Pattimura Biography – Sinaumed’s has often seen this national hero. It is true that he is Kapitan Pattimura who is an Indonesian National Hero from Maluku. Kapitan Pattimura is enshrined on Indonesian banknotes with a nominal value of one thousand rupiah. How is the life of Kapitan Pattimura and how is his struggle in protecting Indonesia, especially Maluku.
Profile of Kapitan Pattimura
Thomas Matulessy or who has the nickname Kapitan Pattimura is a national hero of Indonesia who comes from Maluku. Kapitan is a rank title used by the Dutch to refer to leaders in military units at the officer level. Kapitan Pattimura was born on June 8, 1783 in Haria, Saparua, Maluku, Dutch East Indies. His father’s name is Antoni Matulessy who is the son of Kasimiliali Pattimura Mattulessy.
It is known that Kapitan Pattimura is a hero who belongs to the nobility and comes from Nusa Ina or Seram. Kapitan Pattimura was born from the royal lineage of King Sahulau which is a kingdom located in South Seram Bay. Kapitan Pattimura has a younger brother named Yohanis.
Kapitan Pattimura is an Indonesian hero who fought for the Maluku region against the Dutch VOC. Previously, Kapitan Pattimura had a career in the military as a former British military sergeant. The services and struggles carried out by Kapitan Pattimura had a great impact on Indonesian independence which we can feel to this day. Even though hundreds of years have passed, the name Pattimura is still known by the Indonesian people to this day.
Kapitan Pattimura received an honorary title as a hero on November 6, 1973. The honorary title of hero is the highest level award in Indonesia, this is because a hero has done real deeds to fully protect Indonesia or render services to Indonesian citizens. This title is given so that his struggle and his services can be remembered for a lifetime and become a role model for all Indonesian people.
Kapitan Pattimura died when he was 34 years old, on December 16, 1817 to be exact. Even though Kapitan Pattimura died decades ago, his name and struggle are still remembered. The name Kapitan Pattimura is immortalized in several places, such as:
1. Pattimura University
Pattimura University is a public university located in Ambon, Maluku, Indonesia. Pattimura University was founded on August 8, 1962. Pattimura University began when Dr. JB Sitanala and several community leaders initiated the founding of a Higher Education institution in Maluku to realize the aspirations of the people who want to participate in building the Nation and the State, especially in the field of Higher Education and Science Development.
2. Pattimura Park
Ambon city residents usually call Pattimura Park which is beside Merdeka Square which is the center of Ambon city activities. Pattimura Park is located in the vicinity of the Ambon government offices and is an activity for Ambon residents, especially young people who play sports.
Pattimura Park is not only used as a sport, Pattimura Park is also a place to gather and do activities. Pattimura Park is also a place to play volleyball, run in the morning or just as a place to relax in the afternoon. Pattimura Park is also an attraction for tourists to come because it is one of the tourist attractions of Ambon City.
3. Defense Regional Command or Kodam XVI/Pattimura
Kodam XVI/Pattimura is the Regional Defense Command which covers the Maluku Islands.
4. Pattimura International Airport in Ambon
Pattimura International Airport or also known as Ambon Airport, is an airport located in Ambon City, Maluku Province, Indonesia. This airport also serves domestic and foreign trips.
Ambon Pattimura Airport is thirty-five kilometers outside Ambon City and takes approximately 30 to 45 minutes. At Ambon Pattimura Airport there are several immigration, quarantine, customs, cargo buildings, restaurants, public telephones, and post offices. Ambon Pattimura Airport is a very strategically located area in the Maluku Islands which is divided into two provinces, namely North Maluku and Maluku.
The Struggle of Kapitan Pattimura
Kapitan Pattimura is an Indonesian hero who comes from Maluku. The struggle that was carried out by Kapitan Pattimura against Dutch colonialism that entered Maluku land to control the spice trade. On August 13, 1814, after the signing of the Anglo-Dutch Agreement, the Maluku Islands were again under Dutch rule. On May 14, 1817, to defend their territory, all the people of Saparua took part in fighting against the Dutch.
Most of the Maluku people also chose Kapitan Pattimura to lead the rebellion. Fort Duurstede was captured from the Dutch and all of its soldiers were killed, including Resident Van den Berg. However, on November 11, Kapitan Pattimura was arrested by the Dutch and Fort Duurstede was again in Dutch hands.
In 1816 the British surrendered their power to the Netherlands. The Dutch established a policy of monopoly, tax on land or landrente, transfer of population and Hongi or Hongi Tochten shipping, and ignored the London I Treaty contained in Article 11 which contained a provision that the British Resident in Ambon must first negotiate the transfer of the Ambon corps with the Governor.
And the contents of the agreement stated clearly that if British rule ended in Maluku, the Ambonese soldiers had to be released. This means that in this sense the right to choose to enter military service for the new government or leave military service, but in practice the transfer of military service is forced.
In 1817, the Dutch colonialists returned and received a strong challenge from the people. This is due to the political, economic and social relations conditions that have been bad for two centuries. The Maluku people finally got up and took up arms under the leadership of Kapitan Pattimura.
When the war broke out against the Dutch colonialists in 1817, the Patih Kings, Kapitans, traditional elders and the people appointed him as leader and commander of the war because he was experienced and had the qualities of a knight or cabaret.
Position as warlord, Kapitan Pattimura began to set a war strategy that he would carry out with his aides. As a leader, Kapitan Pattimura succeeded in coordinating the patih kings in carrying out government activities, leading the people, organizing education, providing food and building fortifications.
The spirit of authority and full of charisma that is in Kapitan Pattimura’s leadership in leadership is widely recognized by the kings and commoners. Kapitan Pattimura was also known to be shrewd and able to gather the great strength of the Maluku people, making it difficult for the Dutch movement in Maluku.
The name Kapitan Pattimura was also highly respected by the VOC leaders at that time, who had to rack their brains to face the resistance of the Maluku people. No wonder Pattimura is very good at fighting and escorting troops.
In the struggle against the Dutch, Kapitan Pattimura also formed a union with the kingdoms of Ternate and Tidore, the kings of Bali, the kings of Sulawesi and the kings of Java. The war that was carried out by Kapitan Pattimura which was national in scale was faced by the Dutch with a large and strong military force by sending Admiral Buykes himself, a Commissioner General to face Patimura.
The intense battle against the Dutch army on land and at sea was coordinated by Kapitan Pattimura who was also assisted by commanders in chief, such as Melchior Kesaulya, Anthoni Rebhok, Philip Latumahina and Ulupaha. The battles that occurred destroyed the Dutch troops and were recorded, such as the capture of the Dutch fort Duurstede in Saparua, the battles on the Waisisil coast and the Hatawano peninsula, Ouw-Ullath, Hitu Peninsula on Ambon Island and South Seram.
The divide et impera strategy , aka the Dutch Colonial style of divisive politics, ultimately succeeded in overthrowing Kapitan Pattimura and his followers and troops. As a result of their betrayal and information, Pattimura’s strategy was discovered by the Dutch and could be thwarted. Kapitan Pattimura was arrested on 11 November 1817 while in Siri Sori. The Netherlands offered cooperation to Kapitan Pattimura but was always rejected.
The Pattimura war could only be stopped by the politics of pitting one against the other, deception and scorched earth by the Dutch. In the city of Ambon, on December 16, 1817 the warrior figures Kapitan Pattimura, Anthony Rhebok, Philip Latumahina, and Said Parintak were finally arrested and ended their service on the gallows in front of Fort Nieuw Victoria, Ambon City. For his service and sacrifice, Kapitan Pattimura was confirmed as a hero of the struggle for independence by the Government of the Republic of Indonesia.
Sinaumed’s can read the book ” Stories of the Indonesian War of Independence” to add insight and get the book which is available at www.sinaumedia.com .
Ambon City Today
Maluku has now changed in terms of arrangement, and story. Maluku is currently a developed province. The beauty of the place, the very delicious typical Maluku food, and other beauties are inseparable from the fighting spirit of the heroes and the people of Maluku.
Maluku is a province that covers the southern part of the Maluku Islands, Indonesia. Maluku Province is bordered by the Seram Sea to the north, the Indian Ocean and the Arafura Sea to the south, Papua to the east and Sulawesi to the west. Its capital and largest city is the city of Ambon. The Maluku province is in 28th place according to the population in Indonesia, where in 2020, the population of the Maluku province is 1,848,923 people.
Prior to the colonial period, Maluku was the axis of the world spice trade with cloves and nutmeg as its main merchandise. This is what makes Maluku nicknamed the “Spice Islands” to this day. The Maluku people traded with merchants from various regions in the archipelago to foreign countries, such as Chinese, Arab and European traders. The wealth of spices in Maluku became an attraction for European nations who in the end tried to take control of Maluku. The countries that started to colonize Maluku were Portugal and finally the Netherlands.
The history of Maluku as a whole began with the formation of three governorates by the Dutch East India Company in the 18th century, namely Ambon, the Banda Islands, and Ternate which were unified by the Dutch in the early 19th century under one name, namely Maluku. After the colonial period was over, Maluku was fully maintained as a province before North Maluku was divided into its own province at the end of the 20th century.
The origins of the name Maluku are from several opinions. The first opinion suggests that the Moluccas Archipelago by Arab traders. This term was also used in Nagarakretagama’s Kakawin in Indonesian history to refer to Ternate, later known by the Portuguese as Moloquo .
The term Miliki was also used by the Tang Dynasty to refer to an area that was used to determine the direction of the location of Holing which is located to the west of the area, which allegedly refers to Maluku, although there is no certainty about this opinion. However, other sources refer to the islands in the Ternate, Tidore, Makian, Bacan and Moti areas as Mine.
There are also various opinions about the origins of Maluku, one opinion among the people is that the name Maluku comes from the word king in Arabic, namely Malik. Where grandiose is used for the plural. Arab traders called the area of royal places in the northern part of the Maluku Islands consisting of Jailolo, Ternate, Tidore and Bacan as Jazirat Al-Muluk which means the islands of kings.
Maluku is not only famous for its abundant spices and beautiful destinations, but Maluku is also famous for its art and culture. Maluku has a famous musical instrument, namely Tifa. Tifa is a kind of drum and Totobuang. In Maluku culture, there are also stringed musical instruments, namely Ukulele and Hawaiian as well as in Hawaiian culture in the United States. Other music is Sawat which is a blend of Maluku culture and Middle Eastern culture.
Maluku also has a famous dance, the Cakalele dance. The Cakalele dance depicts the might of the Maluku people. This Cakalele dance is usually performed by adult men while holding a machete and salawaku or a shield. Furthermore, there is also the Saureka Reka Dance, this dance that uses the fronds of the sago tree. This dance is usually performed by six girls. This dance really requires accuracy and speed while accompanied by a very interesting musical rhythm.
Furthermore, the dance depicting the association of young people is the Katreji Dance. The Katreji dance, which is played in pairs between women and men, uses varied and energetic movements and is definitely interesting.
This dance is almost the same as European dances in general because Katreji is also an acculturation of European culture, namely Portuguese and Dutch with Maluku culture. This dance is accompanied by violin, bamboo flute, ukulele, carcass, guitar, tifa, and bass guitar with a more prominent pattern of western (European) music rhythms. This dance is still alive and favored by the people of Maluku until now.
In addition to the Katreji dances that are influenced by Europe, namely the Polonaise Dance, which is usually performed by the Moluccas. This dance is performed when there is a wedding ceremony which is performed by each member of the party in pairs and forms light movements that can be followed by both parents and young people.
There is also the Crazy Bamboo Dance which is a special dance that is magical in nature, this dance originates from Suli Village. The uniqueness of this dance is that the dancers seem to be burdened by bamboo which can move uncontrollably and anyone can join this dance.
Wow, it’s very interesting, isn’t it about the history of Maluku to today’s Maluku. To find out more information about Maluku Province, Indonesia’s national heroes and their history, Sinaumed’s can read the book and get the book which is available at www.sinaumedia.com . As #FriendsWithoutLimits we always try to give the best!
Author: Yufi Cantika Sukma Divine