Transitive and Intransitive Sentences – Humans as social beings need tools to interact with others. Therefore, language is a tool used as a means of interaction in the establishment of a communication. When we communicate with other people using spoken or written language, the purpose is to convey ideas, thoughts, wishes or desires to others.
An idea, thought, or desire in spoken language is conveyed directly by speaking and with the help of breathing air. According to Cahyono (1995: 6) in his book entitled Kristal-Kristal Ilmu Bahasa , oral language starts from the imitation of body movements and gestures verbally, which are related to the mouth and tongue, thus encouraging someone to speak.
The written language is written using a writing system. Language is the most important part of social life and socializing, whenever and wherever a person is. Language becomes something very important because without language people cannot interact with each other and understand each other’s culture.
In addition, a relationship will not be created between people if there is no language. Language can also be interpreted as a system of arbitrary sound symbols used by members of a society to work together, interact, and identify themselves.
One of the forms of speech used by a society to express the concept of ideas, thoughts, and feelings in everyday life is the sentence. A sentence in linguistics can be interpreted as a language unit that is relatively independent, has a final intonation pattern, and actually or potentially consists of clauses.
Sugiono (2009: 42) in his book entitled Mahir Berbahasa Indonesia dengan Benar writes that a sentence is said to be active when the subject is the doer of the action, while the predicate is an active verb. Verbs or active verbs are marked with me- and be- or unaffixed affixes, for example write, take, see, run, work, eat, jump , and so on. In general, active sentence patterns are often found in various types of texts because they tend to be easier to digest and understand by the reader or listener.
Sentences have many types, among which are transitive and intransitive sentences. These two types of sentences have contradictory properties. Keraf explains that transitive and intransitive sentences are two different types of sentences. These two sentences are differentiated based on the need for objects in a sentence structure.
Furthermore, quoted from the book Think Smart Bahasa Indonesia by Ismail Kusmayadi, a transitive sentence is a sentence with a transitive verb that requires an object or complement, while an intransitive sentence does not require an object in it. A transitive sentence needs an object or complement in order to convey its meaning in its entirety, while an intransitive sentence does not need an object, but can convey its meaning without causing confusion.
Examples of transitive and intransitive sentences need to be known to understand the difference between the two types of sentences. This article will discuss in detail about transitive and intransitive sentences, starting from the meaning, characteristics, to the differences. See also examples of transitive and intransitive sentences below.
Meaning of Transitive Sentences
According to the Big Indonesian Dictionary (KBBI), a transitive sentence is a sentence related to a verb and requires an object. That is, the sentence must be followed by the object after the predicate. A transitive active sentence is a sentence that has a subject (S), predicate (P), object (O), and description (K). The pattern can be changed into a passive sentence because it is equipped with an object.
A transitive sentence can be divided into the following elements.
- Subject (S): the part of the sentence that indicates the doer.
- Predicate (P): the part of the sentence that shows the thing done or the state of the subject.
- Object (O): the part of the sentence that complements the predicate.
- Description (K): additional functions.
Transitive sentences also consist of three types, namely:
- Ekatransitive sentence, which is a type of sentence that only has one object.
- Bitransitive sentence, which is a type of sentence that only has two objects.
- Semitransitive sentence, which is a type of sentence equipped with a complement.
Meaning of Intransitive Sentences
According to KBBI , an intransitive active sentence is a sentence without a direct object or complement. The sentence already has a clear meaning without an object. This sentence uses an adverb or complement in it, even though the object is omitted.
The arrangement of active intransitive sentences is in the form of SP (subject-predicate), or SPK (subject-predicate-explanation), or it can also be SP-Pel (subject-predicate-complement). The intransitive active sentence pattern cannot be changed into a passive sentence because it is not equipped with an object, for example the words cry, dance, step, and be silent .
The difference between transitive and intransitive sentences
Based on the understanding above, you can see that there is a striking difference between transitive sentences and intransitive sentences. The main difference between these two sentences lies in the presence of an object in the sentence. Transitive sentences have objects or complements, while intransitive sentences do not have objects or complements.
The following is the difference between transitive and intransitive sentences in detail taken from the book entitled Seri Terampil Menulis Bahasa Indonesia: Kalimat written by Djoko Saryono and Soedjito.
1. Based on the Verb Type
A transitive sentence is a sentence with a transitive verb predicate, that is, it has a verb that is an object. Unlike transitive, intransitive sentences are sentences that consist of intransitive verbs, that is, verbs that do not have an object.
2. Based on its Features
When viewed from the main characteristics of transitive and intransitive sentences, transitive sentences are characterized by the presence of an object in the sentence, while intransitive sentences do not need an object to express an idea and feeling.
3. Based on the Prefix
If transitive and intransitive sentences have an active sentence structure, there is a difference in the use of prefixes or affixes. Transitive active sentences use the affix me- in the predicate part, while intransitive active sentences require the object to use the affix ber- in the sentence.
4. Based on the Structure
One of the differences between transitive and intransitive sentences is the sentence structure. There is a striking difference between the structure of transitive sentences and intransitive sentences. Transitive sentences are sentences that have the structure of SPO, SPO-Pel, SPOK, while intransitive sentences have the structure of SPK, SP-Pel.
5. Based on the sentence
A transitive active sentence can be changed into a passive sentence, while an intransitive active sentence cannot be changed into a passive sentence because it is not equipped with an object. The object position is replaced by an adverb or complement.
Characteristics of Transitive and Intransitive Active Sentences
An active sentence is a type of sentence in which the subject is given the information that he is doing a job or activity. This sentence has a general characteristic, namely the predicate is a verb that has an affix with me- and be-, such as learn and play , or it can be a verb that does not have an affix, for example go, sleep, bathe , and so on.
When viewed from the sentence’s need for an object, active sentences have two types, namely transitive active sentences and intransitive active sentences. A transitive active sentence is an active sentence that is equipped with an object or description, so that this sentence has the structure of SPO or SPOK. In addition, another feature of this sentence is that the transitive active sentence can be changed into the passive form, because the sentence is equipped with an object in the sentence structure.
Unlike the transitive active sentence, the intransitive active sentence is a sentence that is not completed by a sentence pattern. The characteristic of this sentence is having a SP or SPK structure. Active intransitive sentences also have certain characteristics, namely they cannot be changed into a passive sentence form, because the sentence does not have an object in its sentence structure.
Examples of Transitive and Intransitive Sentences
Transitive and intransitive sentences have different sentence structures. The structure of transitive sentences is in the form of SPO, SPOK, SPO-Pel, while the intransitive sentence is in the form of SPK, SP-Pel. As quoted from the book entitled Bahasa Indonesia Class XI by Yustinah, an example of a transitive sentence is “Budi washes his dirty shoes”. Based on the sentence, the position of the object is needed to support the predicate in explaining Budi’s activities. An example of an intransitive sentence is “Rani entered the house”. This sentence does not need an object, because the meaning has been conveyed in its entirety.
In addition to the two examples above, there are other examples. The following are examples of transitive and intransitive sentences that are commonly used in everyday life.
Examples of Transitive Sentences
- My brother accidentally deleted the data on my laptop.
- My sister read a novel called Serti Dendam, Missing Must Be Reciprocated .
- Andi did his job well.
- Andri is washing clothes.
- Father and sister watch the latest movie at the cinema.
- Dad washes clothes in the bathroom.
- The new shirt was worn by Ina.
- Dad fixed the broken cupboard.
- Bela closed the door.
- Cristiano Ronaldo kicks the ball into the opponent’s goal.
- Deni hit a cat that was crossing.
- He climbed a tree.
- He had considered many things.
- He likes to question past problems
- Dita watches television.
- Doni wrote a letter.
- Ferdi listens to metal music.
- Mother told me not to come home late at night.
- Indra married Rani.
- Sister helps mother cook rice.
- My sister watered the flowers in the front yard.
- Grandfather draws water from the well.
- We are doing homework.
- You cut the paper.
- We have to do something.
- The cat chased the mouse.
- Lilis pours coffee in father’s glass.
- Lisa picked up the phone from her friend at night.
- Villagers catch cattle thieves.
- They throw stones.
- Grandma planted a banana tree in the garden.
- Pak RT always protects his citizens well.
- Uncle Haris is hoeing the soil in the field.
- Uncle shaves sister’s hair.
- The students are learning material about transitive and intransitive sentences.
- Sinta opened the door of the house.
- Rahmat rides a motorcycle every time he goes to school.
- Rani writes a letter to her sister.
- Rida is arranging flowers for her sister’s graduation ceremony.
- Rino listens to keroncong music tonight.
- I kicked the ball.
- My cousin fixes a broken bicycle.
- Sintia found money in her shirt pocket.
- Sita searches for her missing sandal.
- Siti makes her bed every morning.
- Toni rides a motorcycle fast.
- Vina misses her parents who are in the village.
- The company treated the employees unfairly.
- The police have arrested a car thief.
- I received a gift from my father.
- All students must collect today’s work.
- A technician has repaired this printer.
- The student can answer 10 math questions.
- Vina nodded her head quickly.
- The woman wears a red veil.
Examples of Intransitive Sentences
- Akmal is playing football.
- I consult with Ilham.
- I was punished to stand in the middle of the field.
- I talked to my neighbor.
- Alya asked as the lesson progressed.
- Andi ran fast.
- My father joked with me and my mother when we sat together.
- The chicken has crowed.
- Many tourists in Bali sunbathe on the beach.
- Budi plays a kite.
- Danny fell because he was running so fast.
- Dila lied to her mother.
- Fatin sleeps and dreams.
- My sister came home from work in the afternoon.
- Kamalia left this morning.
- The principal gave a speech on the school grounds.
- Kinar stood in front of the class.
- Mario shouted to his friend across the street.
- They walked together.
- Maudy Ayunda is good at singing.
- My study group discussed the end of semester exam grids.
- The students line up neatly.
- Rita studied diligently every day.
- Rudi trained hard before the competition.
- I sing melodiously.
- After praying, my sister and I prayed.
- Every August 17, children compete to follow the art stage.
- Sita ran fast.
- I’ve been standing here for an hour.
- Everyone is happy to celebrate the new year.
- His body was covered in blood.
- His body was covered in sweat.
- Martha lined up on the pendant.
- Tio walked to the shop.
- The person was talking about the theft of a bicycle.
- We should diligently sunbathe in the morning.
- My family went on vacation to the beach.
- Budi is taking a shower.
- The sparrow flew around the trees.
- He fell fast asleep.
- Ferrel smiled as he passed in front of me.
- Hadi is painting in the yard.
- Ida was not accepted by the fertilizer company.
- Kartika sits behind.
- Good is rewarded with evil.
- They slept in tents.
- Rendra Juliandra was silent when he heard the sad news.
- Ria was accepted at a chosen and famous university.
- Rina is known as a country girl.
- Rudi is predicted to become a famous person.
- Runi smiled and was amazed by the man’s good looks.
- Santoso goes to school.
- Every time it rains, Dwina always daydreams in front of her bedroom window.
- Tani slipped in the bathroom.
- Wita draws with a pencil.
That is the related article “Meaning and Examples of Transitive and Intransitive Sentences” that you can use as a reference for Indonesian language assignments. If you have suggestions, questions, and criticism, please write in the comment box below. Also share this article on social media accounts so that your friends can also get the same benefits.