Definition of Oviparous Animals – Oviparous Animals – Breeding is a new regeneration that replaces the old generation. This means that every living thing experiences reproduction, which is not only for humans, but for all living things, including plants and animals. If humans reproduce using only one way, namely giving birth, but in animals there are three types of reproduction, namely viviparous (giving birth), oviparous (laying eggs) and ovoviviparous (laying eggs and giving birth to children). The word ovipar itself comes from the word “ovum” which means laying eggs.
Oviparous is a type of reproduction that causes the eggs that are released to develop and also hatch outside the mother’s body. In addition, there are two types of fertilization that occurs in oviparous animals, namely internal fertilization and external fertilization. Internal fertilization will occur in the body of the female parent, as is the process experienced by aves animals, for example birds and insects, for example insects. External fertilization which will occur outside the female parent’s body, such as the process experienced by frogs and fish.
Groups of animals that reproduce in oviparous are animals whose sexual reproduction is characterized by the female and male releasing their germ cells outside the body and fertilization and occurring outside the animal’s body. The reproductive system also does not occur with copulation and the eggs released outside the body are very permeable.
As explained earlier that oviparous animals are a group of animals that reproduce by laying eggs. Inside the egg there is an embryo that obtains food reserves from within the egg. Animals with oviparous breeding generally have characteristics with their eggs being incubated until they hatch.
Characteristics of Oviparous Animals
Animals with oviparous reproduction certainly have their own characteristics that are different from animals with other breeding. The following are the characteristics of oviparous animals, namely:
- Does not have ear lobes
- Does not have mammary glands
- Not breastfeeding her child
- Incubate the eggs
Benefits of Oviparous Breeding
Oviparous breeding provides several benefits for both the embryo and the parent animal. Here are some of the benefits that can be obtained in oviparous animals, namely:
- There are embryos that are inside the shell and are more protected from the environment, for example from hot weather or cold weather.
- The yellow eggs inside the shell can be used as food for the embryo.
- The amnion inside the shell can be used as a source of protein and water.
- Embryos can be protected from shocks and rocks.
- The shell can also protect the embryo from predators because eggs are usually laid in the nest.
- The shell can be used as a protector.
- If the eggs are not cared for, they can be reproduced by humans with a variety of breeding methods.
Examples of Oviparous Animals
Oviparous animals that reproduce by laying eggs are also divided into several groups. The following are examples of types of oviparous animals and their explanations:
1. Poultry Group
The poultry group is an animal that is included in animals that reproduce by laying eggs. Then the mother will incubate the eggs for some time. After that, the eggs will hatch and become small animals.
Here are some examples of oviparous animals from the poultry group, namely:
Chickens are birds that can be cared for by humans and can also be used for life needs in their maintenance. Chickens basically show morphological differences in both sexes. Roosters or roosters are more attractive, larger in size, have long spurs, have a bigger comb, and have long, dangling tail feathers.
Meanwhile, hens or baboons are relatively smaller in size, with short or barely visible bristles, small combs, and short tail feathers. Regarding sex, this is regulated by the hormonal system. If there is a disturbance in the physiological function of the body, the hen can change sex to become a rooster, this is because adult chickens still have ovotestis which are dormant and can be active at any time.
Ducks have a curved and wide body, have a relatively long neck, though not as long as a swan. Duck body shape varies and is generally rounded. The beak is wide and contains lamellae which are used as food filters.
In fishing species, the beak is longer and stronger. The scaled legs are strong and well developed, and generally set far back on the body, which is common in aquatic birds. Its wings are very strong and its lifespan is short. Duck flight requires flapping so it requires strong wing muscles.
Male ducks of northern hemisphere species sometimes have attractive plumage colors. Species from the Southern Hemisphere show no sexual dimorphism except for the Paradise Shelduck in New Zealand which is brighter than the males. The color of young ducks, whether male or female, is generally more like an adult female duck.
Duck food varies, such as grass, plants, water, fish, insects, small amphibians, worms and small mollusks. Diving ducks and sea ducks find food in the depths of the water. To make it easier for ducks to dive, both types have a greater mass making it more difficult for them to fly.
Geese also reproduce by oviparous processes and the same as occurs in chicken eggs. Goose eggs have a larger size than other poultry animals with an incubation process of up to twenty days.
Swans feed on land as well as in water. Geese are almost always herbivorous, although small aquatic animals may fall prey to geese. In water, swans obtain food by filtering the water and their diet also consists of the roots, stems and leaves of aquatic plants and aquatic plants.
Birds are also one of the animals that lay eggs. When birds lay their eggs, after that the mother bird will incubate the eggs for approximately twenty one days until their children hatch.
If Sinaumed’s is interested in cultivating chicken-type poultry, Sinaumed’s can read the book as a reference and get the book which is available at www.sinaumedia.com .
2. Fish Group
In general, groups of fish species breed by laying eggs or oviparous. Beginning with the mother who issued a very large number of eggs. Then the fish will release the eggs after being fertilized by sperm and the eggs will hatch into fish children.
In breeding, these fish will grow from fry or embryos. Then it becomes a juvenile fish and becomes an adult fish. Fish are usually bred by humans for cultivation purposes. However, there are also those that breed naturally.
Here are some examples of oviparous animals from the fish group, namely:
Goldfish or carp ( Cyprinus Carpio) is a freshwater fish that has important economic value and its distribution is everywhere in Indonesia.
The goldfish life cycle begins with development in the gonads or ovaries in fish which produce eggs and testicles in male fish which produce sperm. The transfer of goldfish can occur all year round and does not depend on the season. However, in their natural habitat, goldfish often spawn at the beginning of the rainy season, stimulated by the smell of stagnant dry soil.
Naturally, spawning occurs from midnight to late dawn. Prior to spawning, the mother carp actively looks for a lush place, such as aquatic plants or grass that covers the surface of the water. It is this substrate that will later be used as a place for attaching eggs as well as helping stimulation when spawning occurs.
The nature of goldfish eggs is attached to the substrate. 2 to 3 days later the eggs will hatch and grow into larvae. Goldfish larvae have relatively large yolk sacs as food reserves for the larvae and will run out within 2-4 days. Goldfish larvae are attached and move vertically.
The larvae turn into a white coat in 4-5 days. After 2-3 weeks, the whiteflies grow into fry measuring 1-3 cm and weighing 0.1-0.5 grams. Between 2-3 weeks later the seeds grow into white or seeds that are ready to be seeded which have a size of 3-5 cm and weigh 0.5-2.5 grams. The whites will continue to grow, and after three months they will turn into logs which weigh about 100 grams per head.
If Sinaumed’s is interested in goldfish and wants to make it into a business, Sinaumed’s can read books available at www.sinaumedia.com .
b. Siamese fighting fish
Betta fish or betta fish are in great demand for collection and are also used to decorate the house. Betta fish are classified as egg-laying or oviparous animals.
The shape of the eggs that betta fish have resembles the foam that can be found on plants in water and on the sides of the aquarium. Betta fish eggs only need three days to hatch.
If Sinaumed’s is interested in any type of fish farming, Sinaumed’s can read books available at www.sinaumedia.com .
3. Reptile group
The method of reproduction of reptile groups begins with the process of mating between females and males. Then the female reptile lays eggs. After a few days, the eggs will hatch into tiny reptile pups. After increasing time, the reptile child will turn into an adult reptile. Animals that lay eggs from the reptile group live in water and also live on land.
Here are some examples of oviparous animals from the reptile group, namely:
Crocodiles are animals that reproduce by laying eggs or oviparous. Crocodiles will dig a hole in the mound of soil to lay their eggs. Usually, a female alligator will protect the nest as well as her children.
Depending on the species, crocodiles can lay seven to ninety-five eggs in one clutch at a time. Crocodile eggs also take about eighty days until the time for the eggs to hatch arrives.
Lizards are animals that we often encounter on the roofs of Sinaumed’s’ houses, which are also oviparous animals. Lizards hide eggs in hidden places, such as behind cupboards and other places that can avoid being targeted by predators.
There are also several types of lizards that also reproduce in an ovoviviparous way. But the lizard that we often encounter at home is a type of oviparous animal that reproduces by laying eggs.
Turtle species reproduce by laying eggs without exception. Turtles have a certain mating season and the peak occurs from December to June. Female turtles store sperm for years after mating. After that, the sperm fertilizes the egg.
Then the turtles will lay the most eggs from May to July. Once laid eggs, turtles will issue 1 to 26 eggs. The mother will not incubate the eggs. The mother will dig a nest with a depth of about 10 cm which is useful for keeping the eggs safe and warm.
After laying their eggs, turtles will cover their eggs with a mixture of soil, urine and faeces. The mixture will harden and become a protective coating for the turtle. The sex of the embryo will be affected by the ambient temperature around the egg. If the temperature around the egg is more than 29.5°C, then the embryo will become a female.
If the temperature is below 28°C, then the embryo will be a male turtle. And the eggs will hatch after 90 to 270 days. After hatching, the baby turtles will remain in the nest to feed on the eggs for a month.
Sexual maturity in snakes varies and depends on size, health and also the species. But snakes generally reach sexual maturity around two to three years of age. Species also sometimes take longer to reach sexual maturity due to nutritional deficiencies.
Signs of sexual maturity in male snakes are the appearance of scales near the anal area while sexual maturity in female snakes is indicated by the cloacal capsule visible from the ventral surface.
Usually, female snakes are ready to lay their eggs after two weeks to a month of mating. Most snake species use natural holes to lay their eggs. They also prefer to lay their eggs in moist soil. Until the time for hatching arrives, snake eggs will incubate from the heat of the atmosphere or from the heat of the mother’s body.
Sinaumed’s interested in raising turtles and other reptiles? Sinaumed’s can read books which of course are available at www.sinaumedia.com .
4. Amphibious Group
Amphibians that reproduce by means of external or internal fertilization. Amphibian animals will attract their partners in various ways. For example by using a loud voice. But there are also those who use the sense of smell to find a partner.
Examples of amphibian groups that include oviparous animals are frogs and toads. The following is a further explanation of examples of oviparous animals in the amphibian group, namely:
Frogs are a type of amphibian that reproduce by laying eggs but unlike oviparous animals in general, the male frog will fertilize the eggs that the female has released in the water.
Eggs that have been fertilized by male frogs will then develop and hatch in the water and become tadpoles or tadpoles. The tadpole will go through a metamorphosis stage where the lungs and legs begin to appear which then grow into adult frogs.
The female frog will release an egg that has been fertilized by a male sperm cell through the cloaca. Adult frogs can produce hundreds of eggs at a time.
The female egg cell that is successfully fertilized will form a zygote, which will then grow into an embryo. The frog embryo gets its food reserves from the egg. Furthermore, frog eggs that have hatched will produce new individuals, namely tadpoles which will become tadpoles. Tadpoles live underwater and breathe using gills.
These tadpoles will develop and metamorphose until the tail disappears, which then becomes tadpoles with two legs to four legs. The four-legged tadpoles will become young frogs, the young frogs will grow into adult frogs. Adult frogs will live more on land, because adult frogs have breathed with lungs and skin. Adult frogs only occasionally go into the water to find females for the purpose of mating and reproducing.