cats grow from babies to adults. The breeding cycle of these four-legged animals is irregular at certain times. Many factors ultimately cause cats to engage in sexual activity.

e. Dog

Dogs are also viviparous breeding livestock. These animals go through a more regular breeding cycle than cats. The gestation period for these animals is around 55-65 days. A pregnant female can give birth to 4 babies or even more.

Sinaumed’s can read the book Reproductive Aspects of Dog Breeding to get more in-depth information about the types/how dogs breed. Please click the button below to get the book.

f. Cow

Cows are also considered birthing animals because they have ears and mammary glands, similar to other viviparous characteristics. Cats and dogs are usually house pets, but not like cattle. These four-legged animals are usually cultivated for livestock purposes.

Cattle are usually used for hides, meat and milk. This animal has a long gestation period of about 270 days. Interestingly, the gestational age of this cow is influenced by the sex of the baby. If the baby is a boy, his gestational age can exceed 270 days.

g. Goat

Another livestock that reproduces by giving birth is the goat. These vertebrates have a gestation period of up to 150 days. After birth, the goat smokes for about three months.

h. Horse

Horses experience longer pregnancies than goats. The horse’s gestation period reaches 11-12 months after ovulation. Unique things are usually the process of birth after night or after sunset.

i. Elephant

Another viviparous animal is the elephant. These large animals take about 18 to 24 months to conceive a young. Adult female elephants can usually give birth only 4-5 times. Therefore, do not be surprised if the elephant population is threatened with extinction, because elephant breeding is very limited.

j. Monkey

Another example of animals giving birth is monkeys. This one animal enters pregnancy after ovulation. The gestation period depends on the monkey’s physiology. Some of the monkey species are gibbons, orangutans, chimpanzees, gorillas and proboscis monkeys.

k. Mouse

This rodent also belongs to the group of animals that give birth. Mice need more than 20 days to conceive young before they are born.

l. Bat

This nocturnal animal is also included in the viviparous or giving birth group. Bats have a gestation period of about 3 to 6 months.

Characteristics of Viviparous or Childbirth Animals

To learn more about the groups of animals that reproduce in the embryo, you can find the following characteristics.

  • Have mammary glands.
  • Have ears.
  • Its body is covered with feathers and hair.
  • Generally lactating or mammals.
  • The fetus develops in the mother’s body before birth.

3. Ovoviviparous

In ovoviviparous after fertilization, the resulting embryo grows and develops inside the egg. At first glance, it sounds like oviparous. However, in ovoviviparous, the eggs are not expelled from the mother’s body, but remain in the mother’s body until they hatch.

After hatching, children will be born. The number of animals that breed ovoviviparally is not as much as the animals that reproduce in oviparous and viviparous ways. Examples of ovoviviparous animals are as follows.

a. Shark

The first example of an ovoviviparous animal is the shark. This famous sea creature has been found to reproduce by giving birth as well as laying eggs. Sharks can store eggs in their bodies.

The eggs then hatch and the shark lays eggs when the embryo has developed sufficiently outside the mother’s body. Shark embryos are known to be free of arias. Therefore, it is necessary to stockpile feed from eggs to maintain their growth.

b. Stingray

Stingrays are also included in the group of ovoviviparous animals whose habitat is in the sea. The stingray embryo grows and develops in the egg with the help of the nutrients contained in it. When the embryo is considered optimal enough, the mother will give birth.

c. Seahorses

The seahorse is another example of an ovoviviparous animal. This animal has a fairly unique reproductive system. The male will do the job of conceiving, not the female seahorse.

This is because male seahorses have pouches that have the ability to store and incubate eggs. This will allow the sea horse to grow better.

d. guppies

Guppies are usually seen as ornamental fish. This fish is small and has a beautiful and attractive appearance. But who would have thought that guppies would reproduce by laying eggs and giving birth?

This fish is known to take 20-30 days to become pregnant and give birth to young. This ornamental fish can produce 2 to 100 fish each time. Surprisingly, once the guppies are born, you can swim, find food and avoid enemies.

e. Platypus

The platypus is a semi-aquatic animal commonly found on the Australian continent. These animals usually reproduce by laying eggs like a flock of birds. However, the platypus turned out to be a special animal. It was found to have mammary glands like mammals that reproduce by giving birth.

Therefore, biologists include the platypus as an ovoviviparous animal group. This animal is also known as a transitional animal from evolution to mammals which took place in the bird class.

f. Lizard

Another example of an ovoviviparous animal is the lizard. These animals are known to store eggs in their bodies. Lizard embryos grow using the yolk as nutrition. When a new individual is born from the embryo, the mother lizard gives birth to it.

These four-legged, rough-skinned reptiles are found in loose or sandy soils. However, some lizards live in trees.

g. Salamanders

Another animal that reproduces in an Ovoviviparous way is the salamander. The animal looks like a lizard, has a streamlined body, a long tail and a short nose. These animals are usually found in waterfalls and swamps. This animal’s skin is very moist so it needs a watery environment to live.

h. Chameleon

Another ovoviviparous animal is the chameleon. These animals can increase their population by storing eggs in their mother’s body. After that, the chameleon mother gives birth to a baby.

In addition to their unique reproductive methods, chameleons also have different abilities from other animals. Chameleons can change their color to be lighter or darker. To find this animal, you can look for it in the bushes and trees.

Types/Methods of Animals Reproducing Vegetatively

The reproduction or reproduction of the following animals is vegetative or asexual. This reproduction is done without mating. Generally, asexual reproduction occurs in lower animals. Problem animals have imperfect body structures. There are three types of vegetative reproduction, namely budding, fragmentation, and division.

1. Buds

Buds appear on the mother animal’s body. When old enough, scions separate from the parent body and form a new individual. Examples of animals that reproduce by budding are fragmentation sponges and hydras.

2. Fragmentation

Fragmentation is a method in which animals reproduce by cutting or separating parts from their bodies. Examples of animals that reproduce in this way are some species of planaria and worms.

3. Splitting Yourself

Reproduction by dividing is by dividing the body into two equal parts. An example is the amoeba, which is so tiny that it can only be seen with a microscope.

Those are some types / ways of breeding animals that we should know. In order to understand it even more, Sinaumed’s can read related books by getting them at . As #Friends Without Limits, sinaumedia always provides the best products, so you have #MoreWithReading information.