6 Legal Requirements for Friday Prayers, Wisdom, and Threats for Leaving It

Legal Requirements for Friday Prayers – For Muslim men, the Friday prayer is an obligation that should not be abandoned at all. In practice it must also be in accordance with what has been exemplified by Rasulullah SAW. Starting from the intention, pillars, to the legal requirements of the Friday prayer.

These rules and conditions must be met in order for the Friday prayer to be valid and acceptable as worship. In Indonesia, it is customary for boys to attend congregational Friday prayers at the mosque from a young age and then learn their knowledge at school or a place to recite the Koran.

Understanding Friday Prayers

Friday prayer is a worship that must be carried out on Friday at midday. Based on the category, this worship has its own obligations. This means that it cannot be used as a substitute for midday prayers. Unless you are sick or for some other reason, then you are obliged to perform the midday prayer.

Friday prayers consist of two cycles and are performed after two sermons. Even though it cannot be a substitute for the midday prayer, when you have done the Friday prayer, you don’t need to do the midday prayer again.

Allah SWT has ordered the Prophet Muhammad SAW to perform Friday prayers since he was still living in Mecca or before making hijrah. Unfortunately, while in Mecca he could not carry out the order until he moved to Medina.

When the Prophet migrated to Medina, he performed Friday prayers for the first time at Quba, to be precise in a village called “Amru bin Auf”. Since arriving at Qubah on Monday, the Prophet Muhammad stayed for four days to establish a mosque as a place of worship for Muslims in this area.

The law of following the Friday prayer is obligatory for every Muslim, except for slaves, women, children and people who are sick. As conveyed by the Prophet in the following hadith:

Friday prayers are obligatory for every Muslim in congregation, except (not required) for four people, namely, slaves, women, small children and sick people. ”(Narrated by Abu Dawud)

The scholars then agreed that the law of performing Friday prayers is fardhu ‘ain, not fardhu kifayah. As stated in the book Fiqh Prayers of the Four Madzhabs written by Asy Shaykh Abdul Qadir Ar Rahbawi.

Obligatory Requirements and Legal Requirements for Friday Prayers

In practice, the Friday prayer has similarities with other obligatory prayers, except in a number of ways. For example, you have to start with two sermons first.

In addition, Imam Syafi’i explains that Friday prayers have mandatory requirements and legal conditions that must be met. Here is a brief explanation.

Requirements of Obligatory Friday Prayers

  1. Islamic religion.
  2. Man. In other words, Friday prayers are not obligatory for women.
  3. Free or slave.
  4. Reasonable, so that every crazy person is not obliged to carry it out
  5. Has reached the age of puberty. This means that children are not required to attend Friday prayers
  6. Healthy.
  7. Lives in the area where Friday prayers are held. So a traveler is not obliged to do this worship, unless he intends to stay for 4 days.

Friday Prayer Legitimacy

Apart from the mandatory requirements, there are also legal requirements that must be met in order for the Friday prayers that Sinaumed’s performs to be valid. These legal conditions include:

Held at Midday Time

The Friday prayer and its two khutbahs must be performed at midday. This provision refers to the hadith:


Meaning: Verily the Prophet SAW performed the Friday prayer when the sun leaned to the west (zuhr time). ( HR Al-Bukhari from friend Anas )

So if the Friday prayer or sermon is performed after the noon time ends, it will be invalid. For example, when the Asr time arrives and the congregation has not yet taken the takbiratul ihram, the congregation must perform the midday prayer.

If during the Friday prayers, the noon time is over, then it must be perfected into noon without saying the intention to return.

Conducted in Residential Areas

Friday prayers are also mandatory in residential areas. There are no special requirements for the place itself. It can be inside buildings, mosques, even in the field. Provided that the field is still within the limits of residential areas.

Related to this, Sheikh Abu Hamid Muhammad bin Muhammad al-Ghazali said:

وَلَا يُشْتَرَطُ أَنْ يُعْقَدَ الْجُمُعَةُ فِي رُكْنٍ أَوْ مَسْجِدٍ بَلْ يَجُوْزُ فِي الصَّحْرَاءِ إِذَا كاَنَ مَعْدُوْداً مِنْ خِطَّةِ الْبَلَدِ فَإِنْ بَعُدَ عَنِ الْبَلَدِ بِحَيْثُ يَتَرَخَّصُ الْمُسَافِرُ إِذَا انْتَهَى إِلَيْهِ لَمْ تَنْعَقِدْ اَلْجُمُعَةُفِيْهَا

See also  difference between act and law

Meaning: Friday is not required to be held in a surau or mosque, it is even permissible in a field if it is still classified as part of a residential area. If it is far from residential areas, if the traveler can take the rukhshah at that place, then Friday is not valid to be held at that place.

The First Rak’ah Must Be Done in Congregation

The implementation of the Friday prayer can be said to be valid when – at least – the first rak’ah is held in congregation. Thus, if in the second cycle there are worshipers who want to separate from the priest or continue praying separately, the Friday prayer is still valid.

Congregation of Friday prayers are people who are obliged to carry it out

As stated in the mandatory requirements, the Friday prayer congregation must come from residents who live in the area where this prayer is held. As for the numbers themselves, there are differences of opinion among the scholars.

In the Shafi’i school, the standard number of worshipers for Friday prayers is 40 people. There are also those who think it can be carried out with 12 worshipers. In another version, 4 worshipers are enough.

Regarding this matter Al-Jamal al-Habsyi quoted by Sheikh Abu Bakr bin Syatha argues:

قَالَ الْجَمَلُ الْحَبْشِيُّ فَاِذَا عَلِمَ الْعَامِيُّ أَنْ يُقَلِّدَ بِقَلْبِهِ مَنْ يَقُوْلُ مِنْ أَصْحَابِ الشَّافِعِيِّ بِإِقَامَتِهَا بِأَرْبَعَةٍ أَوْ بِاثْنَيْ عَشَرَ فَلَا بَأْسَ بِذَلِكَ إِذْ لَا عُسْرَ فِيْهِ

Meaning: Said Sheikh al-Jamal al-Habsyi; If ordinary people know in their hearts that they have faith in the scholars of the Shafi’i school of thought that it is sufficient to observe Fridays with 4 or 12 people, then there is no problem with that, because there are no difficulties in that regard. ( Shaykh Abu Bakr bin Syatha, Jam’u al-Risalatain, page: 18 ).

In one village there may only be one Friday prayer

In other words, in one village there cannot be two Fridays. Because when there are two Fridays in the same place, what is considered valid is the one that performs the takbiratul ihram first. The second or third will be considered invalid.

Then if the takbiratul ihram is carried out simultaneously then both are considered invalid. However, if the two places of implementation are far apart, one or both places cannot accommodate the pilgrims who come, or there is tension between groups, then it is permissible to hold two Fridays in one village.

As stated by Sheikh Abu Bakr bin Syatha’:

وَالْحَاصِلُ أَنَّ عُسْرَ اجْتِمَاعِهِمْ اَلْمُجَوِّزَ لِلتَّعَدُّدِ إِمَّا لِضَيْقِ الْمَكَانِ اَوْ لِقِتَالٍ بَيْنَهُمْ اَوْ لِبُعْدِ أَطْرَافِ الْمَحَلِّ بِالشَّرْطِ

Meaning: In conclusion, it is difficult to gather congregations on Friday who allow their numbers to be held on Friday sometimes due to narrow space, disputes among local residents or the distance of the place in accordance with the requirements. ( Shaykh Abu Bakr bin Syatha, Jam’u al-Risalatain, page: 4 ).

Must Begin with Two Sermons

Friday prayers are only considered valid if they are preceded by two sermons. This is based on the hadith:

أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اitor

Meaning: Rasulullah SAW preached by standing up then sitting down, then standing up again continuing his sermon . ( HR. Muslim ).

Did you know that prayer is the first practice that will be brought to account? If our prayers are correct then our other deeds are correct, if our prayers are damaged then our other deeds are also damaged. For that, you need to learn the correct procedure for praying through the book The Super Complete Book of Prayer Learning Guide & Remembrance written by A Solihin As Suhaili.

The Wisdom of Performing Friday Prayers

A good Muslim does not just carry out Fridays out of obligation, but understands the wisdom behind it. Moreover, Friday itself is one of the best days.

Allah SWT has ordered all Muslim men to perform Friday prayers through the Qur’an which means:

O you who believe! If you have been called upon to pray on Friday, then immediately remember Allah and leave buying and selling .” ( QS. Al-Jumuah verse 9 ).

Therefore, there must be lessons and virtues that can be a blessing for all of us. So what are the wisdom of performing Friday prayers? Here’s the full explanation.

1. Meet Many People in One Place

If you think about it, bringing together a lot of people in one place is a difficult task. Especially if there are no specific events or needs, such as elections, the Republic of Indonesia Anniversary commemoration, or Friday prayers.

Yup, when the call to prayer starts to ring out, hundreds or even thousands of Muslim men flock to the nearest mosque. In this routine meeting once a week, we can all strengthen ties of friendship and togetherness.

2. Obtain Guidance and Counsel Regarding Religion and Life

When the Khatib delivers the sermon, we can get the guidance we need to better understand the teachings of Islam. Depending on the theme chosen by the Khatib, we can also get advice for dealing with various tests.

See also  difference between no location found and location not available

3. Become expiation or eraser of sins

Friday prayers can also be a means to erase the sins that we commit between one Friday and another. When we gather at the mosque to carry out Friday, we can also increase unity and brotherhood.

The Priority of Friday Prayers

Compared to others, Friday is the day of perfection because this is the day when Allah SWT perfected all of His creation. Plus, Allah also created all goodness on Friday.

Therefore, carrying out worship on Friday has its own virtues that can bring blessings to every Muslim. So, here are four virtues of Friday prayers that you should know:

Becoming a Hajj for Poor People

The primacy of the first Friday prayer lies in its rewards which are equated with the pilgrimage. This refers to the words of the Prophet Muhammad SAW:

اَلْجُمُعَةُ حَجُّ الْفُقَرَاءِ

Meaning: “Friday is the pilgrimage of the poor.”

Regarding this hadith, Sheikh Ihsan bin Dakhlan provides additional explanations as follows:

يَعْنِيْ ذَهَابُ الْعَاجِزِيْنَ عَنِ الْحَجِّ اِلَى الْجُمُعَةِ هُوَ لَهُمْ كَالْحَجِّ فِيْ حُصُوْلِ الثَّوَابِ وَاِنْ تَفَاوَتَ وَفِيْهِ الْحَثُّ عَلَى فِعْلِهَا وَالتَّرْغِيْبُ فِيْهِ.

Meaning: “That is, the departure of people who cannot afford pilgrimage to Friday prayers, is like going to the place of pilgrimage in terms of getting a reward, even though the level of reward is different. In this hadith it gives encouragement to do Friday. ( Syekh Ihsan bin Dakhlan, Manahij al-Imdad Syarh Ershad al-‘Ibad, juz.1, p.282 )

Such as Fasting and Prayer for One Year

The virtue of the second Friday prayer is found in another hadith which says that every Muslim male who performs this service will receive a special gift. Namely the reward of fasting and praying for one year:

مَنْ غَسَّلَ يَوْمَ الْجُمُعَةِ وَاغْتَسَلَ وَبَكَّرَ وَابْتَكَرَ وَمَشَى وَلَمْ يَرْكَبْ وَدَنَا مِنْ الْإِمَامِ فَاسْتَمَعَ وَلَمْ يَلْغُ كَانَ لَهُ بِكُلِّ خُطْوَةٍ عَمَلُ سَنَةٍ أَجْرُ صِيَامِهَا وَقِيَامِهَا

Meaning: “Whoever washes his clothes and head, takes a bath, rushes for Friday, meets the start of the sermon, walks and does not ride a vehicle, is close to the Imam, listens to the sermon and does not play games, then every step he takes will be rewarded by fasting and praying for one year.” ( Narrated by Al-Tirmidhi and al-Hakim ).

Obtain Sacrifice Rewards

The third virtue is getting a reward like having sacrificed, as stated in the hadith:

مَنْ رَاحَ إِلَى الْجُمُعَةِ فِي السَّاعَةِ الْأُوْلَى فَكَأَنَّمَا قَرَّبَ بَدْنَةً وَمَنَ رَاحَ فِي السَّاعَةِ الثَّانِيَةِ فَكَأَنَّمَا قَرَّبَ بَقَرَةً وَمَنْ رَاحَ فِي السَّاعَةِ الثَّالِثَةِ فَكَأَنَّمَا قَرَّبَ كِبَشًا أَقْرَنَ وَمَنْ رَاحَ فِي السَّاعَةِ الرَّابِعَةِ فَكَأَنَّمَا أَهْدَى دَجَاجَةً وَمَنْ رَاحَ فِي السَّاعَةِ الْخَامِسَةِ فَكَأَنَّمَا أَهْدَى بَيْضَةً فَإِذَا خَرَجَ الْإِمَامَ طُوِيَتِ الصُّحُفُ وَرُفِعَتِ الْأَقْلَامُ وَاجْتَمَعَتِ الْمَلَائِكَةُ عِنْدَ الْمِنْبَرِ يَسْتَمِعُوْنَ الذِّكْرَ فَمَنْ جَاءَ بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ فَإِنَّمَا جَاءَ لِحَقِّ الصَّلَاةِ لَيْسَ لَهُ مِنَ الْفَضْلِ شَيْءٌ

Meaning: “Anyone who goes to the Friday prayer in the first hour, it is as if he is sacrificing a camel. Whoever departs in the second hour is as if he is sacrificing a cow.”

Anyone who departs at the third hour, it is as if he is sacrificing a goat with horns. Anyone who leaves at the fourth hour, as if rewarding a rooster. Anyone who departs at the fifth hour, it is as if presenting an egg.

After the imam leaves, the record of charity has been closed, the qalam for recording has been lifted, and the angels gather at the minbar to listen to the remembrance. Anyone who comes after that, then he comes only to fulfill the right to pray and does not get any priority.” (Narrated by al-Bukhari and Muslim).

From this hadith it can be concluded that the hour or time mentioned is the encouragement or motivation for people to leave for Friday Friday early. Regarding the size of the reward obtained, only Allah SWT knows it.

However, the Prophet Muhammad SAW once said in a hadith:

ثَلَاثٌ لَوْ يَعْلَمُ النَّاسُ مَا فِيْهِنَّ لَرَكَضُوْا رَكْضَ الْإِبِلِ فِي طَلَبِهِنَّ اَلْأَذَانُ وَالصَّفُّ الْأَوَّلُ وَالْغُدُوُّ إِلَى الْجُمُعَةِ

Meaning: “There are three things that if everyone knew what was in them, they would run like camels to chase them. All three are the call to prayer, the front row, and leave for Friday prayers early” ( Narrated by Al-Bukhari and Muslim ).

There are many other wisdoms and virtues of prayer that you need to learn so that you can improve your life in this world and later become the best provision in the hereafter. As written by Saiful Hadi El Sutha in the book Prayer Samudra Hikmah.

Threats of Leaving Friday Prayers

Given the many benefits and virtues of Friday prayers, we should carry out Fridays regularly. Moreover, anyone who leaves it because it is considered a light worship, then his heart will be seen as hypocritical by Allah SWT.

This is based on the hadith of the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam which reads:

Whoever leaves the Friday prayer three times because he takes it lightly, surely Allah will close the eyes of his heart . ( Narrated by Abu Dawud ).

Then for people who leave the Friday prayer because they are lazy, but still believe in this obligation, according to the Ulama, this person cannot be called an infidel but must repent.

This is a review of the legal requirements for Friday prayers that Sinaumed’s needs to know. Sinaumed’s can also read related books by visiting sinaumedia.com so you have #MoreWithReading information.

Author: Gill

Also read: