Getting to Know Viviparous Animals: Definition, Characteristics, and Examples

Viviparous Animals – In reality all living things will reproduce which means that living things can have offspring. The purpose of living things in breeding is to multiply offspring, so that their species do not run out or become extinct. Not only do animals reproduce, humans also reproduce by giving birth.

Definition of Viviparous Animals

Viviparous animals are one way of reproduction in animals by giving birth. How to reproduce in animals that generally occur in mammals or mammals. As long as the development of the embryo takes place, food is obtained from the mother’s body through the placenta or placenta.

The process of pregnancy in viviparous animals begins with the fertilization of the male cell against the female egg cell in the mother’s body. After that there is growth until finally the parent gives birth and forms a new individual. The development of viviparous hyacinths is also characterized by the female releasing eggs in her reproductive tract. Then copulation and fertilization occur in the female genital tract.

General Characteristics of Viviparous Animals

Viviparous animals have general characteristics that we can usually see from their reproduction by giving birth, namely:

  1. Has mammary glands and nipples
  2. Generally lactating or mammals
  3. Have ears
  4. The body is covered with feathers
  5. Offspring can develop in the mother’s body before being born.

Examples of Viviparous Animals

There are some viviparous animals or breeding by giving birth. Here are some types of viviparous animals and their explanations:

1. Ape

Many people think that apes and monkeys are the same species. Though these two animals have some differences. Even though they are both primates, the two are different because apes don’t have tails while monkeys have tails.

Monkeys also have a larger size while monkeys are smaller. Habitat for apes is more often on the ground, while monkeys are more often in trees. Apes are a member of the hominoidea superfamily of the primate order. In the current taxonomic system there are two families of hominids, namely the family Hylobatidae which consists of four genera and twelve species of gibbons, including the outer gibbon and gibbons of the family hominidae.

In addition there are several animals whose bodies and others are also similar to monkeys, namely:

a. Orangutan

The word “orang utan” itself is taken from the Malay language which means ‘people’ or which means human, while ‘utan’ is forest. Orangutans are a type of large ape with long arms and reddish or brown hair.

Orangutans live in the tropical forests of Indonesia and Malaysia, particularly on the islands of Borneo and Sumatra. Orangutans are found in the tropical rain forest region of Southeast Asia, namely on the islands of Borneo and Sumatra in the parts of Indonesia and Malaysia.

Orangutans are still included in great ape species such as chimpanzees and gorillas. The great ape group includes the classification of types of mammals that have large brains, eyes that point forward and hands that can grip.

The second largest type of ape in the world is the orangutan. The types are Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus), Sumatran orangutans (Pongo Abelii), and Tapanuli orangutans (Pongo tapanuliensis). How to move orangutans by swinging in the trees and making nests from leaves.

Orangutans can live in various types of forests, ranging from coral forests, hills, lowland forests, watersheds, freshwater swamp forests, peat swamps, dry land above mangrove and nipa palm swamps, to mountain forests.

b. Gorilla

Gorillas are the largest type of primates. Gorillas are the second closest species to humans after chimpanzees. There are two species in the gorilla genus, namely the eastern gorilla and the western gorilla.

Gorilla food consists of vegetables and sometimes gorillas also eat insects. Therefore, gorillas are classified as omnivorous animals. Gorillas come from tropical forests in Africa. Compared to the shape of the human body, gorillas have long arms and legs. Where the arms are longer than the legs.

A gorilla’s chest is large and most of its body is hairy, except for the fingers, face, armpits, soles of the feet and palms. The head of the gorilla is large, the eyes are small and brownish in color. Gorillas don’t have tails. Each gorilla has a unique nose like humans, unique fingerprints. And the number of adult gorilla teeth is 32. The five senses of gorillas are almost similar to humans. Male gorillas are bigger than female gorillas.

c. Chimpanzee

The name chimpanzee is derived from the tshiluba language of the kivili chimpanzee language which is the local name for the animal and translates directly to mockman (English) or it could just be ape . Chimpanzee is the common name for the two living species of ape in the genus Pan. The Congo River forms the natural habitat boundary of these two species.

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Chimpanzees also have several kinds, namely: Pan paniscus or bonobo chimpanzees which are members of the hominidae family, along with gorillas, humans and orangutans. Pan Troglodytes or common chimpanzee.

Chimpanzees are members of the family hominidae, gorillas, humans and orangutans. Chimpanzees separated from humans in the family rating about 4 – 6 million years ago. The two chimpanzees above are close relatives of humans, all members of the homini tribe. Chimpanzees are known to be the only members of the Panina subtribe. The two Pan species separated about 1 million years ago.

d. Ancient human

Early humans are also called ‘Prehistoric people’ or prehistoric humans who are now known as prehistoric humans. Pre-literate humans are a type of ancient human who lived in an era before knowing writing.

2. Elephant

Elephants are herbivorous animals that we can find in various habitats, such as savannas, forests, deserts and swamps. They tend to be near water. Female elephants are more likely to live in family groups consisting of just one female and her young or several related females and their young.

While male elephants leave their family groups when they reach puberty, and will live alone or with other males. Adult males also typically interact with family groups when looking for a mate and enter a stage of increased testosterone and aggression called musth that helps them achieve dominance and reproductive success.

The calf is the center of attention of the family group and is dependent on its mother for about three years. Elephants can live for 70 years in the wild. Elephants also communicate through touch, sight, smell and sound. The intelligence of elephants has been compared to that of primates and cetaceans. They appear to be self-aware and show empathy for other elephants who are near or have died.


3. Horses

Horse is one of the mammals. Horses reproduce by giving birth or viviparous. Before giving birth, the mare will experience a period of pregnancy. This pregnancy occurs due to the fertilization of the female egg by the male cell in the mare’s body.

The mare produces milk for her foals and will also continue to feed them for several months. And within a short time of about an hour or two after birth, the horse will be able to stand on its own and walk.

Horses that are going to give birth usually occur at night or early in the morning. After the foal is born, the mare will chew the placenta to prevent the foal from suffocating. The mother horse will lick her child to help blood circulation.

Foals are born without teeth. As they get older, the horse’s teeth begin to grow. By the age of six to nine months, the horse has all of its baby teeth. When the foal is five to six years old, those baby teeth will be replaced by permanent teeth.

4. Whale

Whales are a group of mammals and unlike other fish, whales reproduce by giving birth or viviparous. Mother whales also breastfeed their babies for quite a long time. And when nursing lasts more than a year it appears that the mother whale has a strong bond with her calf.

Whales breed seasonally and usually breed in warm tropical waters. For female whales can have one child for every one year with a gestation period of nine to eighteen months. The calf that is born can swim immediately after leaving the mother’s body.

For mating, whales are polygamous mammals and complex matings include long migrations to breeding grounds, vocalizations and sometimes competition between males for females. Mating rituals among whales can be fierce. Male humpback whales can beat each other with fins and heads to win the opportunity to mate with females.

A female whale mating with one male while being supported from below by another male. There are also species of whales that prefer to sing deep and hoarse vocals to get the attention of the female. Bull whales can sing songs that occur from other sound attacks.

Whales mate with males by inserting sperm into the female’s vents to fertilize eggs. And after birth, the calves are ready to swim and follow their mother on sea migrations for at least six months.

5. Giraffe

Giraffe is a mammal that has a height of 4-6 m. The giraffe’s favorite foods include acacia tree leaves, wild apricots, fruit flowers, buds, seeds and fresh grass. To drink, giraffes only drink water in small portions, giraffes get water from their food.

If two male giraffes meet, they will start banging their heads and necks. The winner will get a female giraffe. And the female giraffe Alan is pregnant for 15 months. A newborn baby giraffe is 2 meters tall, and has a unique pattern.

After the baby giraffe is born, the mother will keep and protect the baby giraffe from its friends for 15 days. Young giraffes can join their mother mates after that.

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6. Cat

In breeding male cats and female cats experience the process of mating first. Then the female cat will be pregnant for 58-67 days or about two months. And the cat will give birth to kittens. Cats can give birth once to six kittens.

In giving birth, cats have their own characteristics, such as:

  1. Find a quiet and secluded place
  2. The mother cat’s appetite is reduced
  3. Continuous meowing
  4. Release water like pee

If Sinaumed’s is a cat lover, Sinaumed’s can get to know cats further by reading books available at .

7. Lion

Lions are animals that live in groups. Lion groups usually consist of a male and female, then this group guards its territory. The lifespan of lions is between 10 and 15 years in the wild, but in captivity it is possible to be more than 20 years.

The female lion is more active in hunting, while the male lion is more relaxed in waiting and asking for rations from the prey of the females. Male lions are also believed to be superior and mighty compared to other lions. However, the lion’s weakness is that it cannot climb trees.

The male lion’s body grows thick fur around the nape, and it is more advantageous to protect the nape, especially in free fights between big cats which tend to pounce on the nape to immobilize their enemies.

And when the mating season arrives, once the population takes 20 seconds and lions can mate up to 50 times a day. The gestation period for a lioness is around 98–120 days and a pregnant female will temporarily leave the group. Lions in one birth will give birth to 1-6 tails. Feeding time is 7–10 months.

For 1 week, baby lions can not see. After 3 weeks I was able to walk. Females who give birth will not return to the group until their young are 6-8 weeks old. Lion cubs can eat meat after 3 months of age. Lion cubs often die because they are killed by males from other groups or are not cared for by lionesses due to the limited availability of food.

Lion cubs that live up to 1 year are only 40%, up to 2 years is 20%, when they become adult lions the percentage of deaths decreases. Male lions aged 3-4 years have become adult lions, and 3-year-old female lions have become adult lions. Once there was a lion kept until the age of 24 years.

8. Goat

Female goats start to mature at the age of 6-8 months. Good age in mating is the age of 10-12 months. And to prevent young female goats from marrying at the age of 5 months, they have been separated from the group of male goats, in cages or in the nursery.

Meanwhile, male goats start to become sexually mature at the age of 6-8 months, but at the age of 12 they are good enough to mate with females. Males are always in a state of heat, every stimulus that comes through the five senses, for example the smell of a female goat that is not far from him.

Goats in heat occur every 18-21 days or approximately 19 days and heat lasts for a day and a night up to two days and two nights. The right mating that can produce pregnancy is in mid-estrus.

If the goat has shown signs of lust in the morning, then mate it in the evening, if it is in heat in the afternoon, then mate it the next day, namely in the morning. Mating with sows after giving birth is carried out when the mother shows the first sign of heat and is repeated every time the animal is in heat for the next time until it becomes pregnant. The duration of pregnancy in female goats is around 150-154 days.

Goats have signs of being pregnant, namely:

  1. The mother goat is calmer
  2. Better appetite
  3. The body of the goat is fatter
  4. If the goat owner lets him go, the goat chooses to be alone
  5. Lust is not visible anymore
  6. Hair color is more shiny
  7. The right side of the abdomen is getting bigger and hanging
  8. The number of children born is one to four tails but generally give birth to 2 tails
  9. Goats are weaned or released from milk at the age of 3-5 months
  10. The mother is still mated while still breastfeeding the kid goats.

Those are some examples of viviparous animals and their explanations. If Sinaumed’s is interested in reading books about viviparous animals, their characteristics and examples of other animals. Sinaumed’s can read books available at . As #FriendsWithoutLimits we strive to give the best!