English Vocabulary that Must be Memorized

English Vocabulary that Must be Memorized – Today, English language skills are very important in the world of education, work, social affairs, and so on. This is caused by English being an international language or the language used in global communication. English is usually taught in Elementary School (SD) to High School (SMA).

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When we were in elementary school, we were taught to memorize a number of simple vocabulary and grammar . Vocabulary usually starts with things you see around you. For example animals, sequences of numbers, fruit, and so on.

In the explanation below, we will discuss the sundries of English and vocabulary that must be memorized. Sinaumed’s can listen to it carefully.

Overview of English

Launching from the Id.wikipedia.org page, English is part of the Germanic language which was first spoken by people in England in the early Middle Ages. Then, it developed rapidly and became a language that is widely used by the world community.

English is spoken as the first language or mother tongue in various countries in the world. Among them Ireland, the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and several Caribbean countries. It is also the official language of nearly 60 sovereign countries.

English is also used as a second and official language by the European Union, Commonwealth of Nations, United Nations and various other organizations. English is also the third most spoken mother tongue in the world.

English first developed in the Anglo-Saxon Kingdom of England and in what is now the south-eastern country of Scotland. English became known and spread when Great Britain established the British Empire in the 17th and 20th centuries.

Not only that, the use of English is used massively by the world community due to the enhancement of United States culture and technology which dominated throughout the 20th century. These things make English the main language and unofficially or de facto it is considered a lingua franca in various parts of the world.

Historically, the English language has originated from a fusion of related dialects (which today are collectively known as Old English). The language was brought by Germanic settlers (Anglo-Saxons) to the east coast of the Isle of Britain in the 5th century. The word English itself comes from the name Angles.

The Anglo-Saxons originate from the Angeln region (present-day Schleswig-Holstein, Germany). The early development of English was influenced by Old Norse after the Vikings conquered England in the 9th and 10th centuries.

English was also influenced by Norman French after the Norman conquest of England in the 11th century. English spelling and vocabulary began to be influenced by Roman Latin, even though English itself was not part of the Romance language. This model of English is known as Middle English.

Modern English is characterized by a shift in vowels that began in southern England in the 5th century. Most words in English come from Latin because Latin became part of the lingua franca of the Christian Church and became the main language among European intellectuals. It is also a reference for modern English vocabulary.

English has a lot of complex and irregular vocabulary and spelling (especially vowels) caused by the combination of various words from various languages. Modern English is composed of European languages ​​and various languages ​​in the world. The Oxford English Dictionary alone contains more than 250,000 words, not including the terms tennis, slang and science.

Required English Vocabulary to Memorize

According to old blog.kapal.com, here are the English vocabulary that you must memorize.

1. Verbs

English Vocabulary Indonesian Meaning
ask Ask
say Say
get Get
make Make
Go Go
know Know
take Take
See See
come Come
think Think
Look See
give Give
Want Want
Use Use
tell Say

2. Adjectives

English Vocabulary Indonesian Meaning
good Good
great Good
Bad Bad
New New
old Long
fast Fast
Long Long
Little Small
big Big
Young Young
Beautiful Beautiful
kind Kind
Cool Cool
happy Happy
Important Important

3. Pronouns

English Vocabulary Indonesian Meaning
it This/That (Goods or Animals)
I I
you You
Hey He’s a male)
She She is a girl)
We We
They They
them They
Her Hers (Female)
His His (Male)
Us We
Him He’s a male)
Some one Somebody
Everyone Everyone

4. Adverbs

English Vocabulary Indonesian Meaning
Now Now
today Today
yesterday Yesterday
Tomorrow Tomorrow
later Later
Also Also
more More
Then Then
So So
Just Only
very Very
even Even
US Like
finally Finally
really Really
Probably Possibility
Especially Especially
simply Simply
currently At the moment
recently Lately
Quickly Rapidly
Completely Fully
directly Directly
Exactly Appropriate
Definitely What we can be certain of is
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5. Word Statement

English Vocabulary Indonesian Meaning
when When
Who Who
where Where
why Why
What What
How How

6. Prepositions

English Vocabulary Indonesian Meaning
in In (year, in)
On In (day, above the surface)
At At (specific time and place)
before Before
After After
During During
throughout throughout
About About
around about
Until Until
since Since
above On
Below Under
inside In the
Outside Outside
Towards To; going to
into Into the
By By
with Together

7. Conjunctions

English Vocabulary

Indonesian Meaning

Than

From

while

Temporary

i.e

If not

once

soon after

And

And

that

That

Or

Or

But

But

English tenses and examples of their use

Launching from the engbreaking.id page, here is a list of 16 English tenses as well as how to use them.

1. Simple Present Tense

The simple present tense functions to state facts (including scientific facts), events that have just happened, and habits/routines. The following tenses formula and examples of its use.

Subject + Verb 1 (Base/Present Form)

Signal word

always, every, never, normally, often, sometimes, usually, seldom.

Positive Sentences

Mario works in a plumbing company.

Mario always works very hard in the company.

Mario walks to work every day.

Negative Sentences

Mario does not work very hard in the company.

Mario does not come on time very often.

Interrogative sentence

“Does he work very hard in the company?”

Answered with  “Yes, he does.” Or  “No, he does not.”

2. Present Continuous/Progressive Tense

Present Continuous/Progressive Tense is used to show an ongoing event or action in the middle of a conversation. Not only that, the present continuous tense is also used to make a plan or promise in the future. The following formula and examples of its use.

Subject + Am / Is / Are + Verb –ing (Continuous Form)

Signal word

at the moment, just now, now, right now, Listen!, Look!

Positive Sentences

Look! He is talking with his classmates.

The teachers are having a meeting at the moment.

Negative Sentences

He is not playing computer games now.

Listen! He is not laughing anymore.

Interrogative sentence

Is he playing computer games at the moment?

Answered with  “Yes, he is.” Or  “No, he is not.”

3. Present Perfect Tense

The present perfect tense is used to express a result. Because this tense can be used to describe an activity or situation that has started in the past and finished in the past or is still continuing today. The following formula and examples of its use.

Subject + Has / Have + Verb 3 (Past Participle)

Signal word

already, ever, just, never, not yet, so far, till now, up to now.

Positive Sentences

He has already finished his homework.

She has done her chores.

Negative Sentences

He has not been to Australia so far.

She has not completed her assignments.

Interrogative sentence

Has he completed the arrangement for the coming event up to now?

Answered with  “Yes, he has.” Or  “No, he has not.”

4. Present Perfect Continuous Tense

The present perfect continuous tense is used to express an action that was completed in the past or to express an action that started in the past and is still continuing until now. Usually the sentences that are formed are related to the present condition and with a certain duration of time.

The following is the formula for the present perfect continuous tense and an example of its use.

Subject + Has / Have + Been + Verb –ing (Continuous Form)

Signal word

for the past 5 years, how long …?, the whole week, since xxxx.

Positive Sentences

He has been working here since 1996.

They have been waiting in the house since 2 PM.

Negative Sentences

He has not been speaking for the last 3 hours.

They haven’t been sleeping for days.

Interrogative sentence

Has he been playing the computer game all day?

Answered with  “Yes, he has.” Or  “No, he has not.”

5. Simple Past Tense

The simple past tense is used to express an event that happened in the past. It has a clear time specifier or event time. The following formula and examples of its use.

Subject + Verb 2

Signal word

yesterday, 2 minutes ago, in 1996, last Thursday, this morning, last night.

Positive Sentences

Last year, he always worked until night.

In 1945, Indonesia declared independence.

I just talked to Mike 2 minutes ago.

Negative Sentences

He did not go to school this morning.

They did not eat their dinner last night.

Interrogative sentence

Did he pay the bill yesterday?

Answered with  “Yes, he has.” Or  “No, he has not.”

6. Past Continuous Tense

The past continuous tense is used to express an event or action that was happening at a certain time in the past. The following formula and examples of its use.

Subject + Was / Were + Verb –ing (Continuous Form)

Signal word

when, while, as long as, at this time yesterday.

Positive Sentences

He was speaking when I entered the room.

She was sleeping when the alarm went off.

They were hiking when it started raining.

Negative Sentences

He was not doing his homework at this time yesterday.

She was not listening when the teacher called her name.

Interrogative sentence

Was he writing the letter to his parents when I was out last Tuesday?

Answered with  “Yes, he was.” Or  “No, he was not.”

7. Past Perfect Tense

The past perfect tense is used to express an action that happened before a certain time in the past. It emphasizes facts over duration. Its use is more intended to indicate an action that was completed in the past, before other actions occurred in the past as well.

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The following formula and examples of its use.

Subject + Had + Verb 3 (Past Participle)

Signal word

before yesterday, till three days ago, already, until that day.

Positive Sentences

He had finished his designs before he went to work yesterday.

Negative Sentences

He had not been a high school student until last year.

Interrogative sentence

Had he entered the company before he achieved his master’s degree in 1990?

Answered with  “Yes, he had.” Or  “No, he had not.”

8. Past Perfect Continuous Tense

The past perfect continuous tense is used to express an action that happened in the past and was completed at a certain point in the past as well. This tense emphasizes the duration of the event. The following formula and examples of its use.

Subject + Had + Been + Verb –ing (Continuous Form)

Signal word

for, since, the whole day, all day

Positive Sentences

He said that he had been working here for ten years.

Negative Sentences

He was told that his teacher had been waiting for him since 2 PM yesterday.

Interrogative sentence

Had he been speaking for the whole class before I entered?

Answered with  “Yes, he had.” Or  “No, he had not.”

9. Simple Future Tense

The simple future tense is used to express an action in the future and is not affected by other actions. It is also used to spontaneously make a decision or promise in the future. Or use it to make assumptions or predictions relating to the future.

The following formula and examples of its use.

Subject + Will + Verb 1 (Present Form)

Or

Subject + Be (Is / Are / Am) + Going to + Verb 1 (present form)

Signal word

in a year, next…, tomorrow, next week, five days later.

Positive Sentences

He is going to be a journalist after he graduates next year.

Negative Sentences

He will not play computer games anymore because he understands how harmful they are.

Interrogative sentence

Will he go to the cinema tomorrow with us?

Answered with  “Yes, he will.” Or  “No, he will not .”

10. Future Continuous Tense

The future continuous tense is used to describe an action that takes place at a certain time. The focus is on future events and actions that will definitely occur in the near future. The following is the formula and an example of its use.

S + Will + Be + Verb –ing (Continuous form)

Signal word

tomorrow morning, in one year.

Positive Sentences

He will be delivering the speech to undergraduates at 3 pm tomorrow afternoon.

Negative Sentences

He will not be doing the task in the office this afternoon because he is sick.

Interrogative sentence

Will he be playing football next morning in the playground?

Answered with  “Yes, he will.” Or  “No, he will not.”

11. Future Perfect Tense

The future perfect tense is used to express an activity that will be completed at a certain point in the future. The following formula and examples of its use.

Subject + Will + Have + Verb 3 (Past Participle)

Signal word

by next Monday, in a week.

Positive Sentences

He will have finished the task by next Monday.

Negative Sentences

He will not have finished the given task by tomorrow evening.

Interrogative sentence

Will he have finished the task in a week?

Answered with  “Yes, he will.” Or  “No, he will not.”

12. Future Perfect Continuous Tense

The future perfect continuous tense is used to express an action that happened before a certain time in the future. The following is the formula and an example of its use.

Subject + Will + Have + Been + Verb –ing (Continuous Form)

Signal word

for the last couple of hours, all day long.

Positive Sentences

He will have been taking charge of the team for the next hour.

Negative Sentences

He will not have been doing the task for the last couple of hours.

Interrogative sentence

Will he have been doing the research all day long?

Answered with  “Yes, he will.” Or  “No, he will not.”

13. Simple Past Future Tense

The simple past future tense is used to express indirect sentences in which there is a change in form to suit the existing series of events. It is used to express future actions, make predictions, and make promises in the future while in the past.

The following formula and examples of its use.

Subject + Would + Verb 1

Subject + WAS/WERE + GOING TO + Verb (Present Form)

Positive Sentences

He said that he would leave in three days.

Negative Sentences

He did not promise that he would buy you a new computer.

Interrogative sentence

Did you tell him when I would arrive?

Answered with  “Yes, I did.” Or  “No, I did not.”

14. Past Future Continuous Tense

The past future continuous tense is used to express a series or duration of an action that occurred and can also be used for direct speech. The following formula and examples of its use.

Subject + Should / Would + Be + Verb –ing (Continuous Form)

Positive Sentences

I made a promise that I would do my homework all day long tomorrow.

Negative Sentences

I did not tell anyone that I would be giving a speech to undergraduates for the next whole morning.

Interrogative sentence

Did you say that you would be working hard in the next week?

Answered with  “Yes, I did.” Or  “No, I did not.”

15. Past Future Perfect Tense

The past future perfect tense is used to express actions that did not happen in the past. The following formula and examples of its use.

Subject + Should / Could / Would Have + Verb 3 (Past Participle)

Positive Sentences

He told the students that they should have finished the homework this morning.

Negative Sentences

He said that he would not have made such a mistake if he had taken my advice.

Interrogative sentence

Did you say that you would have been a doctor in three years?

Answered with  “Yes, I did.” Or  “No, I did not.”

16. Past Future Perfect Continuous Tense

The past future perfect continuous tense is used to express an imaginary action or situation that was taking place at a certain point or during a certain period in the past. The following formula and examples of the use of this tense .

Subject + Should / Could / Would Have + Been + Verb –ing (Continuous Form)

Positive Sentences

I heard that you should have been teaching here for ten years by this July.

Negative Sentences

I did not know that he would have been working for the past three hours by that time.

Interrogative sentence

Would he have been explaining to the workers if he had made the information clear?

Answered with  “Yes, he would.” Or  “No, he would not.”

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