KH Hasyim Al Asy’ari is a cleric who founded Nahdlatul Ulama (NU), the largest social organization in Indonesia. He is also the founder of the Tebuireng Islamic Boarding School , East Java and is known as an educational reformer of the pesantren. Apart from teaching religion in Islamic boarding schools, he also teaches students to read general knowledge books, organize organizations, and give speeches.
The work and services of Kiai Hasyim Asy’ari, who was born in Pondok Nggedang, Jombang, East Java, April 10, 1875, cannot be separated from his ancestors who have led the pesantren for generations. His father’s name was Kiai Asyari, the leader of the Keras Islamic Boarding School in the south of Jombang. Her mother’s name is Halimah. From his mother’s line, Kiai Hasyim Asy’ari is a descendant of King Brawijaya VI, also known as Lembu Peteng, Jaka Tingkir’s father who became King of Pajang (the eighth descendant of Jaka Tingkir).
Birth And Childhood of KH Hasyim Asya’ri
Not far from the heart of Jombang, there is a hamlet called Ngedang, Tambak Rejo Village, which used to have an Islamic Boarding School which is said to be the oldest hut in Jombang, and its caretaker Kiai Usman. He is a great kiai, pious and very influential, his wife is Nyai Lajjinah and has six children:
Halimah was then married to a student of her father named Asy’ari, at that time Halimah was still 4 years old while Asy’ari was almost 25 years old. They were blessed with 10 children:
- Ahmad Saleh
- Muhammad Hasyim
- I pay
- Nahrowi, dan
Muhammad Hasyim , was born on Tuesday 24 Dzulqo’dah 1287 H, coinciding with 14 February 1871 A.D. The time in the womb and birth of KH.M. Hashim Ash’ari, there seems to be a sign that shows his greatness. among them, when in the womb Nyai Halimah dreamed of seeing the full moon falling into her womb , so also when giving birth Nyai Halimah did not feel pain like what a woman felt when giving birth.
As a child he lived with his grandparents in Ngedang Village, this lasted for six years. After that he followed his parents who moved to Keras Village, located south of Jombang, and in that village Kiai Asy’ari founded a boarding school called Asy’ariyah.
Principle of early learning , maybe this theory deserves to be carried by him, based on his supportive life, namely living in the pesantren environment, so it is natural that the values of the pesantren are very pervasive in him, as well as the values of the pesantren can be seen how his father and mother provide guidance to them. santri, and how the santri live a simple life full of intimacy and mutual help..
Learning In The Family
It was his family’s journey that started him for the first time studying religious sciences from his grandparents. Keras Village brought life changes for the first time for him, here at first he received extensive religious lessons from his father who at that time was the founder and caretaker of the Asy’ariyah Islamic Boarding School. With his intellectual capital and the encouragement of a conducive environment, at a fairly young age, he is already able to understand the religious sciences, be it family guidance, teachers, or self-taught. His dissatisfaction with what he had learned, and his thirst for pearls of knowledge, made it not enough just to study in his family environment. After about nine years in Keras Village (aged 15 years) namely studying with his family, he began his odyssey to study.
Wandering to Various Islamic Boarding Schools
At the age of 15, the first journey to study, Muhammad Hasyim studied at the famous boarding schools in Java, especially East Java. Among them are Pondok Pesantren Wonorejo in Jombang, Wonokoyo in Probolinggo, Tringgilis in Surabaya, and Langitan in Tuban (now cared for by KH Abdullah Faqih), then Bangkalan, Madura, under the guidance of Kiai Muhammad Khalil bin Abdul Latif (Syaikhuna Khalil).
There was a pretty amazing story when KH.M. Hasyim Asy’ari“ngangsu kawruh” with Kiai Khalil. One day, he saw Kiai Khalil sad, he ventured to ask. Kiai Khalil replied that his wife’s ring fell in the toilet, Kiai Hasyim then suggested that Kiai Khalil buy another ring. However, Kiai Khalil said that the ring was his wife’s ring. After seeing the sadness on his teacher’s face, Kiai Hasyim offered to look for the ring in the toilet. Finally, Kiai Hasyim really looked for the ring in the toilet, with full sincerity, patience, and sincerity, Kiai Hasyim finally found the ring. How happy Kiai Khalil was for Kiai Hasyim’s success. From this incident, Kiai Hasyim became very close to Kiai Khalil, both during his time as a student and after returning to society to fight. This was proven by the giving of a stick when Kiai Hasyim was about to establish Jam’iyah Nahdlatul Ulama’ which was brought by KH. As’ad Syamsul Arifin (caretaker of the Syafi’iyah Islamic Boarding School in Situbondo).
After about five years of studying in Madura (to be precise in 1307 H/1891 AD), he finally returned to Java, studying at the Siwalan Islamic boarding school, Sono Sidoarjo, under the guidance of KH Ya’qub who was famous for his nahwu and shorof knowledge. After a while, Kiai Ya’qub became closer to the santri and became more and more interested in becoming his son-in-law.
In 1303 H/1892 A.D., Kiai Hasyim who was then only 21 years old married Nyai Nafisah, the daughter of Kiai Ya’qub. Shortly after the wedding, he then went to the holy land of Mecca to perform the pilgrimage with his wife and in -laws. In addition to performing the pilgrimage, in Mecca he also deepened the knowledge he already possessed, and absorbed the new knowledge needed. He studied almost all disciplines of religion, especially the sciences related to the hadith of the Prophet SAW which became his favorite since in the homeland.
The journey of life is sometimes difficult to predict, happy and sad come alternately. The same goes for Kiai Hasyim Asy’ari in the holy land of Mecca. After seven months of living in Mecca, he was blessed with a son named Abdullah. In the midst of the joy of obtaining the baby, the wife became seriously ill and then died. forty days later, his son, Abdullah, also followed the mother back to Rahmatullah. His grief, which at that time had begun to be known as a scholar, was almost unbearable. The only comforter for his heart was to perform tawaf and other acts of worship that he almost never stopped doing. In addition, he also has a loyal friend in the form of books that are constantly studied at all times. Until finally, he left the holy land,
Maturity of Knowledge in the Holy Land
Longing for the holy land apparently called him to go back to Mecca. In the year 1309 H/1893 AD, he went back to the holy land with his younger brother, Anis. Beautiful and sad memories flashed back when his feet stepped back on the holy land of Mecca. But it actually raises a new spirit to be more devoted to worship and explore science. He also visited historic and efficacious places, praying to achieve his goals, such as the Arafah Field, Hira’ Cave, Maqam Ibrahim, and other places. Even the tomb of the Prophet Muhammad in Medina was always a place of pilgrimage for him. He visited great scholars who were famous at that time to study as well as take blessings, including Shaykh Su’ab bin Abdurrahman,
This tiring effort is not in vain. After many years in Mecca, he returned to his homeland with almost complete religious knowledge, both ma’qul and manqul, as a provision for charity and teaching in his hometown.
Establishing a Tebuireng Islamic Boarding School
After returning from the holy land around 1313 H/1899 AD, he started teaching students, he first taught at Pesantren Ngedang which was brought up by his grandfather, as well as the place where he was born and raised. After that he taught in the village of Muning Mojoroto Kediri. This is where he managed to marry one of the daughters of Kiai Sholeh Banjar Melati. Unfortunately, due to various reasons, the marriage did not last long so Kiai Hasyim returned to Jombang.
When he was in Jombang, he planned to build a boarding school, which he chose a place in Tebuireng Hamlet which at that time was a hotbed of disobedience and chaos. The choice, of course, reaped a big question mark among the people, but all of that was ignored.
The name Tebuireng was originally Kebo ireng (black buffalo). The story is, In that area there was a buffalo that was immersed in the mud, where there were a lot of leeches, when it was pulled on land, the buffalo’s body had changed its color from reddish white to black which was filled with leeches. It is said that since then the area was called Keboireng which eventually turned into Tebuireng.
On 26 Robiul Awal 1317 H/1899 AD, the Tebuireng Islamic Boarding School was established, together with his comrades in arms, such as Kiai Abas Buntet, Kiai Sholeh Benda Kereb, Kiai Syamsuri Wanan Tara, and several other Kiai, all the difficulties and threats of the parties involved. hatred towards Islamic education broadcasting in Tebuireng can be overcome.
KH. M. Hasyim Asya’ri started a tradition which later became one of his privileges, namely the completion of the shakhihaini book “Al-Bukhori and Muslim” held every month of the holy month of Ramadan which is said to be attended by hundreds of kiai who came in droves from all over Java. This tradition continues until now (the teacher of PP. Tebuireng KH. M.Yusuf Hasyim). Initially, the first Pondok Tebuireng santri numbered 28 people, then increased to hundreds of people, even at the end of their lives they had reached thousands, alumni of Pondok Tebuireng who succeeded in becoming great ulama and became high state officials, and Tebuireng became the center of Islamic boarding schools. .
Establishing Nahdlatul Ulama ‘
Besides being active in teaching, he is also active in various activities, both local and national. On 16 Sa’ban 1344 H/31 January 1926 AD, in Jombang, East Java, the Jam’iyah Nahdlotul Ulama’ (revival of ulama) was established together with KH. Bisri Syamsuri, KH. Wahab Hasbullah, and other great scholars, with the principle and purpose: “To hold firmly to one of the four schools of thought, namely Imam Muhammad bin Idris Asyafi’i, Imam Malik bin Anas , Imam Abu Hanifah An-Nu’am and Ahmad bin Hambali. And also do whatever makes the benefit of the religion of Islam.” KH. Hasyim Asy’ari was elected to NU’s rois akbar, a title that no one now holds. He also drafted the basic qanun (basic regulations) of NU which developed the ideology ofAhli Sunnah waljama’ah .
Nahdlatul ulama ‘as a bond of ulama’ throughout Indonesia and teaches jihad for belief with an organized system. It is not easy to unite the ulama ‘who are different in their point of view, but it is not Kiai Hasyim who just gives up, that he sees that the struggle carried out alone will open up a greater opportunity for the enemy to destroy it, either the invaders or those who want to extinguish the light. and Islamic syi’ar in Indonesia, to quarrel with each other. He was a sharp and far-sighted person in this regard, saw the dangers that would be faced by Muslims, and therefore he thought of finding a way out by forming an organization with foundations that can be accepted by other ulama’ulama.
This Jam’iyah adheres to the ideology of ahlu sunnah wal jama’ah, which accommodates to certain limits the pattern of bermadzhab, which later is more inclined to manhaj than just qauli. In its first decade, NU was oriented to religious and social issues. Activities are directed at issues of education, recitation and tabligh. However, when entering the second decade the orientation was expanded to national issues. This is related to its existence as a member of the federation of the Indonesian Muslim Party and Association of Indonesian Muslims (MIAI) NU and even in its history it has appeared as one of the political parties participating in the election, which later merged with PPP, NU’s role in practical politics was later annulled by the decision of the Situbono Congress which wants NU as a socio-religious organization to return to its khitoh.
The role of KH. M. Hasyim Asy’ari was not only limited to the field of science and religion, but also in the social and national fields, he was actively involved in the struggle to liberate the nation from the Dutch colonialists.
In 1937 he was approached by the leadership of the Dutch government by giving a gold and silver star as a token of honor but he refused. Then in the evening he gave advice to his students about the incident and analogized with the incident experienced by the Prophet Muhammad SAW which at that time the Jahiliyah offered him three things, namely:
- A high -ranking seat in government
- Abundant possessions
- The prettiest girls
However, the Prophet (SAW) refused and even said: “By Allah, if they had the power to put the sun in my right hand and the moon in my left hand with the aim of stopping me from fighting, I would not accept it, even my life is at stake . ” The end of KH.M. Hasyim Asy’ari ended his advice to his students to always follow and set an example from the actions of the Prophet SAW.
The period of physical revolution in 1940, perhaps indeed was the toughest period for him. During the Japanese occupation, he was detained by the Japanese fascist government. While in detention he was physically tortured so that one of his fingers became disabled . But it was precisely during that period that he carved a sheet in gold ink on the sheet of the struggle for the nation and the Republic of Indonesia, namely by calling for the jihad resolution which he decreed on October 22, 1945, in Surabaya, which is better known as the National Hero’s Day .
Likewise during the Japanese colonial period, in 1942 Kiai Hasyim was imprisoned (Jombang) and transferred to Mojokerto prison and then imprisoned in Surabaya. He was considered a hindrance to the Japanese movement.
After Indonesia’s independence In 1945 KH. M. Hasyim Asy’ari was elected as general chairman of the Majlis Syuro Muslimin Indonesia (MASYUMI) party board, he held that position but continued to teach at Islamic boarding schools until he died in 1947.
Family And Sideways
Almost simultaneously with the establishment of the Tebuireng Islamic Boarding School (1317 H/1899 AD), KH. M. Hasyim Asya’ri remarried to Nyai Nafiqoh, daughter of Kiai Ilyas, the caretaker of the Sewulan Madiun Islamic Boarding School. From this marriage, Kiai Hasyim was blessed with 10 sons and daughters, namely:
- Aisyah |
- Abdul Wahid |
- Abdul Hakim (Abdul Kholiq)
- Abdul Karim |
- Muhammad Yusuf.
Towards the end of 1930, KH. M. Hasyim Asya’ri remarried with Nyai Masruroh, daughter of Kiai Hasan, caretaker of the Kapurejo Islamic Boarding School, Pagu Kediri District, from this marriage, he was blessed with 4 sons and daughters, namely:
- Abdul Qodir |
- Fatimah |
- Muhammad Ya’kub
The lineage of KH. M. Hasyim Asy’ari (Ninth Grandmother)
Muhammad Hasyim bin Asy’ari bin Abdul Wahid (Prince Sambo) bin Abdul Halim (Prince Benowo) bin Abdul Rahman (Mas Karebet/Jaga Tingkir) who later held the title of Sultan Hadiwijaya bin Abdullah (Lembu Peteng) who held the title of Brawijaya VI
The Death of the KH Hasyim Asya’ri
On the 7th of Ramadan 1366 A.D. at 9 pm, he after leading the Tarawih Prayer, as usual sat in a chair to give lessons to Muslim mothers. Soon after, a guest envoy from General Sudirman and Bung Tomo suddenly came. The Kiai met the messenger accompanied by Kiai Ghufron, then the guest delivered a message in the form of a letter. Whatever the content of the letter, it is clear that Kiai Hasyim asked for time last night to think and the answer will be given the next day.
However, later, Kiai Ghufron reported that the fighting situation and conditions of the fighters were increasingly cornered, as well as the increasing number of civilian casualties. Hearing the report, Kiai Hasyim said, “Masha Allah, Masya Allah…”then he held his head and was interpreted by Kiai Ghufron that he was sleepy. So the guests said goodbye. However, he did not answer, so Kiai Ghufron approached and then asked the two guests to leave, while he himself remained beside Kiai Hasyim Asy’ari. Not long after, Kiai Ghufron realized that Kiai Hasiyim was unconscious. So hastily, he called his family and stretched Kiai Hasyim’s body. At that time, his sons and daughters were not present, for example Kiai Yusuf Hasyim who at that time was at the headquarters of the fighters, although later he was able to attend and a doctor was brought in (Dokter Angka Nitisastro).
It was not long before it was discovered that Kiai Hasyim had a brain hemorrhage. Even though the doctor had tried to reduce his illness, God had other plans for his lover. KH.M. Hasyim Asy’ari died at 03.00 am, July 25, 1947, coinciding with the 07th of Ramadan 1366 H. Inna LiLlahi wa Inna Ilaihi Raji’un.
His departure to his final resting place, was accompanied by deep condolences from almost all walks of life, especially from civilian and military officials, comrades -in -arms, scholars, NU residents, and especially the students of Tebuireng. Muslims have lost their great leader who now lies in his grave in the middle of Pesantrn Tebuireng. At the time of escorting him away, his companions and relatives, KH. Wahab hazbulloh, had the opportunity to present a speech that in essence explained the principle of his life, namely, “fight continuously with no recurrence, and if necessary without rest” .
Another very valuable legacy is a number of books that he wrote on the sidelines of his life in educating students, protecting thousands of people, defending and fighting for the motherland from colonialism. This is a real proof of his attitude and behavior, his thoughts can be traced in several of his works which are mostly in Arabic.
But it’s a shame, because of the incomplete documentation, the books that are very valuable disappeared without a trace. Actually, the book he wrote no less than twenty titles. However, only a few titles can be saved, including:
- Al-Nurul Mubin Fi Mahabati Sayyidi Mursalin. Study of the obligation to believe, obey, emulate, be sincere, love the Prophet SAW as well as his life history
- Al-Tanbihat al-Wajibat Liman Yashna’u al-Maulida Bi al-Munkarat. The study of the birthday of the prophet in relation to amar ma’ruf nahi munkar
- Risalah Ahli Sunnah Wal Jama’ah. A study of views on heresy, the Conscience of one of the sects, and the division of the ummah into 73 groups
- Al-Durasul Muntasyiroh Fi Masail Tis’a ‘asyaraoh. A study of wali and thoriqoh which is summarized in nineteen problems.
- Al-Tibyan Fi Nahyi’an Muqatha’ah al-Arham Wa al-Aqrab Wa al-Akhwal. A study of the importance of friendship between human beings
- Adabul ‘Alim Wa Muata’alim. Views on the ethics of learning and teaching in pesantrren education in particular
- Dlau ‘al-Misbah Fi Bayani Ahkami Nikah. Study of marriage laws, conditions, principles, and rights in marriage
- Ziyadah Ta’liqot. The book contains his polemic with Shaykh Abdullah bin Yasir Pasuruaan