Understanding Frameworks: How to Create and Examples

Meaning of Thinking Framework – For someone who is studying in higher education, he is no stranger to what is called research, either individually or in groups. As the name suggests, research cannot be done just like that, but there must be observation, research, etc. first, so that the research produced becomes more specific. In fact, the results of the research can be used for further research.

The research that has been done will usually be poured into written form so that many people will read the results of the research. A research that is poured into written form is also known as “scientific writing”. The appearance of the term “scientific writings” is due to the fact that the data sources used are scientific data sources, so they can be held accountable.

In order for a research or writing a scientific paper to be directed and easy to complete, a framework of thought is needed. With the existence of a frame of mind, the writer or researcher becomes more familiar with the workflow or can be said to know what should be analyzed first. In addition, the framework of thought between one researcher and another is not always the same. So, what frame of mind have you ever made?

Thinking frameworks are more often used in scientific writings, but not always if thinking frameworks are used in scientific writings. The thinking framework can also be used by the writer to complete the writing he has done. A writer will find it easier to complete his writing when using a frame of mind.

So, what exactly is a frame of mind? Come on, read the review of the meaning of the frame of mind, how to make it, and the example.

Concept of Thinking Framework

The same is the case with the meaning of framework in general which means as a support or plan. In addition, thought can be interpreted as an idea or an idea that needs to be poured. Because of this, the thought framework can be interpreted as a plan used to help the writer in completing the writing he has already done.

This frame of mind is also often referred to as the term frame of mind which is usually written in the form of a chart of the important parts that must be worked on first. This thinking frame or thinking can be used in a scientific writing or a non-scientific writing or maybe you have often used a thinking frame in completing a piece of writing?

Although the thinking frame or thinking is often used by the writer, it is not easy to use. In other words, the frame of mind cannot be tampered with. This needs to be done so that the written work produced later remains good and the reader can easily understand the meaning of the writing that has been made by the writer.

In making a frame of mind, there are several things you need to pay attention to, such as making observations, doing literature research, and finding facts related to the topic of discussion. The three elements must be well combined so that with a good frame of mind, you can produce quality writing (scientific or non-scientific).

This thinking frame or frame of mind is usually made in the form of a picture or chart which is then arranged until one chart is connected to the other parts. Therefore, this frame of mind can generally be said to be a flow for completing a piece of writing or research.

As for the flow in this frame of mind, it usually starts from the topic of the problem that will be discussed in the written work. Then, go to the introduction section (if in a scientific work chapter I). After that, look for the cause of the conflict, then enter the solution part of a conflict. Then, enter the closing part.

Thought Framework According to the Experts

Some experts also expressed the meaning of the frame of mind, including:

1. Sapto Haryoko

Sapto Haryoko said that the thinking framework is a research where there are two or more variables used. Therefore, the thinking framework consists of several variables that will then be explained in the research that will be carried out.

2. Echo

According to Eecho, the frame of mind is a basis of understanding that will influence the basis of other people’s understanding. Therefore, the thinking framework can be used as the basis of thinking that will be poured into the form of research or in the form of written work.

3. Sugiyono

Sugiyono stated that the thinking framework is a conceptual model that is then used as a theory related to several factors in the research or that has been identified as an important problem.

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4. Polancik

Polancik said that the framework of thought is a diagram that has a role as a systematic logical flow of the theme that will be written later. According to Polancik, this thinking framework is made based on the questions that will be used in the research. Then, from the research questions, produce a concept that is interconnected, so that it can describe the flow of the research.

5. Suriasoemantri

According to Suriasoemantri, the thinking framework is an explanation that functions to display and organize all the symptoms that already exist in a research to be solved that are in accordance with the criteria that have been made previously.

How to Create a Mindset

The steps of how to make a frame of mind are as follows.

1. Identifying Each Variable

To create a frame of mind or a frame of mind, you need to identify each variable that already exists. In this case, the variable in question can be found and can also be created. Simply put, a researcher must identify or determine the variables that will be used for research.

The variables that have been found or identified are then logically grouped, such as grouped based on age, region to be researched, gender, level of education, and so on. Variables that have been found and have been researched can be applied to the title of scientific papers.

2. Finding the Relationship Between One Variable and Another

After identifying or determining the variables, the next step in creating a framework of thought is to find the connection between one variable and another. This needs to be done because generally the research being done usually requires several variables that are interrelated with each other. Therefore, in one study it can consist of two or more variables.

By looking for the relationship between the variables that have been found, then the variables are used to help the research. In addition, this step can also help researchers or writers obtain research results that are in line with their wishes or expectations.

As for the second example of how to create a framework of thought, such as the topic of discussing employee salaries, then the variables that will be used are the salaries of civil servants and the salaries of private employees.

3. Finding Literature Sources

The framework of thought will be even better if you use literature sources that are suitable for the topic of discussion. So, the third way to create a framework of thought is to find literacy sources that are then used as a reference or template. This source of literacy can strengthen the topic of research discussion through the results of previous research (related) and through the theory used in research.

This literature source can not only be obtained from books, but can also be obtained from scientific journals, online articles , interview results, printed journals available in the library, and so on. After obtaining the literature sources, then collected, read, and understood, so as to be able to filter references or references related to the research topic whether they are appropriate or not.

4. Doing Theory Discussion

After doing the three stages of creating the thinking framework above, the next step is to do a theoretical discussion. This stage can also be interpreted as the stage of making a frame of mind to explain his opinion related to the literature sources that have been read and understood before. The opinions that are explained must be logical, clear, and theoretical in nature.

This step also proves that with the existence of theory, it can strengthen the research topic, so that the research can be carried out optimally. In addition, conducting a theoretical discussion can also prove that the writer or researcher is not original and not playing around in doing research, so that the research done becomes more confident and can be held accountable.

5. Describe and Explain the Thinking Framework

The fifth step or the last step of creating a thinking framework is to describe and explain the thinking framework. In this case, the thinking framework is not only illustrated, but also has to be explained so that the reader is not confused and it is easier to understand the thinking framework that has been created.

In this last step, what is meant by the picture is in the form of a chart which if read like explaining the process or flow of the research that will be done, from start to finish. From that chart will produce a thinking framework that can be used as a flow to conduct research.

Well, those are some steps or ways to make a frame of mind or thinking. After knowing the steps, do you immediately want to try to make a frame of mind?

Types of Thinking Frameworks 

The thinking framework consists of 3 types, namely the operational framework, the conceptual framework, and the theoretical framework.

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1. Operational Framework

An operational framework is a type of thinking framework that is commonly used to explain a variable that has been determined and is in accordance with the research topic. With an operational framework, the relationship between one variable and another can be explained.

2. Conceptual Framework

A conceptual framework is a type of thinking framework that serves to explain the flow of thought that is connected between one concept and another, and aims to provide an illustration or picture in the form of assumptions related to the variables that will be studied later.

3. Theoretical Framework

A theoretical framework is a type of thinking framework that provides an affirmation of a theory that will be used or used as a theoretical basis as well as to provide an explanation for the phenomenon being studied.

Benefits of a Thinking Framework

The benefits of the thinking framework are as follows:

  1. Assisting researchers in obtaining a mature concept which is then used to explain each problem in the research.
  2. Facilitating researchers in conducting research.
  3. Connecting every part in the research.
  4. Facilitating readers to understand the content of scientific writings.
  5. Scientific works become easy to check because of the overview of the research flow.
  6. Assisting researchers in explaining and answering the formulation of problems in the research.

Example of a Thinking Framework

In order to make it easier to understand and create a thinking framework, we need to know some examples of thinking frameworks, among others:

Thesis Thinking Framework

Bananas are fruits that are often found in fruit stores. This fruit actually comes from Southeast Asia, so Indonesia is a country that produces bananas. Later, this banana plant continued to spread to South and Central America and to Africa, especially Madagascar.

The nutritional content of bananas can provide several benefits for our body’s health, such as being able to increase the body’s immune system, reduce the risk of anemia, improve the flow of oxygen to the brain, and speed up the body’s metabolism.

However, the availability of bananas is very abundant, sometimes these fruits become unsellable in the market, so they have to be thrown away. Although this fruit contains a lot of nutrients that can make the body healthy. Therefore, in this thesis, the writer will conduct research on bananas processed into artificial fruit.

Research on artificial fruit has been done by many researchers, such as Danalache et al. (2015), Costa et al. (2020), Sharma et al. (2013), and Lins et al (2014) using apricot, yellow mombin, mango, and guava fruits. Different types of hydrocolloids were used in the research, such as pectin, alginate, gelatin, and gellan gum.

From previous studies, the texture of artificial fruit is often accepted by consumers when using hydrocolloid gellan gum. However, gellan gum is quite expensive, so it is not economical. Therefore, in this study, researchers will use hydrocolloids other than gellan gum, which are cheaper and can still produce quality artificial fruit products.

Research Thinking Framework

During the covid-19 pandemic, there is an economic crisis everywhere, such as layoffs or salary cuts in some companies. Therefore, in this research, we want to know the variables that can be used to find additional income during the pandemic.

Scheme 1

The problem with the economic crisis during the covid-19 pandemic is the decrease in company income, thus affecting the company’s financial condition.

Scheme 2

Seeking additional income through side work and sales is continuously improved so that the family’s economic conditions can continue to run.

Scheme 3

Before that, it should be known that side work and sales can add to daily income. In addition, it should also be known that these variables have a considerable influence on increasing income.

Scheme 4

The variables of side work and selling can give influence on additional income and can also be done continuously.

Proposal Thinking Framework

The 17 August event is an event to commemorate the independence day of the Republic of Indonesia. Usually Indonesian people will hold various kinds of competitions to commemorate the independence day. Therefore, through this proposal, we hope to get approval from the head of RW 10.

Scheme 1

Competition on August 17, 2021

Scheme 2

As a way to commemorate the independence day of the Republic of Indonesia, we RW 10 cadets would like to hold a competition on 17 August which will be held at the RW 10 field.

Scheme 3

This competition is planned and held to appreciate the services of the heroes who have made Indonesia independent and to maintain unity and unity between communities of different backgrounds.

Scheme 4

The implementation of this competition started on August 15-17 which then continued with the peak of the prize giving event on the night of August 17.

Scheme 5

In principle, this August 17 race provides awareness for us Indonesian people to always maintain unity and unity.


The frame of mind or can also be called the frame of mind has many benefits for writers or researchers who want to create a written work, whether it is scientific or non-scientific. The thinking framework itself is in the form of a chart and there is also a descriptive form. Although it has a different form, the framework of thought can still provide convenience for the writer to finish his writing.