Inventor of the telescope – Some people may already know what is meant by a telescope or an instrument used to observe celestial bodies or things related to space. Usually these telescopes only exist in several research centers or places to observe celestial bodies, also known as observatories. Therefore, only a few people are really good at using telescopes.
The telescopes in this observatory are generally permanent or cannot be moved from one place to another. In addition, usually this permanent telescope is located in a building covered with a dome. The dome that covers the telescope is usually swivel or detachable.
It is true, to use a telescope requires special skills and telescopes are usually in the observatory. However, we as ordinary people who cannot use a telescope can actually study it at several observatories in Indonesia. In general, when looking at the telescope we have to come to the observatory. Therefore, we will explain how to use a telescope by the experts there, so that we can find out a lot about telescopes.
In Indonesia, there are several observatories that have telescopes, such as the Bosscha observatory, the Jakarta observatory (Planetarium), the Yogyakarta Planetarium, the Tenggarong Raya Jagad Planetarium, and the Timau observatory.
Talking about telescopes is incomplete without discussing the inventor of the telescope and the function of the telescope itself. The inventor of the telescope named Hans Lippershey which was later developed again by Galileo Galilei. Until now, telescopes continue to experience development, so that more and more are using them for research, especially those related to celestial bodies.
Well, of course you want to know more about the inventor of the telescope and its functions. So, immediately read this article until it runs out.
Definition of Telescope
Talking about telescopes is always related to the field of astronomy because when we want to see objects in the sky, we will use a telescope. According to the Big Indonesian Dictionary (KBBI), a telescope is a large telescope for viewing distant objects (stars). So, it can be said that the telescope itself is part of the binoculars. In addition, quoted from the Encyclopedia of Inventors and Discoveries , a telescope is an instrument or observation device whose function is to collect electromagnetic radiation and form an image of the object being observed.
By using a telescope when looking at celestial bodies, these celestial objects will appear large even though they are very far away. In this case, the celestial bodies in question are usually the stars and the moon. Therefore, we will be given the convenience to observe celestial objects when using a telescope. This can happen because the telescope has the ability to amplify the light as well as magnify the image.
The ability of the telescope to see celestial objects, especially stars and the moon, is indeed very helpful for observations made by researchers. In addition, telescopes can also make ordinary people (not astronomical researchers) able to see stars. Therefore, this telescope is often dubbed as star binoculars.
Thus, this telescope tool which is star binoculars can help humans to see celestial objects with the naked eye. Have you ever seen celestial objects using a telescope? Maybe you can try to do it at an observatory, such as the planetarium in Jakarta or the planetarium in Jogja.
1. Hans Lippershey
At one time, Hans Lippershey, who is an expert in the field of lenses, wanted to do something to magnify objects, then he held a lens in front of another lens. After that, the two lenses that had been held began to be placed in the ark which was made of wood. From that experiment, Hans Lippershey is believed to have sparked the idea of combining one lens with another. In addition, the experiment also formed a community of glass makers.
Basically, there is no definite record or literature that says that Hans Lippershey was the one who invented the telescope. Although it is still being debated, many also believe that Lippershey is the inventor of the telescope. This belief is based on a note written by Hans Lippershey on October 2, 1608 who attempted to obtain a patent for the invention of the telescope.
However, it turned out that Lippershey failed to obtain or receive a patent for his telescope invention. This is because at that time many inventions of telescopes have been found. Therefore, they think that the telescope or binoculars are not the invention of Hans Lippershey.
Although, failed to get a patent for the invention of the telescope. But Lippershey was rewarded by the Dutch Government for a duplicate of his design. The prize was named ” The Dutch Perspective Glass” . Star binoculars that have been discovered by Lippershey are only able to magnify three times the magnification.
The emergence of the idea to obtain a patent for this invention lies at the end of the report to be submitted to the Dutch Embassy from the Kingdom of Siam. At that time, the Kingdom of Siam was led by a king named Ekasthotsarot. Then, the diplomatic report began to be disseminated on European soil and gave directions to all scientists to modify the Lippershey telescope.
There are several versions of the story about Hans Lippershey’s invention of the telescope. This first version depicts Hans Lippershey looking at and observing children who are having fun playing using the lenses in his shop, then he says, “how can they move away, then come closer when viewed through two lenses.” Another version explains that Hans Lippershey found the idea to make a telescope or Hans Lippershey duplicated the findings of others.
Whatever the version, still no one knows for sure how the telescope was created by Hans Lippershey. However, the thing that needs to be underlined from the discovery of the telescope believed to be invented by Lippershey is that the telescope consists of two convex lenses with an inverted image or a convex lens to see objects and a concave lens placed in the eye, so that the image seen becomes upright.
Hans Lippershey, lived and settled in Middleburg until the end of his life. He breathed his last in September 1619.
After one year of Hans Lippershey failing to obtain a patent for the telescope, Galileo Galilei began developing the telescope that had been invented by Hans Lippershey. Therefore, not a few people say that Galileo Galilei was a scientist who had an important role in perfecting telescopes, especially binoculars used for celestial bodies.
In 1609, Galileo Galilei began hearing news from the Netherlands that a glass tool had been found there. After hearing the news, he began to carry out various kinds of experiments or experiments so he could imitate the mackerel tools from the Netherlands. From the results of that experiment, Galileo Galilei created a tool in the form of binoculars. Thanks to his findings, Galileo Galilei was able to see celestial objects around the solar system, such as stars, moon, earth, and others.
Although at first glance the telescope of Galileo Galilei was the same as the telescope found in the Netherlands, thanks to Galileo Galilei, the telescope could be used to see celestial objects. The telescope developed by Galileo Galilei is included in the type of refracting telescope. A refracting telescope has a convex lens at the front and a concave lens at the back. In addition, the images produced by this refracting telescope are less clear or blurry. This is due to the difference in the index of refraction of the two lenses that have been combined.
From a refracting telescope which still has a lack of blurry images, a reflecting telescope was created. A reflecting telescope has two mirrors and one lens. The combination of mirrors and lenses is a solution to problems related to the length of the tube and the color deviation of the object being observed.
Galileo Galilei, who had created a telescope that could see celestial objects, made himself aware that the surface of the earth was uneven or you could say it was full of craters and mountains. Not only that, with his telescope findings, Galileo Galilei also assumed that celestial bodies with an uneven surface, not only the earth, but almost all celestial objects have an uneven and slippery surface.
Galileo Galilei observed not only the heavenly bodies, but also the Milky Way galaxy he observed. Galileo Galilei argued that the Milky Way galaxy is not a kind of fog, but in the form of a collection of many stars which, when seen with the naked eye, seem to blend or do not merge with each other.
Galileo Galilei made observations of the planet visible with a telescope, namely the planet Jupiter, which has four moons or satellites. From that observation, Galileo Galilei argued that not only the planet Earth orbits other planets.
Thus, it can be said that the telescope perfected by Galileo Galilei is very useful for observing celestial bodies or matters related to astronomy. In fact, those telescopes or binoculars have been used by many people across the country.
3. Edwin Powell Hubble
The Hubble Telescope was sent into space for orbit on April 24, 1990. With the creation of the Hubble telescope, NASA’s observations of celestial bodies, the solar system and outer space became easier. In fact, it could be said that this telescope is a flagship telescope for NASA.
The Hubble telescope has a length of 13 meters and a diameter of 4.27 meters and the weight of this telescope is 11 tons. Meanwhile, the mirror and lens in this telescope have a diameter of 2.8 meters and weigh 826 kg. This telescope mirror is made of silica glass which has been coated with pure aluminum which functions to reflect light. In addition, the mirror on this telescope is also coated with magnesium fluoride. There is a layer of magnesium fluoride to prevent oxidation and provide protection to the lens to avoid ultraviolet rays. If the lens is exposed to ultraviolet light, the telescope lens will be damaged, so the resulting image will not be good.
This telescope began to be designed and manufactured in 1923, but its implementation took place only in 1970. Actually, the launch of this telescope was planned to be carried out in 1983, but after the space shuttle Challenger incident, the launch of this telescope was carried out in 1990.
Types of Telescopes
Telescopes that continue to experience development, then telescopes are divided into several types, among them.
1. Reflecting Telescope or Reflector
Reflecting telescope is a telescope that uses a curved mirror instead of a lens that can collect light coming from stars. In this telescope, the mirror will be made into a sharp concave shape to the inside. This concave mirror serves to reflect light to a focal point which is located under the mirror. In general, this reflecting telescope is very useful for collecting light coming from faint objects.
2. Refraction Telescope or Refractor
A refracting telescope is a telescope that uses lenses to magnify objects or objects. In addition, the glass lens in the refracting telescope functions to bend the light coming from the star which is then forwarded to the focal point. The lens used in this telescope is usually a convex lens which is quite thick in the middle. In general, a simple refracting telescope has two convex lenses.
3. Catadioptric telescope
A catadioptric telescope is a telescope in which the way it works is not much different from a reflecting telescope and a refracting telescope. This is because the catadioptric telescope is a combination of a reflecting telescope and a refracting telescope. In other words, this telescope has a mirror and lens in one telescope that functions to collect light.
4. Radio telescope
A radio telescope is a telescope that has the form of a directional radio antenna and is usually used in radio astronomy. The antenna in a radio telescope is the same type of antenna used when tracking and collecting data from satellites and spacecraft.
Without the discovery of telescopes created by scientists, until now we would not be able to see celestial objects such as stars or the moon with the naked eye. In fact, astronomers will find it difficult to observe and research objects in outer space if they do not use a telescope.
Source: From various sources