In this article, Sinaumedia returns to discuss the family of tenses related to the past. Tenses often make us confused in using them because they almost have similarities.
In fact, if you look closely at the context of the use of tenses, you can see the difference. For example, in the simple past tense and the present tense, they both have something in common, that is, they both describe events that happened in the past.
However, the difference between the two is that if the simple past tense does not state in detail the event has been completed or not, the present perfect tense states an event whose time is known to have been completed or not.
Definition of Present Perfect Tense
The present perfect tense is a sentence pattern that is used to show events that have finished at the present time but are still related and do not mention the time. The emphasis of the sentence is on the completion of the deed.
The tenses in English vary greatly according to the time of delivery which you can all learn in the book Definitely Can! English Communicative Teaching 12 Tenses Grammar Materials.
Present Perfect Tense formula
The present perfect tense is easy to recognize because it uses the verb form when (Verb 3). Note the following formula:
Verbal formula, used if the sentence uses a verb (verb).
Example of sentences:
i have eaten 5 times a day
They have not sent our orders
Have you called Andrew? (Have you called Andrew?)
Nominal formula, used if the sentence does not use verbs such as adjectives, nouns, adverbs.
Example of sentences:
Intan has been here
i have not been hungry
Have you been to Bali? (Have you ever been to Bali?)
The use of tenses to describe adverbs of time is very important, such as the use of adverbs of time above as adverbs of time in the present tense. You can learn this more easily through the book The 1st Students Choice Changing Times Changing Tenses.
Use of Question Words Formulas
When using question words, the sentence structure becomes:
QW + have/has + been + S + V3 + past participle + O
Example of sentences:
Why have you moved the chairs? (Why did you move the chair?)
Where has the guest left? (Where did the guests go?)
If the question word asks about the subject, the sentence structure is:
QW +have/has + V3 + C
Who has painted the room? (Who painted this room?)
Who has washed the car? (Who washes the car?)
Examples of Present Perfect Tense Sentences
– I’ve lost my key
– Benny has gone to Hong Kong (Benny has gone to Hong Kong)
– Intan has finished her task
– Anton and I have turned in the assignment ( Anton and I have already collected assignments)
– Intan has not moved to Jakarta with her family (Intan has not moved to Jakarta with her family)
– Tono has gone to Medan (Tono has left for Medan)
– Dina and Dony have stayed here (Dina and Dony already (never) lived here)
– I’ve eaten 5 times in a day (I’ve eaten 5 times a day)
– Mrs. Anderson has told us about that problem
– They have not sent our orders –
He has not understood the rules in this game
– Have you called Andrew? (Have you called Andrew)
– Has anybody here heard the news?
– My father and my uncle have been a teacher for 20 years
– It has been two years since I had a vacation
You can find various other examples of the present perfect tense in the English Grammar and Tenses, For Beginners book below, especially for those of you who are just learning English.
Use of the Present Perfect Tense
1. Declare an event that has been completed/has occurred when the sentence was spoken and the consequences of the event/action can be felt as a result.
i have swept the floor > the perceived consequence of the action is that the floor has been swept clean
2. Declare something that happened since some time in the past and still has something to do with the present time (when the sentence is uttered)
she has lived here since 1995 > They have worked here since 1995
They have worked there for two years > They have worked here for two years
Description of Time Present Perfect Tense
Since : indicates when the period started. Example: She has lived here since 1995.
For : indicates how long the period lasts. Example: They have worked there for two years.
Present Perfect Tense Practice Questions
Through practice questions you can immediately find out which answers are right and wrong and develop your English skills. The 2013 Curriculum 2013 SMA/MA Curriculum Summary Book of English Questions and Practice Questions is the right choice with a variety of questions and their discussion.
1. Ryoko Hirosue is a Japanese girl. She … in Indonesia since last year. She is here to study Indonesian culture in a private university in Central Java.
c. has been
d. have been
Discussion: the adverb of time since is the adverb of time for the present perfect tense, the formula is S+ has/have + V3 because the subject is She is singular, so has+v3 is used (v3 from be is been). So the answer is C.
2. Wenny: What about my new dress, mother?
mother: Don’t worry. Your father … a lovely evening dress for you.
Wenny: Really? why didn’t he tell me?
Mother: It will be a surprise, won’t it?
a. isn’t buying
b. was buying
c. have bought
d. has bought
Discussion: From the conversation it is known that Wenny’s father had bought her a nice evening dress without telling her, the situation is filled with the present perfect tense (an event that has happened? Because the subject is singular (your father), then has+v3 is used. So the answer is is D
A. hasn’t attended
B. hasn’t attended
C. haven’t attended
D. haven’t attended
Discussion: This sentence means ‘I haven’t been to a party since I’ve been here’. So, the perfect present perfect verb to complete the sentence is ‘haven’t attended’. So, the answer is D.
4. Rico . . . here since the 23rd.
B. has been
D. have been
Discussion: This sentence means ‘Rico has been here since the 23rd’. So, the correct present perfect verb to complete the sentence is ‘has been’. So the answer is B.
5. So far this week, I . . . two tests and a quiz.
A. have been had
B. have limited
C. have been have
D. have had
Discussion: This sentence means ‘In this week, I have got two tests and one quiz’. So, the correct present perfect verb to complete the sentence is ‘have had’. So the answer is B.
6. The first advertisement on radio was broadcast in 1922. Since that time, companies _____ tens of billions of dollars to advertise their products on radio and television.
A. are spending
B. have spent
Discussion: The sentence begins with the simple past tense. The word “since” in the second sentence shows the use of the perfect tense. So that the sentence structure uses have+v3. So the answer is B.
7. Now it’s easy to understand and recognize the present perfect tense. The conclusion is that the present perfect tense shows events that occurred in the past by emphasizing whether these events have been completed or not completed. Besides that, the present perfect tense can be recognized because it uses have/has+v3 in the sentence structure.