Syarifah is – Are you familiar with the word Syarifah? In general, sharifah is closely related to the descendants of the Prophet Muhammad who have survived to this day. Syarif or sharifah for women themselves are descendants of the Prophet Muhammad from Hasan’s path. Meanwhile, sayyid ( sayyidah for women) are descendants of the Prophet Muhammad from the Husein line. Hasan and Husein are the children of Ali bin Abu Talib who married the Prophet Muhammad’s daughter, Fatimah. To find out a deeper explanation of sharifah, you can see this article, Sinaumed’s
The Virtue of Syarifah in Marriage
One of Syarifah’s virtues that is widely discussed is her presence as the successor to the descendants of the Prophet Muhammad. Therefore, one of the emphasis is on marriage. In the Repository study of UIN Sunan Kalijaga, it has been stated that there is a concept of kafa’ah in marriage, which is an equivalence between men and women who wish to marry in various ways, including religion, lineage, and work.
This concept eventually gave birth to a ban on marriage between Syarifah and non Sayyid , because they were considered not to be equal and could damage or break the lineage of the Prophet Muhammad.
This research also shows the views of Habaib Jam’iyyah Rabi ṭah Alawiyyah Yogyakarta, namely a condition where a Syarifah is then prohibited from marrying a non Sayyid man because he is considered not to be of the same class. However, in this case, the prohibition is not carried out absolutely.
This is because kafā’ah is very dependent on the permission or approval of the guardian or woman or Sharifah. When Syarifah is married to a man who is not Sayyid and his guardian is pleased, then it is permissible for the marriage law to be carried out.
On the other hand, with a Syarifah who marries a non Sayyid man without the permission of the guardian, it will be considered as breaking the relationship between the descendants of the Prophet Muhammad.
In the following discussion, we will discuss the views of the scholars on Syarifah.
Views of Ulama Regarding the Virtue of Sharifah
Regarding the priority of Syarifah which is closely related to marriage and lineage, there are some scholars who then call it Kufu ‘ or Kafa’ah . For example, can a billionaire woman marry a motorcycle taxi driver? Can a woman who graduated from a doctoral degree be married to a man who graduated from junior high school? Etc. From this issue of kufu’, the scholars then have differing opinions regarding whether kufu’ is a condition for a valid marriage, whether kufu’ is a must or not.
Scholars who disagree with the priority of Syarifah include Sheikh Sufyan Ats Saury, Sheikh Al-hasan Al Bishry and one of the Hanafi madzhab scholars, namely Sheikh Al Karakhy. The argument used is that all servants of Allah SWT are the same, whether they are Arabs or non-Arabs, rich or poor, all are equal in the eyes of Allah SWT.
The difference is only piety. Another example is the marriage of Bilal Bin Rabah RA with an Ansar woman . This marriage itself is an order from Rasulullah SAW. If kufu’ was a condition for a valid marriage or a standard of equivalence, surely the Prophet Muhammad would not order it.
The Imams of the 4 Madzhabs namely Al Hanafi, Al Maliki, As-Syafi’I and Al Hambali then said that kufu ‘is not a condition for a valid marriage. That is, the marriage remains valid without kufu ‘. They also then included kufu ‘in the luzum condition , meaning that the marriage could be prosecuted for fasakh by the guardian if a husband is later judged to be disabled as a result of not being kufu’. The priests of this school also say that the purpose of kufu ‘ is to maintain the longevity, benefit, and happiness of the marital relationship between husband and wife.
Several other reasons are the hadith of Aisyah RA which contains advice for guardians to marry their daughters to men who are equal. He did this so that one day he could get good offspring.
There is also the hadith of Abi Hatim Al Muzanny RA regarding the order for guardians to marry their daughters to men who are good in religion and morals. And the priests of this school also reasoned that kufu’ is a very rational and natural thing in marriage.
The scholars who agree with the existence of kufu ‘ then only limit it to women. This is because they think that there is no problem if his wife is lower than him, for example, from the aspect of social strata. In addition, it could also be, for example, that a husband works as a director of a company and his wife is only a housewife.
Among the imams of the 4 schools of thought, only Imam Malik did not include lineages in the kufu’ aspect. Meanwhile, Imam Hanafi, Imam Syafi’I and Imam Hambali included lineages in an aspect of kufu .
Privileges of Ahlul Bayt
The virtue of Syarifah is also related to the descendants of the Prophet Muhammad who later became known as Ahlul Bait. His descendants deserve the respect and love he received.
As suggested by Abu Bakar Ash-Shiddiq who later said: ” Love Muhammad through love for his descendants (Ahlul Bait) .”
In Islam, Allah SWT and His Messenger have obligated a Muslim to respect and love the Ahlul Bait. This command regarding the Ahlul Bait is also explained as one of the two things that must be adhered to by the people of Rasulullah SAW.
Rasulullah SAW said: ” I leave two things that are very valuable to you. The first is the Book of Allah, the second is my Ahlul Bait .” (Muslim HR)
Even though in the history of Hakim it is stated ‘The second is my sunnah’, but this history of Imam Muslim was later recognized by all scholars because it is stronger in its transmission. In fact, in the Al-Quran there is also an order to love Ahlul Bait in the Ash-Shura verse 23
قُلْ لَّآ اَسْـَٔلُكُمْ عَلَيْهِ اَجْرًا اِلَّا الْمَوَدَّةَ فِى الْقُرْبٰىۗ
( Qul lā asalokum ‘alaihi ajran illal-mawaddata fil-qurbā )
Meaning: ” Say (O Muhammad): I do not ask you for a reward except love for my relatives, “
In the interpretation, it is stated that what is meant by relatives is Ahlul Bait. This is because it is a direct order from Allah SWT, of course this verse must then be known by Muslims. Basically, the verses of the Al-Quran which then mention the virtues and glory of the ahlul bait in general are the arguments that underlie the implementation of kafa’ah in Syarifah marriages.
However, there are other features that Ahlul Bait has and become Syarifah’s priority. This is because, by nature and nature, the Ahlul Bait have virtues because of their blood relationship and descent with the chosen human of Allah SWT, namely the Prophet Muhammad SAW.
This biological relationship is a fact that cannot be denied and cannot possibly be balanced by other people. In addition, this is also reinforced by the existence of information from Allah SWT in the Al-Quran in the letter Al-Ahzab verse 33:
إنّما يريد الله ليذهب عنكم الرّجس اهل البيت ويطهّركم تطهيرا
( … Innamā yurīdullāhu liyuż-hiba ‘angkumur-rijsa ahlal-baiti wa yuṭahhirakum taṭ-hīrā) which means: “Indeed, Allah SWT has intended to remove sins from you, O ahlu al-bait and cleanse you as cleanly as possible. “
Even though there is Syarifah’s priority as Ahlul Bait, Rasulullah SAW also continues to encourage them to increase their piety to Allah SWT. Don’t just rely on your relationship with him.
This is because a noble relationship that is not accompanied by good deeds will not bring them to a high dignity in the sight of Allah SWT.
Syarif and Syarifah’s wedding
The meeting point of Islam and the local culture of the archipelago then explains that syarif and sharifah are titles obtained through the father’s line. Because the sharif and sharifah are the direct lineage of the Prophet, then they must maintain that lineage or lineage.
Children of Syarif who marry non- Sayyid women can then still carry the title Syarif or Syarifah . However, on the other hand, children of sharifah who marry non- sayyid men are then not entitled to use the title syarif or sharifah .
Quoted from the journal Syarifah’s Marriage Law with Non Sayyid Men by Nurul Fatah, marriage between fellow sharifs is also called a patrilineal system. This system also aims to preserve and determine one’s lineage. It is with this system that then requires syarifah women to marry people who are as kufu’ or equal to them.
If Syarifah’s marriage to a non -sayyid occurs , then the risk is the separation of the Prophet’s descendants. Then, this woman is considered to have violated what has been set by the Prophet in his hadith.
Quoted from Muhammad Zainuddin’s Journal of Marriage with Non-Sayid Men , this decision is then discussed in a hadith from Siti Fatimah Az Zahra. When Umar Bin Khattab proposed to his daughter, Umar ra said, ” I don’t want a position, but I have heard the Messenger of Allah say: All causes and lineage will be cut off on the Day of Resurrection except for my cause and my lineage. All children born to their mothers will be related to their father except Fatimah’s child, I am their father and to me they are related. Then, Umar said: I am his friend, equivalent to living with Umm Kulthum I want to have a cause and lineage relationship with him (Rasulullah). ” (Narrated by Al-Baihaqi and Imam Thabrani)
However, the salaf scholars later explained that a syarifah woman is still legally married to a non -sayyid man if her guardian approves and gives her permission. As the hadith narrated by Abu Musa Al-Asyari ra, Rasulullah SAW said, ” No marriage is considered valid except for a marriage attended by the guardian .” (Narrated by Ibn Majah)
From the explanation above, it can be said that Syarifah had to marry a Sayyid man in order to maintain the descendants of the Prophet Muhammad. Thus the discussion about Syarifah , I hope all the discussion above is useful for Sinaumed’s.
If you want to find a book about Islamic marriage, then you can get it at sinaumedia.com . To support Sinaumed’s in adding insight, sinaumedia always provides quality and original books so that Sinaumed’s has #MoreWithReading information .
Source: from various sources
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