Pattern of Human Life Prescriptive Age

Prehistoric Age of Human Life – The prehistoric period is also known as the prehistoric period. There are also those who call it the era of freedom, namely the period of no writing. Humans who lived at this time were ancient humans. Even though the pre-historic era did not recognize writing, the remains left by humans who lived at that time were artifacts and fossils.

Artifacts are in the form of ancient objects where these objects can help us predict how human life developed.  Meanwhile, fossils in the form of the petrified remains of human, animal and plant bones can help us regarding the physical growth of humans in the pre-Kasasara period. The petrified remains of humans, plants, and animals are found in the layers of the earth.

The science that studies the pre-historic period is paleoanthropology, which means studying the human form from the simplest to the present day human being. Meanwhile, paleontology is the study of fossils, and geology is the study of soil layers.

Fossils themselves can be used as information about what living things exist on earth. In the book Why? Fossils – Fossils by YeaRimDang, various fossils are described and their origins explained in animated form so that the information is easier to accept.

A. Techniques for Analyzing the Prehistoric Age

This prehistoric era or prehistoric era did not leave written objects. These historic objects can be analyzed for their age with the following analytical techniques:

1. Typology

Typology is a way of determining the age of objects based on their shape. The simpler the shape means the older the object is.

2. Stratigraphy

Stratigraphy is a way of determining the age of objects based on the soil layers where the objects are.

3. Chemical

Chemistry means the method of determining the age of objects based on chemical elements

B. Pattern of Human Life in the Prescriptive Age

Therefore, the life of prehistoric society has produced tools to maintain its survival. Based on the development of their life or lifestyle, pre-literate society is divided into three periods, namely the period of hunting and gathering food, the period of farming, and the period of perundagian.

1. Hunting and Gathering Period

The period of hunting and gathering food depends on the environment. The areas occupied by pre-historic humans were areas that provided sufficient amounts of food and easily obtained it. The area also had many animals, so early humans found it easy to hunt animals. Humans who lived in the era of hunting and gathering food are estimated to be at the same time as the Paleolithic era.

Geographically, at this time it still depends on the surrounding natural conditions. Areas of rivers, lakes, grasslands were ideal places for pre-historic humans, because those were the places where water and food were available throughout the year. At that time prehistoric humans occupied temporary shelters in umbrella caves close to food sources such as fish, shellfish, water, and so on.

In knowing the pattern of life in the Paleolithic era better. You can make the book Babad Bumi Sadeng Historiographical Mosaic Jember Paleolithic Era by Zainollah Ahmad, which in this book describes the assumption of the existence of Jember humans in the Prehistoric era.

As a source of lighting, Prakasara humans use fire which is obtained by striking a stone with a stone, causing sparks and burning flammable materials such as dry coconut fiber and dry grass.

a. Economic life

Economic life during the hunting and gathering period was dependent on nature. They will remain in the area as long as food supplies are sufficient. When they have run out of food sources, they will move and look for other places that are rich in food. This ever-moving life is a characteristic of pre-historic humans. The results of their hunting are collected for the purpose of moving to another place as a reserve before they get a new place.

b. Social life

They live in groups and are arranged in small families, in one group there is a group leader. The leader of this group in its development is referred to as the chief of the tribe. The tribal leader leads his group members to move from one place to another. Members of the male group are in charge of hunting animals while the women are in charge of gathering food from plants.

c. Cultural life

This cultural life can be seen from the works that have been successfully made. The tools of the prehistoric era provided clues on how humans at that time survived.

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Because human tools in the prehistoric era were made of stone, the culture developed at that time was the result of stone culture. No wonder this era is known as the stone age. The results of stone culture that have been found include: hand axes, chopping axes, blade flakes, and others.

2. Farming Period

For them, it is felt that by cultivating food supplies will be sufficient throughout the year without having to open fields again. In addition to farming, they also raise livestock to be raised.

Humans who lived at this time are estimated to be in the same era as the Neolithic era. Geographically, this era is very dependent on climate and natural weather. This is very much needed for farming. Yields from the harvest are also strongly influenced by the condition of the soil texture used.

a. Economic life

Economically, humans in this era have produced their own production to meet their needs. They clear the forest for planting and the products they produce include tubers.

Apart from farming, their source of the economy is raising livestock (raising chickens, buffaloes, wild boars and others). Humans during this farming period are thought to have carried out simple trading activities, namely bartering. The goods exchanged were crops, dried marine products and handicrafts such as pottery and pickaxes. The results of tubers are needed by the inhabitants of the coast and conversely the results of dried sea fish are needed by those who live inland.

b. Social life

By cultivating crops, giving humans the opportunity to organize their lives more regularly. They live in groups and form small village communities. In a village there are several families and in a village it is led by a tribal chief. The social strata of the tribal chiefs is the highest because the criteria are taken based on the oldest or the most authoritative person religiously. Thus all the rules that have been set must be obeyed and carried out by the entire group.

The necessities of life are managed together for the common good. Activities that require a lot of energy, such as building houses, hunting, making boats, clearing forests, are left to men. Meanwhile, the activities of gathering food, sowing seeds in the fields, raising livestock, caring for the home and family are left to women.

While the tribal chief is in command of all the above activities as well as a religious center for the beliefs they profess. This is where social strata emerge in a small community. Gradually but surely this group formed a large and complex society so that a complex society emerged under the rule of what would later be called a kingdom with the arrival of Hindu and Buddhist influences.

 c. Cultural life

At the time of farming, pre-literate humans had produced a culture that led to farming with conditions of belief. The shape of the resulting tools is smoother and has an artistic style. Apart from being tools for farming, these tools are also used as tools for religious ceremonies. These tools include oval axes, pottery, square axes, jewelry and many others.

There is a belief that when people die they will enter their own realm. At this time, if someone dies, they will be provided with daily necessities such as jewelry. The goal is for the spirits of the deceased to have a smooth journey and get a better life than before.

Closely related to belief, during the farming period a tradition arose of constructing large stone buildings called the megalithic tradition. This tradition is based on the belief that there is a close relationship between people who have died and community welfare and fertility when farming.

Therefore, the services of someone who influences society needs to be enshrined in a monument made of stone. This building later became a symbol of people who died as well as a place of respect and a medium for offerings from people who are still alive to people who have died. These megalithic buildings include dolmens, menhirs, waruga, sarcophagi, and terraced punden.

 3. Perundagian Life Period

With the emergence of the perundagian period, in general, the pre-literacy period in Indonesia ended, although in reality there were several areas in the interior that were still in the stone age. Farming activities began to change to rice fields. Paddy field activities allow for arrangements for farming periods, so that they do not only depend on climate and weather conditions but also think about when is the right time to grow crops and when is the right time to raise livestock.

It is this geographical condition that needs to be looked at so that they do not fail to harvest. They study natural sciences and from nature they know the direction of the wind, sail between islands, make a living at sea and trade between regions.

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a. Economic life

The people during the Perundagian period were able to manage their economic life and were able to think about how to fulfill their lives in the future. Agricultural crops are stored for dry periods and traded to other areas. The community has also developed horses and various types of poultry.

Even certain types of animals are used to assist in farming and trading.  Production, consumption and distribution capabilities support their welfare. Along with advances in technology, it allows them to trade a wider range.

Even though it is still bartering, at least this adds high economic value because of the variety of goods that are exchanged. Evidence of inter-island trade during the Perundagian period is the discovery of nekara in Selayar and the Kei Islands decorated with pictures of animals such as elephants, peacocks and tigers.

b. Social life

During the penundagian period, the life of people who had settled down experienced developments and this encouraged people to live regularly. Rules of life can be carried out properly because there is a leader they choose on the basis of deliberation. The selection of leaders is chosen based on the criteria that can make contact with spirits or ancestral spirits for the safety of the local village and other skills.

In this regular life, hunting animals like lions, tigers is a prestige if you can do it. Apart from being a livelihood, hunting is also to increase social strata, meaning that if they can conquer tigers, they have shown a high level of courage and gallantry in a community environment.

Community life at this time has shown strong solidarity. At this time there was leadership and worship of something sacred outside of human beings that could not possibly be rivaled and was beyond the limits of human ability.  The social system continues to experience development, especially in the Bronze Age.

This is because at this time the community was more complex and divided into groups according to their expertise. There are farmer groups, traders groups, undagi groups. Each group has its own rules and there are general rules that guarantee the harmony of the relationship between each group. General rules are made on the basis of deliberation for consensus in a democratic life.

 c. Cultural life

During the Perundagian era, the art of carving experienced rapid development. Engraving is applied to bronze caskets. Decorative arts on bronze objects already form geometric patterns as the main decorative pattern. This can be seen from the findings at Watuweti which depict bronze axes, boats and paintings of elements in life that are considered important.

The carvings in bronze and stone depict people or animals which produce dynamic stylized forms and show movement. The technology for making metal objects (especially bronze) then experienced very rapid development, in addition to making tools for everyday needs such as axes, funnels, and others.

 C. The Belief System of Prehistoric Humans

The painting depicts a vehicle that will deliver the spirits of the ancestors to the afterlife. This proves that at that time they believed in the existence of spirits. Along with the development of the ability to think, humans begin to contemplate other forces outside of themselves. Therefore, various belief systems emerged that were believed by ancient humans, namely animism, dynamism, and totemism.

1. Animism

The word “animism” comes from the Latin “anima” which means spirit. As in the book History of Southeast Asia (2013) by MC Ricklefs, animism is a belief system that worships ancestral spirits or spirits. The characteristics of pre-historic humans who have this belief are those who always ask for protection and ask for something from the spirits of their ancestors, such as asking for health, safety, and so on.

 2. Dynamism

The word “dynamism” comes from the English word “dynamic” which means power, strength, dynamic. Dynamism is the belief in certain objects which are considered to have supernatural powers such as trees and large stones.

The element of dynamism is born from human dependence on other forces that are outside of themselves. Humans in this pre-historic era had many limitations so they needed help from objects that were considered capable of providing safety.

3. Totemism

Totemism is a belief system that believes that certain animals or plants have supernatural powers to bring salvation or calamity to their adherents. Prehistoric humans who adhere to totemism beliefs tend to sacred certain animals or plants, so they are not allowed to consume these animals or plants.

sinaumedia friends, by studying human life in the pre-historic era, we know that humans experienced thought processes that continued to develop and of course all of this emerged on the basis of human rationality in responding to phenomena that occurred. Well, that’s an explanation of the prehistoric human lifestyle that has become the background of human behavior to this day.