Meaning of Social Science: Types and Examples

Understanding of Social Science – Learning is the right and duty of every human being, regardless of age, children, teenagers, and the elderly, all have the same opportunity. The state even guarantees every individual to be able to study or obtain an education as stated in the 1945 Constitution article 31 paragraph 1 where the state guarantees every citizen the right to education.

With education, individuals can develop their country. There is a lot of knowledge that can be learned according to each individual’s interests. One of the sciences that can be learned is social science. The definition of social science is the science that studies the relationship between humans and their environment or the interaction of humans with other individuals, humans with their groups, or groups with other groups.

Human interaction with others will be interwoven with communication so that people can get to know each other. In addition, humans can also help each other thanks to the interaction so that a harmonious relationship is formed.

However, sometimes conflicts also arise due to the incompatibility of his relationship with others. If the conflict cannot be overcome, it will disrupt the harmony. Basically, humans are social creatures who cannot live individually, they need the presence of others.

Meaning of Social Science

Social science tries to understand the difference as a valuable lesson to be able to unite the inequality.

In everyday life, many differences are sure to be found. But back to human nature, that they will need the presence of other people in their daily lives. Living alone is impossible. In social science, the differences between individuals have solutions that can overcome them.

With a solution, then individuals can live side by side with others even though conflict is sometimes unavoidable. Social science, if understood more deeply, contains a study of social problems that often occur in everyday life. The purpose of social science is to help increase insight or broader knowledge about social life.



Types of Social Sciences

After we know the meaning of social science, then what are the types of social science? Social science is actually the parent of several sciences that are taught both in schools and universities. Here are the types of social science.

1. Anthropology

One type of social science is anthropology. As for what is meant by anthropology is the science that studies humans and their culture.

In general, anthropology studies humans in five subs, namely the biological evolution of humans, the diversity of human physical characteristics, the development and spread of human culture, the development and spread of language, and the fundamentals of humans and their cultures that exist throughout the world.

Anthropology as a science tries to explain the cultural processes of existing societies and which develop from time to time. Without this knowledge, society will not know the various cultures that exist and are spread around the world.

Studying anthropology includes the preservation of culture because we can know what culture exists and needs to be developed in human life today.

2. Sociology

The definition of sociology is a science that studies various phenomena of community life or population. In the beginning, sociology developed in Europe because scientists realized that there must be science that can explain and study the social changes that occur in society.

The first scientist to create sociology was a French scientist named August Comte. By sociologists, August Comte is called the Father of Sociology. Sociology is a type of social science because it does not study certain (exact) knowledge because what is studied is the symptoms of society and the social changes that occur in its life.

In looking at the symptoms of society, sociology does not stand as a speculative science, but is objective in looking at the symptoms. In addition, the symptoms of society are obtained from the results of observation, so sociology is a logical science. The knowledge learned in it is also extensive.

Based on the changes in social life that have occurred since the first humans existed until modern humans (homo sapiens) as they are today. As a scientific discipline, sociology does not look at problems normatively but must be neutral in looking at the problems that exist in society.

3. Communication Science

The interaction of individuals with each other is inseparable from communication. Humans need communication so that the desired message and meaning can be delivered well. Scientists have long studied how good communication can be communicated between individuals.

The research carried out by these scientists gave birth to the science of communication. The definition of communication science is the science that studies individual communication processes, be it between individuals with individuals, individuals with groups, and groups with groups.

See also  The Power of Words: How Motivational Speeches Inspire Change

Communication in everyday life is a fundamental social process. Social interaction in communication plays an important role. With the knowledge of communication, people understand how to convey good information so that it can be understood by the recipient of the information.

In the process, communication continues to evolve. In the past, people used letters as a means of communication, but it required a long process.

Now the media is more advanced by using technological sophistication so that it is faster and more efficient compared to letters such as using mobile phones, email, and so on. Human behavior in communicating is the main object studied in communication science.

4. Economy

In social life, humans cannot escape from what is called economy. Why is economics grouped into the social sciences? This is because in the economic world, human behavior is the main subject of study.

Economics explains how people behave in using available economic resources to fulfill their needs or desires in their lives. In the economic world, there are three economic actors, namely households, business actors, and the government. the three economic actors in carrying out their activities are not separated from their decisions and carrying out their respective roles.

The decisions taken by all three affect how they behave. In the economic wheel, all three interact with each other. Households are consumers who try to fulfill their needs in consuming goods or services.

Businesses run by individuals or groups will produce goods or services to earn a profit. While the government’s role in the economy is as a public policy maker. Decisions taken by the government should pay attention to the well-being of households and businesses.

5. Knowledge of Education

In the world of education, the interaction between educators and students is important and should be studied. For those who work in the world of education, social science is important to have.

An educator must understand the characteristics and behavior of his students so that he is able to apply appropriate learning methods in order to channel the knowledge he possesses. Good communication skills are required as an educator.

In addition, with education, people can change their lives both for themselves and for others. Therefore, education actually boils down to social life. For example, people who pursue education at a higher level such as a university will later have the opportunity to become an agent of change for the problems that occur in society.

It is hoped that they will be able to solve existing problems so that people will have a more independent and prosperous life. That is the importance of education so that it is able to change the lives around it for the better.

6. Geography

Geography is the science that studies the earth and its contents. In it, geography also studies a variety of natural phenomena that occur around it. At first glance geography seems to have nothing to do with social science, but make no mistake.

Geography is related to social science. In geography, humans and their environment are the center of study. This science also learns about humans which is called human geography. In its discussion, human geography studies how individuals adapt to their environment, with fellow humans, and how their role in the world is.

In addition, in general, geography studies the wealth of nature available. So that by knowing the wealth of nature that is owned, later humans can manage and utilize it for the prosperity and benefit of other people. Certainly fairly and evenly.

7. History

The development of events that have happened to humans since they first existed until now continues to be studied. The science that studies these events is called the science of history. Chronologically, the science of history tries to string together various events that happened in the past so that they become what they are today.

The science of history also studies the chronology of how the process of human behavior occurs sequentially based on existing facts so that history is not a superstitious science. The truth in history is an important thing, because people can learn it and anticipate bad history so that it does not happen again in their lives now.

History as a science does not only study what, when, where, and how events happened. The science of history is more than that, in it learning the facts, the pattern of events, the elements of the formation of events, and so on that happen to humans historically. Therefore, history and social science cannot be separated because they are interlinked with each other.

8. Political Science

Politics is a science that cannot be separated from social science. The main focus in the study of political science is learning how power works in the life of the community in the state. The power exercised can be between citizens of one country and another, citizens with their country, and countries with other countries.

The main study is how the country can obtain, defend, and use its power in accordance with the norms that apply in the country. Indirectly, social science also plays a role in it.

See also  difference between fascism and communism

The power exercised in politics must not conflict with the social life of the community so as not to disturb peace and order in the community. Without social science, political science is difficult to accommodate the interests of the general public.

9. Law

In the world of law, the social life of the community cannot be ignored. For those studying law, the social process is one of the topics studied. Humans are social creatures and every behavior and action must be regulated and directed.

The existence of laws, regulations, and policies taken by competent institutions is one way to control human social behavior. There are clear laws that can regulate human life and provide clarity on what humans can and cannot do.

Imagine if there is no law in life, people can act as they please without thinking about the consequences of what they do. The absence of punishment makes bad behavior that humans may do uncontrollable.

In addition, in the world of law policy making and rules should use a social approach to society. There needs to be a fair and equal application of rules for each individual to behave in accordance with existing norms and culture. In fact, law is actually born from various existing social conditions.

10. Social Psychology

Psychology and social are two close things that cannot be separated from each other. Psychology tries to explain the process of manifestation from the mental or human soul that gives birth to behavior. Humans are the main study material of psychology.

As social creatures, humans have many behaviors and behaviors that differ from one to another. On this side, psychology examines the mental, mind, and behavior. How individuals relate to others is explained in psychology.

In general, what is studied in psychology is very broad. Therefore, it is necessary to deepen one field that is studied comprehensively. One of them is social psychology. As a field, social psychology explains various phenomena that occur in humans as social beings.

In it, this field also highlights a variety of social events that are negative or referred to as social pathology. Examples of social pathology in everyday life are drug abuse, bullying, hoax news, prostitution, and so on.

The benefits that can be obtained by studying social psychology is that people understand and anticipate social problems that may occur, are able to organize alternative solutions and turn them into a situation that is beneficial for everyone.

Examples of Social Science in Everyday Life

After understanding the meaning of social science and its types, then what are the examples of social science that we can find in everyday life? First, in the basic law of 1945, article 33 explains about the economy. It is mentioned that the economic wheel in Indonesia is based on the principles of economic democracy.

This means that the economy is structured with attention to the well-being of the people, not just to benefit a few parties. In addition, natural resources are only entitled to be managed by the government with the aim of no private exploitation that will later enrich only one group. The second example of social science is in the field of psychology.

Social phenomena such as crime, prostitution, and bullying in society often appear because of the conditions that trigger them to do so. General problems that are commonly encountered are caused by economic factors. Poverty triggers society to commit social pathology.

Demands to meet economic needs with a quick time and a large amount make some people unable to think long term. The shortcut taken for some cases is to commit crimes such as stealing, being thugs, and opening prostitution services. This phenomenon is actually still found in the field, but this problem seems to have no end and continues to grow day by day.

Also read the related article “Understanding Social Science”  :

  • Understanding Social Change
  • Meaning of Social Integration
  • Examples of Social Problems in Indonesia
  • Understanding Social Interaction
  • Meaning of Social Board
  • Understanding Social Structure
  • List of Tribes in Indonesia
  • Understanding Social Differentiation


That is the meaning of social science, types, and examples in everyday life. Studying various social sciences is something of important value considering that we also need it to understand human behavior socially.

Moreover, the development of life is more and more advanced. The rapid flow of information that continues to occur makes us have to understand various phenomena with a social science perspective. Knowing the meaning of social science alone is not enough, by understanding and deepening it will make us able to adapt to various kinds of social changes that occur in everyday life.