Qunut Prayer: Definition, Reading, Kinds, and Procedures

Qunut Prayer – The qunut prayer at dawn must be familiar to Sinaumed’s’ ears , especially those who are Muslim, because they always read and practice it every day. This is because the majority of Muslim communities in Indonesia follow the Shafi’i school of thought by including this qunut prayer in their morning prayers. But even so, there are still some ordinary people who feel confused about what the qunut prayer is. In fact, not infrequently, some other people consider the qunut prayer to be heresy in the process of the morning prayer service.

In fact, what is the qunut prayer? What kinds of qunut prayers are applied in this morning prayer? What are the procedures for carrying out as well as the application of the qunut prayer in the morning prayer? Let’s look at the following reviews so that Sinaumed’s understands these things!

What Is Qunut Prayer?

Basically, the qunut prayer is a prayer that is read in a sunnah manner when carrying out prayer services, especially at the dawn and witr prayers which are held at the end of the month of Ramadan. The existence of this qunut prayer besides being a complement to prayer, can also be considered as a prayer to ask for blessings, forgiveness, and protection from Allah SWT. The reading of this qunut prayer will later be said while standing upright and the law is sunnah, although some Indonesian people have carried it out so that it looks as if it is obligatory.

If based on the Big Indonesian Dictionary (KBBI), the word “qunut” has the meaning of a special prayer which is usually recited after the i’tidal in the last cycle of certain prayers, such as in the dawn prayer. This Qunut can also be read because there is a danger, calamity, or calamity that is befalling the community.

In Language

If you trace the meaning of qunut in Arabic, it turns out that the term has many meanings, including:

a) Stand up

As with the words of Rasulullah SAW which reads,

Meaning: “The most important prayer is the one that lasts a long time” (HR. Muslim)

b) Submit

As with the words of Allah SWT which reads,

Meaning: “Even to Him belongs what is in the heavens and on earth, all are subject to Him.” (Al-Baqarah 116)

c) Obey

As with the words of Allah SWT which reads,

Meaning: O Maryam, obey your Lord, prostrate and bow down with those who bow down . (QS. Ali ‘Imran: 43)

d) Silence

As in the history by Zaid bin Arqam, which reads.

Meaning: “From Zaid bin Arqam he said: you used to talk to each other when you prayed until the verse came down: then we were ordered to be silent.” HR. Bukhari and Muslim, Bukhari’s editorial

e) Prayer

As narrated by Imam Nawawi (676 H) who said that,

Meaning: “Qunut has many meanings in Arabic, among them is prayer, both prayer for good or prayer for evil.”

In Terms

Meanwhile, according to the terms of the scholars consider that the word “Qunut” can be interpreted as follows.

Meaning: “According to shari’at expert scholars qunut is the name for prayer in prayer at a certain moment when standing up”

Qunut Prayer Reading

Allah hummah dinii fiiman hadait.

Wa’afini fiman ‘afait.

Watawallani fiman tawal-laiit.

Wabaariklii fiimaa a’thait.

Waqinii syarramaa qadhait.

Fainnaka taqdhii walaa yuqdha ‘alaik.

 Wainnahu laayadzilu man walait. 

Walaa ya’izzu man ‘aadait.

Tabaarakta rabbana wa ta’ala.

Falakalhamdu ‘alaa maa qodhoit.

Astaghfiruka wa atuubu ilaik.

Washallallahu ‘ala Sayyidina Muhammadin Nabiyyil ummiyyi. Wa Alaa aalihi wa shahbihi Wa Sallam.

It means:

“O Allah, give us guidance as the people you have guided, give us health like the people you have given health, Give us power like the people you have given power, Give blessings to the things you have given us, Take care of us from the bad things that you have ensured.

Indeed, you are the one who determines and no one determines you, in fact there is no humiliation for those whom you give power, and those who you oppose will not be honored.

You, O our God, you are holy and you are sublime.

May Allah give mercy, blessings and peace be upon our Prophet Muhammad SAW, his family and companions.”

Kinds of Qunut Prayers

The existence of this qunut prayer has three kinds, namely the Qunut Nazilah prayer, the Qunut Witir prayer, and the Qunut prayer which is read during the second cycle of the dawn prayer. Well, here is the description.

  1. Qunut Nazilah prayer

Namely the qunut prayer which is recited after performing the bowing or i’tidal movement in the last cycle of prayer. The law is sunnah hai’ah alias if you forget to be left behind, then it is not sunnah to prostrate sahwi. This qunut Nazilah prayer is usually done because there is an event or disaster that befalls the community, such as natural disasters, epidemics, and others.

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The qunut Nazilah prayer is modeled on the worship of Rasulullah SAW, who at that time recited the qunut Nazilah prayer for a full month over the occurrence of a disaster in the form of the killing of Qurra (the companions of the Prophet who memorized the Koran) at the Ma’unah well. In addition, it is also based on the history of Abi Hurairah ra. who revealed that: “Rasulullah SAW if you want to pray for someone’s good or pray for someone’s evil, then he prays qunut after bowing ‘” (HR Bukhari and Ahmad)

The following is the qunut Nazilah prayer:

Allahummahdini fiman hadait, wa afini fiman ‘afait watawallani fiman tawallait, wa barikli fima a’thaita, wa qini syarra ma qadhait, fainnaka taqdhi wa la yuqdha alaik, wa innahu la yadzillu man walait, wa la yaizzu man adait, tabarakta rabbana wa ta ‘alait, fa lakalhamdu ‘ala ma qadhait, astgahfiruka wa atubu ilaik.

Allahummadfa’ annal ghala’a wal waba’a wal fakhsya’a wal munkar was syuyufal mukhtalfata was syadaidal mihan, ma dzhara minha wa ma bathana, min baladina hadza Khassah, wa min buldanil muslimina aammah, innaka ala kulli syai’in qadir, wa shallallahu ala sayyidina muhammadin wal hamdulillahi rabbil ‘alamin.

Meaning: “O Allah, guide me like those whom You have guided. Give me health like the people you have given health to. Lead me along with those whom You have led.

Bless all that You have led. Bless all that You have given me. And protect me from evil. For verily it is You who determines and no one judges (decides) for You. Verily, those whom You have given authority will not disgrace.

And it will not be glorious those whom You are against. Blessed are You and Most High are You. Praise be to You for what You have ensured. I beg forgiveness and repentance to You. May Allah give mercy and greetings to our lord Prophet Muhammad SAW and all his family and friends.”

  1. Qunut Witr prayer

According to the followers of Imam Abu Hanifah (Hanafiyah), this qunut witr prayer is performed in the third cycle before bowing in every sunnah prayer. Meanwhile, according to followers of Imam Ahmad bin Hambal (Hanabilah), this qunut witir prayer is performed after bowing. Then according to followers of Imam Syafi’i (Syafi’iyah), this qunut witr prayer is performed at the end of the witr prayer, namely after bowing in the second half of Ramadan. However, according to followers of Imam Malik, the existence of the qunut witr prayer is not sunnah.

The following is the qunut witir prayer and its meaning.

Meaning: “O Allah, show me as to those You have guided, and grant me forgiveness as to those You have forgiven, and take care of me as to those You have nurtured, and give me blessings as You have bestowed on them, and save me from the dangers that You have appointed.”

  1. Qunut Prayer in the Second Rakaat of Fajr Prayer

According to the followers of Imam Abu Hanifah and Imam Ahmad, the existence of the qunut prayer at dawn is not sanctioned because the hadith of the Prophet SAW revealed that he once performed the qunut prayer during the Fajr prayer for a month which has been removed (mansukh) by ijma’. As narrated by Ibn Mas’ud:

Meaning: “Narrated by Ibn Mas’ud: That the Prophet SAW had done the qunut prayer for one month to pray for the Arabs who were still alive, then the Prophet SAW left him.” (Muslim HR)

Even so, until now this morning qunut prayer is still carried out by the majority of Muslims, especially in Indonesia. According to the followers of Imam Malik (Malikiyyah), this dawn qunut prayer is legally sunnah but is required to be slow. Likewise according to Syafa’iyyah who revealed that the law for the qunut prayer at dawn is sunnah ab’ad (if you forget to miss it, you are circumcised in prostration for sahwi) to be performed in the second cycle of the dawn prayer. This is because when Rasulullah SAW raised his head from bowing in the second cycle of the dawn prayer, he also recited qunut.

The following is the morning qunut prayer:

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Allahummah dinii fii man hadait, wa ‘aafiinii fii man ‘aafait, wa tawallanii fii man tawallait, wa baarik lii fii maa a’thait, wa qi nii sharra maa qadlait, fa innaka taqdli wa laa yuqdlaa ‘alaik, wa innahuu laa yadzillu want waalait, wa laa ya’izzu man ‘aadait, tabaarakta rabbanaa wa ta’aalait, falakal hamdu ‘ala maa qadait, astaghfiruka wa atubu ilaik. Washallallahu ‘ala sayyidina muhammadin nabiyyil ummiyi wa ‘alaalihi wa shohbihi wa sallama.

It means:

“O Allah, show me as those whom You have shown, and grant me health as those whom You have given health. And take care of me as the person You have cared for, and bless me in what You have given, and save me from the dangers of evil that You have ordained.

So in fact it is You who punishes and is not subject to punishment. So verily those whom You lead are not dishonorable. And it is not glorious those whom You are hostile to. Glory be to You, O our Lord, and Exalted to You. Glory to You is all praise above that which You punish. I ask forgiveness from You and I repent to You. (And may Allah) bestow mercy and peace on our lord the Prophet Muhammad, his family and companions.”

The Qunut Prayer Procedure

1. Raising Both Hands

The procedure for performing the qunut prayer in prayer is that it is recommended to raise both hands when reading the qunut prayer, this is the opinion chosen by Imam Nawawi:

It means:

“Is it advisable to raise both hands when qunut? There are two popular opinions (among the Syafi’iyyah scholars); the first is not recommended, the second is recommended, the second is authentic according to the Syafi’iyyah scholars.”

2. It is not Sunnah to wipe the face

After finishing reading the qunut prayer, both the priest, makmum or munfarid immediately go down to prostrate and it is not recommended to wipe the face with both hands. In this regard, after mentioning several opinions among the Syafi’iyyah scholars regarding this matter, Imam Nawawi said:

Meaning: “What is authentic is that it is recommended to raise both hands without wiping the face”

Then, it is better for us to be silent when reading tsana (praise). When the priest reads qunut, there are several moments as if the priest is silent and does not read something, even though the priest is actually reading tsana (praise) to Allah. Therefore, as a community, we should participate in reciting tsana (praise) or silence.

3. It is prescribed to turn the palm of the hand

In this procedure, in several places, we often find that when the priest reads certain editorials in the qunut prayer, the palms of the hands that were facing upwards are turned back, so that the backs of the hands are facing upwards. Indeed, what is the point of all this? Shaykhul Islam Zakaria al-Ansari (w 926 H) said in his book:

Meaning: “The scholars say: it is sunnah to turn the palms of the hands to the sky in every prayer to repel reinforcements, and to face the palms to the sky in every prayer that contains a request, that is because the Prophet Muhammad SAW, when praying istisqa, turned the backs of his hands to the sky. sky according to the history of the Muslim priest, then qiyaskanlah on istisqo which is equivalent to it “

Therefore, turning the hands when praying is done when asking to reject reinforcements. Meanwhile, if you want to beg or ask for a request from Allah SWT, then what is right is to raise your hand with your palm facing upwards.

So, that’s an overview of what a qunut prayer is and the types of qunut prayers that Sinaumed’s can apply in prayer. Has Sinaumed’s practiced this qunut prayer when he is about to pray the dawn or witr prayers?

Source:

Maulana, Galih. (2018). Peel Complete Qunut Dawn. Jakarta: Fiqh Publishing House.

Zatnika, H. Analysis of the fatwa of the Muhammadiyah HPT (Association of Tarjih Decisions) 1971 and of the 1972 Association of Tarjih Rules concerning the prayer of qunut for the dawn prayer (Bachelor’s thesis, Jakarta: Faculty of Syari’ah and Law of UIN Syarif Hidayatullah).

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