The Inventor of Computers and the History of Its Development – The world that is increasingly developing makes technology from time to time also experience development, one of the technological developments that until now can be felt by many people is the computer. It is common for everyone that computer technology makes it easier for us as users to complete a job. What’s more, nowadays almost every job will be related to a computer, be it a computer at home or a computer in the office. Maybe you feel the benefits of this computer technology.
This computer technology can be in its development the same as other technologies. Developments in computer technology make this one thing increasingly sophisticated and increasingly easier for us to get the job done. Therefore, it is inconceivable if computers do not currently exist, it is likely that the tasks or jobs we have will be difficult to complete on time.
Computer technology is getting more sophisticated, we can see it in the storage that computers have that are getting bigger and bigger, so that they can accommodate the many tasks or jobs we have. In addition, computers can also be connected to the internet which makes it easy for us to interact with other people and can do work online . In other words, the computer can be used as a support for us in doing work and completing work.
The sophistication that exists on computers indicates that computers continue to experience development by following the times and technological developments. Every development that occurs in computer technology is a refinement of previous computer inventions.
The computer itself was originally discovered by a scientist named Charles Babbage who was then continuously developed by subsequent inventors. Below will be explained in more detail about the scientists who participated in the development of computers. So, read this article to the end, Sinaumed’s.
Definition of Computer
Before discussing who are the scientists who took part in developments that have been used by many people today, what will be discussed first is the meaning of the computer itself.
The word computer actually comes from the Latin, namely computare which means counting. Therefore, it can be said that simply a computer is a tool that can be used to calculate.
In the Big Indonesian Dictionary (KBBI), a computer is an automatic electronic device that can calculate or process data carefully according to instructions, and provide processing results, and can run multimedia systems (film, music, television, facsimile, and so on), usually consisting of on input units, output units, storage units, and control units.
Basically, a computer is an electronic device that consists of various components and already has programming that can process data and provide information to its users. A computer that can process data and provide information to its users is because every computer device works together or is well connected to each other. The term computer as an electronic device that can be used began to appear since the 1800s.
If a component in the computer is damaged, then overall it will make the performance of the computer system less than optimal. However, if the computer components are not damaged, then each component can work together and be connected properly, so that it will produce a maximum computer work system. A computer system that can work optimally can run a program according to what was ordered. From the program that is executed according to the command, we as users will get the information provided by the computer.
Computer components usually consist of hardware or hardware and software or software . In general, hardware ( hardware ) consists of a processor, hard disk, motherboard, RAM, ROM, and so on. Meanwhile, software ( software ) is usually in the form of programming, such as a computer operating system, various kinds of applications (photo applications, video applications, games, and others). Each software will be installed on the hardware ( hardware ). After being installed on the hardware , the software can work properly according to orders or requests from its users.
Therefore, it can be said that a computer is an electronic device that can perform various tasks, from entering data, then processing data, to outputting data in the form of information.
Based on some historical records, it is said that Charles Babbage was the person who first invented the computer, so he was given the nickname “Father of the Computer”. Charles Babbage really loved the science of mathematics, so he continued his education at Cambridge University in 1810. The mathematical abilities possessed by Charles Babbage could be said to be quite proficient, even his abilities were able to exceed those of his instructors.
Charles Babbage was born in London, England on December 26, 1791. He was very interested in the world of mathematics, especially the science of calculus functions. Apparently, thanks to his abilities in mathematics, Charles Babbage became a member of the Royal Society in 1816. The Royal Society is an independent scientific and academic organization in Great Britain, the scientific organization is still active today.
After entering 1820 to 1821, Charles Babbage became interested in calculating machines. He began to create and develop a machine called the Difference Engine . The machine he has made has the ability to compile mathematical tables. Charles Babbage, who always wanted to develop the machine he invented, had an idea, namely that his machine would not only be able to do one type of arithmetic, but could solve various types of arithmetic. The idea that Charles Babbage came up with appeared in 1832.
After developing his invention engine ( Difference Engine ), until finally Charles Babbage began to succeed and the machine he created was not only able to do one type of arithmetic, but could manipulate general symbols. Not only that, this machine made by Charles Babbage became the forerunner of the modern computer. The machine that was successfully developed in 1856 was named the Analytical Engine .
Not only that, the Analytical Engine that was created and developed by Charles Babbage has the characteristics of a modern computer. In this case, what is meant by modern characteristics, such as the use of punched cards , the existence of a memory area that functions to enter numbers, and several other basic computer components.
Thanks to his ability in mathematics, Charles Babbage in 1828-1839 earned the title The Lucasian Chair of Mathematics (a title of the most prestigious mathematics professor in the world). Charles Babbage’s degree was obtained from the University of Cambridge.
On October 18, 1871, Charles Babbage died leaving a very valuable invention, namely the computer machine. He died at the age of 79 years. Thanks to these valuable discoveries, we can use computer electronics properly and optimally.
2. Alan Turing
After Charles Babbage, the development of computer machines continued and was continued by a mathematical researcher and computer researcher named Alan Mathison Turing or in a computer development figure known as Alan Turing. He was born on June 23, 1912 in London, England. Based on historical records about computer engine developers, Alan Turing was the first modern digital computer researcher. Alan Turing thought that computer machines could be used for many kinds of tasks and computers could run many kinds of programs.
Alan Turing began his education at the age of six and entered elementary school at St. Michael. It was while studying that, the ability and genius of Alan Turing began to be seen. In fact, the leader of the school was very impressed and proud of the intelligence possessed by his student. After graduating from the elementary level, he started attending Sheboene School and continued his education by studying at Cambridge University. When he entered Cambridge University (1931), Alan Turing chose to major in mathematics.
After graduating from Cambridge University, Alan Turing sparked an idea about the Turing Machine or Turing machine. The machine created by Alan Turing is a machine that is capable of operating or executing a simple set of commands. Through his creation machine, Alan Turing explains the shape of the concept of algorithms and computation.
Even though it is given the name “Turing Machine”, but actually “Turing Machine” is not a tool but a computational concept that can explain the logic of computer systems used to date. Therefore, “Turing Machine” can be regarded as one of the concepts that have an influence on the development of computers.
Alan Turing, who has quite good achievements at Cambridge University, received a scholarship to continue his education at Princeton University, United States of America. After graduating in 1936, Alan Turing earned his doctorate. After getting his doctorate, Alan Turing began to return to England and work in the UK Department of Communications.
When World War II occurred from 1939 to 1945, he was given an order to reveal the information contained in an encryption machine made by Nazi Germany. Alan Turing managed to reveal this information by creating a machine called The Bombe .
Alan Turing breathed his last after eating an apple containing cyanide poison. He died on June 7, 1954 in Woslow, England.
3. Konrad Zuse
After Alan Turing, the inventor who contributed to the development of the next computer was Konrad Zuse. He is someone who took part in the development of computers with a background in civil engineering. Konrad Zuse was born on June 22, 1910 and is a German national. His ability in civil engineering made Konrad Zuse enrolled at the Technische Hochschule Berlin-Charlottenburg where he majored in engineering and architecture.
In 1935, Konrad Zuse started developing computers and he did various experiments until in 1936 he succeeded in finding the Z1. The Z1 invention was a binary floating point (blueprint) mechanical calculator equipped with programmability . The discovery of the Z1 was successfully completed in 1938. However, the Z1 blueprints that had been made by Konrad Zuse had to be destroyed in his parents’ house. The destruction of the Z1 was caused by the British carrying out air attacks that occurred during World War II, or more precisely on January 30, 1944.
After successfully creating the Z1, Konrad Zuse became interested in developing his invention and he succeeded in making the Z3 program. This Z3 program is a program that can control a perfecting Turing computer and began operating in May 1941 via paper tape. Konrad Zuse, who invented the Z1 and Z3, got the Werner von Siemens Ring . Apart from that, thanks to his discovery, he is believed to be someone who has a role in the development of computers.
In fact, Konrad Zuse is not only known as the inventor of the Z1 and Z3, but he is also known for other inventions, namely programming languages. The programming language he had discovered was later named Plankalkul . In fact, Konrad Zuse’s programming language is one of the most complex and high-level programming languages in the world.
Konrad Zuse died of heart failure on December 18, 1955. He died in Germany. Even though Konrad Zuse is no longer around, his discoveries had an influence on the development of computers, so he became one of the scientists who played a role in computer development.
Grace Murray Hpoper or better known as Grace Hopper is a computer scientist from the United States. He was born in New York City, USA on December 9, 1906. His interest in the world of computers led him to believe that a program must be written in a language that is not much different from English than machine code.
From his desire to create a language that could explain a program, Mika Grace Hopper started making computer programming languages. The programming language created by Grace Hopper is named COBOL. The COBOL programming language is able to assist computer users in giving commands in English. Therefore, the COBOL programming language is one of the first modern programming languages in the world.
Thanks to that discovery, Grace Hopper was given a position as director of the Navy Programming Language Group in the Office of the Navy Information Systems Planning. Not only that, he was also promoted to captain in 1973. Later, the COBOL programming language became the standard program for the entire United States Navy at that time.
Grace Hopper died on January 1, 1992. He was buried at Arlington National Cemetery and was given military honors.
5. Ada Lovelace
Lovelace is the world’s first female programmer. Lovelace was also a well-known mathematician and writer. But many do not know what this great woman looks like. Lovelace is a female programmer who changed the world. Although little is known by his name, Lovelace was instrumental in creating the world’s first mechanical computer.
Lovelace was born with the full name Augusta Ada Byron on 10 December 1815 in London. She was the only daughter of the famous poet Sir George Gordon Byron. Lovelace did not know his father at all because his mother and father’s marriage was so brief. This was exacerbated by Lovelace’s condition, which was often sickly.
After a bitter breakup in Byron’s marriage, Mrs Byron returned to her parents’ home with her five week old daughter. Shortly thereafter, Sir Byron left England for the Mediterranean and never saw his daughter again.
Ada Lovelace’s mother, Annabella, always taught her daughter to use the left hemisphere more often so as not to follow her father’s career. When Lovelace was 17 years old, his ability in this field was already visible. One of her teachers, Augustus De Morgan, directed Lovelace’s talents to mathematics.
As time went on, Lovelace also met Charles Babbage, who was nicknamed “The Father of the Computer”. He is a mathematician. Charles Babbage taught mathematics to Lovelace. Lovelace was impressed and intrigued by Babbage’s ideas. Babbage also created the “Difference Engine” which can perform mathematical operations.
Lovelace is known as a very smart and talented child in an activity called writing code or programming. Babbage even gave Lovelace the nickname “The Enchantress of Numbers.”
Then, they formed a partnership. In her article, Lovelace explains how to generate code so that the machine can process letters and symbols along with numbers. Within a year, Lovelace and Babbage contributed to the creation of extensive knowledge, one of which was the science of Menabrea.
Lovelace’s notes are made from the letters A to G. The magic of the analysis engine is amazing. This is evident in the notion that the logarithmic basis appears in Lovelace’s notes. Lovelace also shows how machines can produce authentic music and even create graphics.
In addition, he also theorized that machines could repeat multiple instructions. This process is called a current loop. In this work, Lovelace is known as the world’s first programmer . Even Lovelace tried to develop mathematical calculations to win the bet, but unfortunately his efforts failed.
The book is very suitable for those of you who are learning the basics of computer programming. This book teaches logic to solve various problems handled by computers using Flowgorithm.
On July 8, 1835, Lovelace married William King, who three years later became Earl of Lovelace. She was given the title “Countess of Lovelace”. They had three children, namely Byron, Ralph Gordon, and Anne Isabella. Later, Lovelace died on November 27, 1852 at the age of 36 from uterine cancer and bleeding. This prevented Lovelace from continuing his advancement in the computer world.
However, Lovelace’s services were not simply forgotten. In 1980, the United States Department of Defense named the programming language “Ada” in honor of Lovelace. Lady Lovelace is also remembered in the plot of the film “Conceiving Ada”. There is also “Difference Engine”, a novel by William Gibson and Bruce Sterling. This novel is almost identical to the Sydney Padua 2D comic strip dedicated to Lovelace’s memories.
A Brief History of Computer Development
After discussing the scientific figures who play a role in the world of computers, the next discussion is the history of computer development. Based on historical records, until now the development of computers is divided into five generations, namely:
1. First Generation (Vacuum Tube Computer)
This first generation of computers appeared in 1946 and the main component of the first generation of computers was the vacuum tube. Therefore, the weight of this computer can reach 30 tons. Machine language became the language used on the first generation of computers. Besides that,
2. Second Generation (Computer with Transistor)
The second generation of computers started around 1959-1965. In this generation, computers already use transistors. Transistor technology replaced the vacuum tube, so this generation of computers was less heavy. The language used on second generation computers is the FORTRAN and COBOL programming languages.
3. Third Generation (IC Computer)
Computer development continued into the third generation. In this generation, the form of transistor technology is reduced in size. In addition, this third generation of computers is the generation of computers that use monitors and keyboards for the first time. What’s more, systems from third-generation computers operate faster.
4. Fourth Generation (Microprocessor Computer)
Fourth generation computers or computers using microprocessors. At first this generation of computers was made by IBM in 1971, but in 1984, Apple began releasing the Macintosh. This fourth generation computer is a computer that has been widely used by many people today. In fact, this computer already uses the chip as the memory of the computer.
5. Fifth Generation (AI Computer)
Fifth generation computers are computers that have artificial intelligence. Therefore, fifth generation computers are known as AI computers. This AI technology can be considered very sophisticated because it can process everyday language, adjust to our circumstances, and can understand an environment.
Source: From various sources