Understanding Anabolism: Processes, Characteristics, Hormones and Diseases

Understanding Anabolism – The process of anabolism is very important for the body. Without this process, the continuity of growth and cells in our tissues and organs will not occur. Anabolism is the metabolic pathway that arranges several simple organic compounds into complex chemical compounds or molecules.

Broadly speaking, anabolism requires external energy, in this case including light energy and chemical energy. This energy is then used to bind the resulting simple compounds to become more complex compounds.

In this process the required energy is not lost, but is stored in the form of chemical bonds in the complex compounds that are formed. Check out a more complete explanation about Anabolism below, Sinaumed’s:

Definition of Anabolism

The macromolecules formed can be nucleic acids, fats, carbohydrates and proteins. Anabolism consists of three basic steps, including the production of precursors such as amino acids, monosaccharides, and nucleotides; activation of compounds into reactive forms using energy from ATP and the incorporation of these precursors into complex molecules, such as proteins, polysaccharides, fats, and nucleic acids.

The results of anabolism are useful in essential functions. These results, for example, glycogen and protein as fuel in the body, nucleic acids for copying genetic information. The process of anabolism can be disrupted if there is a problem with the hormones involved in it. Among the several problems that may occur with each of these hormones are insulin resistance, growth hormone deficiency (GHD), abnormal testosterone levels and others. Anabolism is distinguished from catabolism in several ways:

  • Anabolism is the process of synthesizing small chemical molecules into larger molecules, while catabolism is the process of breaking down large molecules into smaller molecules.
  • Anabolism is a process that requires energy while catabolism is a process that releases energy.
  • Anabolism is a reduction reaction while catabolism is an oxidation reaction. Often the end result of anabolism is the starting compound for the catabolic process.

In studying macromolecules there is a science called molecular biology which has very broad implications for human understanding of living phenomena. Sinaumed’s can study Molecular Biology books to better understand this.

 

Process Anabolism

This energy is then used to bind these simple compounds and become more complex compounds. So, in this process the required energy is not lost, but instead is stored in a form of chemical bonds in the complex compounds that are formed.

In anabolic reactions, energy is needed which is also obtained from catabolic reactions. The reactions in these cells can or can be grouped into two categories: the anabolic reaction is a formation reaction, in which the synthesis of large molecules from simple or small molecules occurs.

The anabolic process requires energy, and the process is known as an endogenic reaction. This catabolic reaction is a breakdown reaction. This catabolism is the breakdown of large molecules into simpler ones accompanied by the release of energy which are known as exergonic reactions.

The total sum of the reactions of anabolism and catabolism is called metabolism (formation and breakdown). An example of this catabolic process is respiration, while an example of an anabolic process is photosynthesis (Green et al, 1988). The results of anabolism are useful in essential functions.

These results, such as glycogen and protein, namely as fuel in the body, nucleic acids for then copying genetic information. These proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates then make up the structure of living things, both intracellular and extracellular. If the synthesis of these materials is faster than the reshuffling, then the organism will then grow. The anabolism includes 3 basic stages:

  • Production of precursors such as amino acids, monosaccharides, and nucleotides.
  • The activation of these compounds then becomes a reactive form using energy from ATP.
  • The combination of these precursors will then become complex molecules, such as polysaccharides, proteins, fats, and also nucleic acids. Anabolism that uses light energy is known as photosynthesis, while anabolism that uses chemical energy is known as chemosynthesis.

Anabolism is often also referred to as part of the constructive metabolic process. This relates to the function of anabolism as a builder of new cells, maintaining healthy tissues in the body, and storing energy for future use.

Another function of anabolism is to convert small molecules into more complex forms, such as carbohydrates, proteins and fats. To carry out this task, the process of anabolism involves certain hormones, such as: Insulin: a hormone made in the pancreas and is responsible for regulating the level of glucose in the blood. Without the presence of insulin, the body will not be able to absorb glucose.

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In studying various things that happen to other human bodies, Sinaumed’s can use the SMA/MA book Interactive Book Kl.11 Biology Specialization Smt.1 Rev.202 as a reference.

Growth hormone: a hormone made in the pituitary gland and functions to stimulate growth in the human body. Testosterone: a hormone that influences male characteristics, such as a deeper voice, hair growth (mustache and beard), to stronger muscles and bones.

Estrogen: this hormone is present in both men and women and plays a role in building female characteristics, such as breast growth. This hormone is also responsible for strengthening bone mass. The disruption of hormones in this anabolic process will greatly affect your overall metabolism. In intentional cases, such as limiting energy to burn body fat, then there are anabolic changes that occur in your body.

Studies say that people who intentionally limit energy intake on their anti-fat diet, growth hormone and insulin levels also fall. In men, the level of the hormone testosterone will also decrease, even if he consumes foods or drinks that are high in protein during the diet.

In other words, you need to understand more about how anabolism works so that weight loss doesn’t affect your overall metabolism. If necessary, consult a doctor or nutritionist to follow a diet that is safe for the body.

In studying various kinds of hormones, and how these hormones work in the human body, the book Latest Science: Ddotty & Sleepground – Hormones, Important Substances in the Human Body comes packaged in an attractive way just for you!

 

Characteristics and Examples of Anabolism

1. Characteristics of Anabolism

Anabolism is a process of synthesizing small chemical molecules into larger molecules, whereas catabolism is a process of breaking down large molecules into smaller molecules. Anabolism is a process that requires energy while catabolism is a process that releases energy.

Anabolism is a reduction reaction whereas catabolism is an oxidation reaction. Often the end result of anabolism is the starting compound for the catabolic process.

(Wiradikusumah, 1985), Anabolism allows the body to be able to build or grow new cells and maintain body tissues.

This process then uses the energy produced by catabolic reactions, and is then influenced by all kinds of hormones and enzymes to be able to form and repair cells and tissues. Examples of an anabolic process include growth and bone mineralization, as well as an increase in muscle mass.

2. Examples of Anabolism

Anabolism occurs when simple compounds and elements are reacted in living things to produce more complex organic compounds. Anabolism uses energy sources such as sunlight or chemicals, so that these compounds and elements can or can be combined into complex compounds. An example of anabolism is photosynthesis that occurs in plants.

Photosynthesis is a process used by plants where energy from sunlight is used to convert carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O) into molecules of sugar or glucose (C6H12O6) needed for growth. The process is then assisted by enzymes and chlorophyll. Chlorophyll is a green leaf pigment found in chloroplasts, organelles in plant cells.

The chemical reactions of photosynthesis include: 6 CO2 (Carbon dioxide) + 6 H2O (water) + sunlight –> C6H12O6 (glucose) + 6 O2 (oxygen)

Anabolism is a metabolic process that converts simple compounds into complex compounds. For example, such as the formation of glycogen from glucose, the formation of proteins from amino acids, the formation of triglycerides from fatty acids and glycerol which you can learn together with other human foundations in the Basic Human Biology book.

 

Hormones Play a Role in Anabolic Processes

Anabolism is the process of forming complex molecules in the body from simpler cells that require energy. Meanwhile, catabolism is the breakdown of complex molecules into simpler cells so that they release energy. In the body, anabolism processes simultaneously with catabolism. This process is then known as metabolism.

Anabolism is often also referred to as part of the constructive metabolic process. This relates to the function of anabolism as a builder of new cells, maintaining healthy tissues in the body, and storing energy for future use. Another function of anabolism is to convert small molecules into more complex forms, such as carbohydrates, proteins and fats. To do this job, the process of anabolism involves certain hormones, such as:

1. Growth Hormone

This hormone is made in the pituitary gland (a small gland at the bottom of the brain). Its function is to regulate body growth. Too much growth hormone in childhood can cause a person to grow taller than average (gigantism). Meanwhile, if too little can cause body height less than average (dwarfism).

2. Insulin-like growth factors (IGF-1 and IGF-2).

Insulin-like growth factors stimulate the production of protein and fat. IGF-I and IGF-2, which work together with growth hormone, play an important role in the growth and development of bones and various body tissues, including the mammary glands and in the process of reproduction (procreation). This hormone controls the production of growth hormone by the pituitary gland (pituitary), as well as blood sugar levels.

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3. Insulin

This hormone is made by the pancreas gland. Insulin is in charge of regulating glucose (sugar) levels in the blood, helping the body convert the food consumed into energy, and helping to store energy reserves. Body cells cannot utilize glucose without insulin.

4. Testosterone

Testosterone is a male hormone which is produced in the testicles. Testosterone causes sperm to form and the development of male sex characteristics, such as a deeper voice, larger muscles, and growth of facial and body hair. The hormone testosterone plays an important role throughout the body because it affects the brain, bone and muscle mass, the vascular system, fat distribution, organs, energy levels, and sexual function. Not only in men, the hormone testosterone is also produced in women’s bodies, but the amount is smaller. In women, this hormone is produced in the ovaries.

5. Estrogens

Estrogen is a female hormone that is produced in the ovaries (and the placenta during pregnancy). The hormone estrogen is responsible for strengthening bone tissue, developing female body shape characteristics, such as breasts, playing a role in thickening tissue in the uterus (endometrium), and regulating the menstrual cycle. In small amounts, estrogen is also produced in fat and muscle tissue. It is the main source of estrogen in women who have gone through menopause. Men also produce the hormone estrogen, but the amount is smaller.

Anabolic Disease

Disturbances in hormones in the process of anabolism will greatly affect the overall metabolism. In intentional cases, for example limiting energy to melt body fat, then there are anabolic changes that occur in the body. Studies say that people who intentionally limit energy intake on their anti-fat diet, growth hormone and insulin levels also fall. In men, the level of the hormone testosterone will also decrease, even if he consumes foods or drinks that are high in protein during the diet. Here are some other problems that may occur due to disruption of anabolic processes:

 

1. Insulin resistance

This condition occurs when cells in the body cannot respond to signals sent by the insulin hormone. As a result, the body cannot convert the sugar (glucose) in the blood into energy. To make up for this energy shortage, the pancreas produces more insulin. If this continues, blood sugar levels will increase and you are at risk of developing type 2 diabetes, obesity, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and metabolic syndrome.

2. Growth Hormone Deficiency (GHD)

Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) occurs when the pituitary gland doesn’t produce enough growth hormone. Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) is most common in children and can result in a child’s below average height and delayed puberty. After puberty, growth hormone will play its role as a helper in the process of anabolism. This hormone deficiency can also make adults suffer from growth hormone deficiency (GHD), although this case is rare.

3. Abnormal Testosterone Levels

The testosterone hormone that is too high is usually caused by the consumption of certain drugs, for example anabolic steroids in athletes. In men, testosterone levels that are too high will cause many health problems, such as low sperm count, prostate swelling, to headaches and mood swings. In women, testosterone that is too high can also cause polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

This condition is characterized by the appearance of a mustache and beard, irregular menstrual cycles, and weight gain. Conversely, the hormone testosterone can also shrink and disrupt the anabolic process. This is usually marked by hair loss, impotence, and an increase in breast size.

4. Abnormal Estrogen Levels

If the level of the hormone estrogen in the body is too high, it will cause thyroid disease, blood clots, heart attacks, strokes, to breast and uterine cancer. In men, high levels of estrogen can cause depression. Conversely, if the hormone estrogen in the body is too low, mood swings, fatigue, and difficulty focusing. Bones also become more prone to fracture because their density decreases along with less estrogen in the body, Sinaumed’s.

Also read articles related to “Anabolism” :

  • Biochemistry and Biomolecules
  • Catabolism
  • Movement System in Humans
  • Excretion System in Humans
  • Network in Plants
  • Great Circulatory System
  • Small Circulatory System
  • Cell
  • Hormone System
  • Evolution Theory
  • Genetic Material
  • Biotechnology
  • Evolution
  • Cell Reproduction
  • Human Respiratory System

Source: from various sources