Kiai Haji Muhammad Sangidu or Kanjeng Raden Penghulu Haji (KRPH) Muhammad Kamaluddiningrat (born in Kampung Kauman Yogyakarta [a] in 1883 and buried in the Karangkajen Cemetery after his death in 1980) is the 13th Chief Penghulu [b] of the Sultanate of Yogyakarta who was sworn in in 1914 to replace the previous penghulu , KRPH Muhammad Khalil Kamaluddiningrat. Sangidu is a relative of Ahmad Dahlan and a supporter of the Muhammadiyah organization that Dahlan founded. He is known as a stamboek holder(Muhammadiyah membership card) first, because he was the first member of the Muhammadiyah organization. In addition, he is the person who proposed the name “Muhammadiyah” to Dahlan.
When he was the Head of the Penghulu Sultanate of Yogyakarta, Sangidu played a role in making Muhammadiyah teachings the dominant ideology in Kampung Kauman. Although there had previously been tensions between Ahmad Dahlan and the traditional clerics in Kauman Village, his cooperative approach with the court managed to avoid conflict. He also uses local culture as a medium for preaching. Sangidu also tried to change the marriage customs of the people so that they only provide simple treats, and he once tried to make the accuracy of 1 Shawwal (which is the date of Eid al-Fitr in the Hijri calendar ) by using the rukyat bil aini method (observing by sight) instead of calculating the aboge (Javanese year ). In addition, he pioneered the establishment of a modern school system which is now known as Madrasah Muallimin Muhammadiyah and Madrasah Muallimat Muhammadiyah , and helped pioneer Frobelschool which was the first kindergarten established by the Indonesian people.
Raden Hariya Muhammad Sangidu is the son of Kiai Ma’ruf Ketib Tengah Amin and Nyai Sebro (Raden Nganten Ketib Amin).  He was born in 1883 in Kampung Kauman.  Sangidu is the eldest of five children who have younger siblings named Raden Hariya Muhsin, Raden Nganten Muhsinah, Raden Hariya Ali, and Raden Hariya Syarkowi. His father was the second of ten children of Kiai Maklum Sepuh or Kiai Penghulu Muhammad Maklum Kamaluddiningrat (the 9th Head of the Sultanate of Yogyakarta),  while his mother is the fourth child of Kanjeng Raden Tumenggung Ronodirdjo from his third wife named Gentang Pakem. Ronodirdjo himself was an official of the Regent of Anom Patih Danuredjo or deputy regent of the Sultanate of Yogyakarta.  Sangidu also a sedulur gawan with Ahmad Dahlan who would become the founder of Muhammadiyah . Sedulur Gawan is a relative of the result of a marriage between a widow and a widower, each of whom brings a child. The innate child then became a brother. 
Sangidu’s first wife (name unknown) was the daughter of Muhammad Khalil Kamaluddiningrat (the 12th Head of the Sultanate of Yogyakarta).  Through his first marriage he had three children, namely Djalaluddin (husband of Siti Dariyah, father-in-law of Haiban Hadjid), Siti Salmah (wife of Farid Ma’ruf), and Siti Nafi’ah (wife of Masduki, mother-in-law of Mukti Ali ).   Sangidu and his father-in-law had different directions because he became a supporter of Ahmad Dahlan’s da’wah movement which later became known as “Muhammadiyah”. Sangidu then had a second marriage with Siti Jauhariyah (Ahmad Dahlan’s sister-in-law).    Through this marriage he was blessed with nine children, namelySiti Umniyah , Dariyah, Muhammad Wardan, Darim, Muhammad Jannah, Muhammad Jundi, Jazuri, Burhanah, and Wardhiyah.   
Early role of Muhammadiyah development
Religious reform in Kauman Village
Before it was officially established, the spread of Muhammadiyah understanding was initially only centered in Langgar Kidul which was driven by Ahmad Dahlan by disseminating information to scholars who had the same opinion in the area around Kampung Kauman.  However, this teaching gradually began to spread to other places in Kauman Village, such as the santri studying in the pavilion of his house (the place which later became known as the Tabligh Pendopo).  
Sangidu’s efforts in defending Ahmad Dahlan’s teachings began when he followed the new understanding and taught it to several students of Kampung Kauman at the Tabligh Hall. Even though at that time Muhammadiyah had not been officially formed, he asked his students to practice Islamic teachings in real terms, especially Surah Al-Ma’un . [c]   The students are also asked to give charity socially. They are invited to support the beggars, feed them, tell them to bathe and then clothe them, and finally invite them to pray.  
Like Dahlan, Sangidu provides more examples than lectures to his students. At that time, Yogyakarta was a destination for urbanites from the outskirts to try their luck. The action he took as a manifestation of Surah Al-Ma’un was to gather workers and the poor who came from the outskirts to the pavilion of his house to study religious knowledge with his students.  The ideas and empowerment of small people from Dahlan and Sangidu are still well understood by Muhammadiyah and Nasyiatul Aisyiyah activists . 
Before Sangidu served as the head of the Sultanate of Yogyakarta, he faced challenges in spreading da’wah amar makruf nahi munkar . If Dahlan is accused of being an “infidel kiai” and the reform movement he propagates is called ” Alus Christian ” by scholars who maintain the old pattern, Sangidu is considered a destroyer of brotherly relations among the Kauman people. This is because Kiai Djalal and Sangidu as the leaders of the Tabligh Hall defended the movement initiated by Ahmad Dahlan, while Muhsin as the leader of Langgar Dhuwur who was still related to Kiai Djalal and Sangidu did not approve of the reform movement. 
Proposed name “Muhammadiyah”
After understanding the teachings of the reformists, Ahmad Dahlan felt the need for an organization that could support his mission in spreading the notion of renewal. He finally decided to establish an organization that not only took care of education, but also gathered and became a forum for the reformer movement. He conveyed this intention to his students, relatives, and friends who agreed with the Islamic reform movement he brought in Kauman. In 1911, Sangidu proposed a name for the movement that would be pioneered by Ahmad Dahlan at the Tabligh Hall, namely “Muhammadiyah”.     This name was later confirmed by Ahmad Dahlan as the name of his organization after he repeatedly performed the Istikharah Prayer . Muhammadiyah was declared established on 8 Dzulhijah 1330 H or 18 November 1912. 
The name Muhammadiyah is taken from the name of the last Prophet of Islam Muhammad , added with the Arabic letters yes and ta which means nationalization or identification. The name also means to explain that the supporters of this organization are the people of Muhammad, whose principle is Muhammad’s teachings, namely Islam.  The ideology of Muhammadiyah reform was prepared with conviction and a work plan that proceeded in a systematic direction.  Muhammadiyah became known as a da’wah organization and a social organization for educated people who carried out the credo of tajdid (renewal) in the future. 
On December 20, 1912, Muhammadiyah submitted a rechtspersoon (request as a legal entity) to the Dutch East Indies government through the assistance of Budi Utomo’s administrators.  Ahmad Dahlan was listed as the first applicant, along with six of his students RH Syarkawi, H. Abdulgani, HM Sudja, HM Hisham, HM Tamim, and HM Fachrudin. Muhammadiyah was then officially established with the release of Besluiten van den Gouverneur Generaal van Nederlandsch-Indie 22 den Augustus 1914 (No. 81) , with the condition that its scope was limited to the Yogyakarta area only. 
According to Mitsuo Nakamura (Muhammadiyah scholar from Dalian , China ), Sangidu was not a well-known person in Muhammadiyah circles, especially among Muslims in the Dutch East Indies region in the early 20th century . Nevertheless, he was the first stamboek holder to take part in developing Muhammadiyah.  Like Ahmad Dahlan, he is neither a scholar nor a writer who bequeaths books and articles, but he is an organizer.  Despite bringing the idea of renewal, his approach tends to be cultural in developing Muhammadiyah’s ideas. 
Head of the Sultanate of Yogyakarta
Sangidu was the 13th Chief Penghulu of the Sultanate of Yogyakarta who was appointed in 1914 to replace the previous penghulu, namely Muhammad Khalil Kamaluddiningrat.  Prior to his appointment as penghulu, the title he held was Ketib Anom Kiai (Vice Head Penghulu).  Based on the records of Gadjah Mada University historian , Ahmad Adaby Darban, Sangidu was awarded the honorary name KRPH Muhammad Kamaluddiningrat when he was appointed as the head of the Great Mosque of Yogyakarta . 
The appointment of Sangidu as a penghulu had a significant impact on Kauman Village. Ulamas and people who do not agree with Muhammadiyah’s religious understanding are shrinking. Along with the breakdown of the regeneration of local-traditional kiai, Muhammadiyah ideology became the dominant ideology in Kauman.  Darban noted that with Sangidu’s inauguration as the head of the palace, Kawedanan Reh Pengulon (or Bangsal Pengulon) became an increasingly open place for Muhammadiyah’s Islamic reform movement.  Muhammadiyah was allowed to enter the Pengulon Ward which was previously a taboo place for the common people and the place later became a training center for Muhammadiyah missionaries .  Sangidu has also made it easier for Dahlan to introduce the understanding of modern Islam in the context of the traditionalist Islamic society in Yogyakarta in the early 20th century. 
As a courtier of the Sultanate of Yogyakarta, Sangidu did not show an antagonistic attitude towards the palace in relation to the birth of Muhammadiyah, although previously there had been tensions between senior clerics in Kauman Village and Ahmad Dahlan over the issue of Qibla direction and other Islamic religious practices.    Sultanate of Yogyakarta itself generally regarded as the central tradition of Javanese full of mystique ,   while the Muhammadiyah organization more identify themselves as a movement of purists who aggressively eradicate superstition(believing in something that doesn’t actually exist), bidah (actions that are not carried out based on a predetermined example, including adding or subtracting provisions), and khurafat (unreasonable teachings) later on.  However, Sangidu’s political-structural background as part of the ulema of the palace and the head of the Yogyakarta Grand Mosque formed a cooperative attitude with the sultanate power.  According to Siti Ruhaini Dzuhayatin (a member of the Council for Tarjih and the Development of Thoughts for the Central Leadership of Muhammadiyah 2000–2005), this attitude will later characterize Muhammadiyah as an organization that is responsive-adaptive to the government. By utilizing local culture as a medium for preaching, Sangidu tries to build a new paradigm regarding Muhammadiyah in terms of tanzih (purification), which is an inclusive attitude that reflects Muhammadiyah as moderate Islam. 
Regarding Sangidu’s cooperative attitude with the sultanate, historian Harry Jindrich Benda emphasized that Sangidu’s da’wah strategy was one step in building a new culture in the midst of the traditionalism paradigm of society at that time.  In this case, Sangidu has actually changed his position from the ulama who can only be “touched” by certain people, such as the santri and people close to the nobility., become someone who is close to the surrounding community. This cooperative attitude and moderate ideas in the view of the historian MT Arifin made his ideas acceptable to the sultanate circles. This attitude is carried out with regard to issues that do not substantively contradict the beliefs he believes in. 
As a descendant of Sangidu, Widiyastuti also considered that the position given by the sultanate to his grandfather was intended to provide a stable atmosphere.  In addition, this position is also intended so that the ideas of Islamic purification can develop within the palace. According to historian MC Ricklefs , Sangidu’s attitude was effective in encouraging the palace’s relatives to follow his teachings. 
In line with the views of Arifin and Widiyastuti, Muhammadiyah reviewers Deliar Noer , commenting on Sangidu’s position in relation to the development of Islamic reform initiated by Ahmad Dahlan basically could not be sterile from Hamengkubuwana VII’s role as sultan at that time. Noer added that the sultanate did not complicate the Muhammadiyah movement which was also spread by Sangidu. Hamengkubuwana VII at least “gave wind” to the idea of reforming Muhammadiyah to develop in the lives of its citizens, especially Kampung Kauman. 
Updates in the field of culture
Sangidu’s first attempt to change people’s customs concerns the wedding ceremony. When she married her daughter, Siti Umniyah, she changed the customary procedures that were not in accordance with Islamic teachings (because it brought a lot of waste) with walimah (a simple treat), but all invitees and the poor could enjoy it. Part of the costs that had been planned for the wedding party, the remainder was then divided into three, namely for walimah , the living capital of the newlyweds, and donations to Muhammadiyah.  After the simplification of the wedding ceremony was successful, Muhammadiyah decided that each of its members was ordered to arrange an overall cost plan if they were to hold a hajat event (wedding orcircumcision ). The cost should be divided into three as Sangidu did. This decision is carried out in the following way: every time there is an intention, the Muhammadiyah board goes to the owner of the event and explains the policy that has been set. Through a family approach, the people of Kampung Kauman are gradually able to follow these changes. 
Another contribution of thought made by Sangidu to change the customs of the community is to seek the accuracy of 1 Shawwal (which is the date of Eid al-Fitr) based on the Hijri calendar . This was done because at that time people still used the aboge calculation ( Javanese year ).  Muhammadiyah reckoning experts, including Dahlan and Sangidu, conducted investigations using the rukyat bil aini (observation by sight) method . They determined that 1 Shawwal occurred one day before Grebeg Shawwal. The results of calculations using the reckoning and rukyat bil aini methods are not different. Sangidu then escorted Dahlan to Hamengkubuwana VII to convey the intention of holding the Eid prayer the day before the Grebeg Syawal and confirming the direction of the rows at the Great Mosque of Yogyakarta. This intention was accepted by the sultan, but Grebeg Syawal was still carried out using the aboge calculation . The Sultan said to Dahlan, ” Wide wide according to reckoning or rukyat, while grebeg in Yogyakarta still has a tradition according to the aboge count “.    
As a preacher, Ahmad Dahlan’s position is under the head of the penghulu in the structure of the Yogyakarta Palace Kepenghuluan institution. He could not possibly enter the palace and meet directly with the sultan without passing the authority of the head of the penghulu. Thus, the meeting between Dahlan and the sultan probably occurred after 1914 when Sangidu had served as the head of the Sultanate of Yogyakarta. 
In 1918, Sangidu pioneered the establishment of an advanced school called Al-Qismul Arqo. This school uses a modern system and provides Islamic education to its students. In subsequent developments, the school changed its name to Madrasah Muallimin Muhammadiyah and Madrasah Muallimat Muhammadiyah since 1932. 
Sangidu also collaborated with the forerunner of the Muhammadiyah women’s youth organization, namely Siswo Proyo Wanito (SPW). In 1919, Sangidu and SPW pioneered education for early childhood children in Kawedanan Reh Pengulon under the name Frobelschool .   This school, which is organized for children aged at least four years, is the first kindergarten established by the Indonesian people. 
Thanks to the help of Sangidu, the subject matter at Frobelschool is growing.  The material taught to these children is guidance on the basics of Islam through songs and stories. In addition, lessons at this school are also interspersed with children’s games inside and outside the room. In subsequent developments, the charity pioneered by Sangidu and the Muslim women of Kauman Village was continued as a guide for the movement of the Nasyiatul Aisyiyah organization. 
In 1924, Siti Djuhainah (SPW secretary) and Siti Zaibijah (SPW treasurer) turned Frobelschool into Aisyiyah Bustanul Athfal Kindergarten (TK ABA) Kauman. As for Bustanul Athfal itself means “children’s garden”.  The TK, which was founded by Sangidu and members of the SPW, was handed over to Aisyiyah in 1926, while the name SPW was changed to Nasyiatul Aisyiyah in 1931.  
End of term
Sangidu’s position as the head of the Sultanate of Yogyakarta was replaced by Muhammad Nuh in 1940. When he was appointed as the head of the Great Mosque of Yogyakarta on August 1, 1941, Nuh received the title of KRP Muhammad Nuh Kamaluddiningrat. Several years later, Noah was honorably dismissed from his position by the Sultanate of Yogyakarta. The Sultan of Yogyakarta at that time, Hamengkubuwana IX, then appointed Muhammad Wardan, one of Sangidu’s sons, as the next penghulu on January 28, 1956. Because the penghulu who was replaced was still alive, this also influenced the naming of the title to Muhammad Wardan. He did not use the title Kamaluddiningrat, but used the title Diponingrat as the head of the 15th Sultanate of Yogyakarta. He was the head of the sultanate for 35 years (1956–1991). Before becoming a penghulu, Wardan had helped his father from 1936 until his death in carrying out his penghulu duties.  This is what makes Wardan like a tread and inherit the task that was once carried out by his father as the head of the Great Mosque of Yogyakarta. 
End of life
According to Hoedyana Wara magazine , Sangidu died around 1980 due to age. His body is buried in the Karangkajen Cemetery. 
- Kampung Kauman Yogyakarta is located in the ndalem palaceareaand administratively is part of Ngupasan Village, Gondomanan District ( Depari 2012 , p. 15).
- word penghulu (Sundanese: pangulu , Javanese: pengulu , Madurese: pangoloh , Malay: penghulu ) comes from the word Hulu which means one who heads. However, over time penghulu means someone who is an expert in Islam ( Pijper 1984 , p. 67). At that time, the penghulu was the highest position in the religious field ( Darban 2004 , pp. 30–31). When compared to the existing penghulu in the regions, the prince of the palace is seen as the head of the agengin the leadership structure. In addition to functioning as an advisor to the regional council, the duties and authorities of the penghulu include various kinds of religious affairs in general, namely marriage, earning a living, divorce claims, reconciliation, wills/inheritance, grants, and so on ( Albiladiyah 2006 , pp. 13–14). The duties of the penghulu relating to the Sultanate of Yogyakarta included religious ceremonies of the palace, marriages of the sultan’s family, advisors to the sultan, and the care of places of worship or tombs ( Ismail 1997 , pp. 65–82). Penghulu oversees ketib , modin , barjama’ah , and merbot . Officials in the Yogyakarta Great Mosque organization consist of people who are experts in the Islamic religion ( Hamzah, et al 2007, p. 5).
- Surah Al-Ma’un was used as the basis for Ahmad Dahlan to explore community resources in order to build the theological basis for the development of Muhammadiyah social charities in the future. The principle of sincerity contained in the letter is also one of the complements to the success of Muhammadiyah’s charities ( Sudja 1989 , pp. 15–16).
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