Musical Instruments from West Java Region – Maybe when you hear the name of the province of West Java, of course what comes to mind is its capital which is quite famous, namely Bandung. The city has a long history in the development of the Indonesian nation. Not surprisingly, there are several nicknames pinned for this city, such as Bandung Sea of Fire, Paris Van Java, Flower City, and various other nicknames.
Apart from all that, this province is also known for its beautiful panoramas, and rich in local wisdom. There are various kinds of regional games, songs, dances, traditional musical instruments, regional specialties, and so on.
Talking about traditional musical instruments in the province of West Java, you need to be proud because some of these traditional musical instruments from Sunda are already global or already known by foreign countries, and some have even become one of the world’s cultural heritages by UNESCO.
It can be said that the traditional musical instruments originating from West Java are very diverse. For this reason, this discussion will be discussed based on the existing classification. Based on this classification, it is distinguished from the material of the musical instrument to how to play it. What are they? Let’s look at the discussion one by one below.
1. Karinding Musical Instrument
Karinding is an ancient musical instrument originating from the Cineam area, Tasikmalaya, West Java. Not only from the area of origin who can find this instrument, because now this instrument has spread to various other areas. However, the name and form are slightly different.
Named Karinding because its shape is similar to a kind of insect or commonly known as kakarindingan. From there, people think that if there is a kakarindingan, then of course there is a karindingan. It is likened to if there are toy cars then there are cars.
In ancient times, this karinding was usually carried by farmers, to drive away pests in the fields.
In addition, karinding is also one of the musical instruments that is usually performed by men who have reached puberty when visiting a girl’s house they like (At that time the girls were still secluded in the house). So that in every house, you can often find a musical instrument tucked away in between the rooms of the house.
Karinding itself is a percussion instrument. How to play this instrument by inserting it into the mouth, then at the end it is hit or flicked using a finger. From there, it produces a sound in the form of “pow…” through the mouth of the player who acts like a soundboard.
Basically, this karinding instrument is a musical instrument that does not have a tone or is also known as a rhythmic instrument. Even so, the sound produced from this karinding also depends on the players. Some of the players from this karinding are good at playing karinding as a melodic musical instrument.
2. Angklung musical instrument
Angklung is a multinational or double-pitched musical instrument that has developed traditionally in the Sunda region. Precisely located in the western part of Java Island.
This musical instrument is made of bamboo which is played by shaking. The sound produced by this angklung comes from the impact of the body of a bamboo pipe which produces a vibrating sound in the form of an arrangement of 2 (two), 3 (three) to 4 (four) tones for each size, both small and large.
Based on the Dictionary of the Sunda Language by Jonathan Rigg, published in Batavia in 1862, it is recorded that the angklung is a musical instrument made of bamboo pipes whose ends are cut so that they resemble pipes in an organ. After that, the pipes are fastened together into a single frame.
The angklung musical instrument has been recorded as a masterpiece of human oral and non-material cultural heritage from UNESCO since November 2010.
How to play the angklung musical instrument by shaking it to produce a tone or sound based on the size or size of the bamboo sticks. There are several basic techniques in playing this instrument which include the following:
- Kurulung, has the meaning of vibration. In this general technique, playing with the right hand holding the basic tube, and vibrating from left to right repeatedly.
- Centok, means jerk. In this technique, how to play the basic tube is pulled quickly into the palm of the hand, so that it produces a single sound or is called staccato.
- Tengkep, like kurulung but only one tube is held so it doesn’t vibrate. This technique produces a pure tone or just one melody tone.
3. Calung Musical Instruments
Calung is a musical instrument originating from Sundanese land, and is the prototype of the angklung.
But unlike the angklung instrument, which is shaken to play, this calung instrument is played by being hit on the rods or bamboo tubes which have been arranged based on the pitch of the barrel or scales, and also pentatonic.
The type of bamboo used for making this musical instrument is awi wulung or black bamboo, but some are made from awi friends or white bamboo.
In addition, this calung musical instrument is also a designation for one of the typical Sundanese performing arts. There are two types of calung, namely calung tote and calung rantay.
4. Arumba Musical Instruments
Arumba is a musical instrument made of bamboo similar to angklung. The term arumba comes from the abbreviation, namely the strains of a bamboo grove.
At first, the arumba instrument used a pentatonic scale. However, over time, this musical instrument uses diatonic scales.
5. Lute Musical Instrument
The kecapi is an original stringed musical instrument from Indonesia which is allied with other stringed musical instruments in East Asia, and also Southeast Asia, such as Vietnam, Japan, Thailand, Korea, Burma and China.
In Indonesia itself, this musical instrument has spread in various parts of the archipelago, including Java, Sundanese, Bugis, Batak, Dayak, Timor, Toraja, and so on.
Lute musical instruments have different names and shapes in each region, such as Kacaping, Kecapi, Kutiyapi, Kasapi, and so on.
However, the Sundanese lute has a shape and playing technique that is advanced and developed compared to similar stringed instruments in Indonesia.
In fact, as this technology develops, a more modern and sophisticated electronic harp is created. Based on its function this instrument is divided into two parts, including:
– Goose harp
The ovary lute is used to lead the music by providing an intro, bridges and interludes, as well as determining the tempo.
– Harp Detail
Kecapirincik is usually used to enrich a musical accompaniment by filling in the spaces between the notes using high frequencies. Unlike the ovary lute which uses 18 or 20 strings, this lute only uses 15 strings.
6. Toleat Musical Instruments
Toleat musical instrument is a musical instrument that is played by blowing. Toleat comes from Subang and is usually played by shepherds in the north coast area. They will play this instrument while waiting for the shepherd. At first this musical instrument was created, toleat was made of straw. However, over time, this musical instrument was made from tamiang bamboo. This is because the craftsmen see that the material is more durable and of better quality.
Toleat has eight tone holes with slendro tones. So that it can produce a unique sound and is similar to the sound of a saxophone. The shape of this musical instrument does look like a flute. However, toleat has ruts made of berenuk wood. The toleat instrument can be combined with various other types of musical instruments and can produce unique musical innovations. This instrument is generally combined with drums or harps. Even now, toleat has started collaborating with modern musical instruments such as keyboards.
7. Tarawangsa Musical Instruments
Tarawangsa is a traditional musical instrument originating from West Java and is played by swiping. The presence of this one musical instrument is apparently older than the fiddle. This can be proven from the existence of ancient manuscripts which mention the tarawangsa musical instrument.
This musical instrument can be found in several areas in West Java and Banten. Starting from the Sumedang area, Banjaran, Cipatujah, Kanekes, and others.
Although the instrument has two strings. But there is only one string that is played by swipe. The rest, the other strings will be played by plucking using the left index finger.
8. Jentreng Musical Instrument
Jentreng is a traditional musical instrument from West Java and is played by touching and picking. This one musical instrument is identical to the lute instrument. But the size of the jentreng is smaller and has only 7 strings. Generally, jentreng is made of ylang flower wood or jackfruit wood. The presence of this instrument is not much different from the tarawangsa musical instrument. This is because the two are often combined in an art performance known as the jentreng and tarawangsa arts.
9. Genggong Subang
Genggong is a traditional musical instrument typical of Subang, West Java. The word “genggong” comes from the name of the swamp. Not only that, the term refers to the name of folk art which consists of various kinds of traditional musical instruments. These arts are usually performed to commemorate special days such as Independence Day. Apart from West Java, on the Island of the Gods, Bali also has a traditional musical instrument called the genggong. However, musical instruments originating from Bali are made from palm fronds and are played by yanggem or sucking.
10. Bamboo Flute
In the tradition of the Sundanese people, the flute is generally made of tamiang type bamboo and has a length of 52 cm and a diameter of 15-18 mm. In one bamboo stick will be given several holes. One hole is tied with rattan that has been thinned and serves as a sound source. Then the other 6 to 9 holes function as tone regulators.
In the Sundanese karawitan art, there are two types of flutes used. The first is a flute with six holes or genep holes. Usually this flute will be used to accompany the Sundanese song Cianjuran or Gamelan Degung Kreasi. The second is a flute with four lubanh or liang opat. Usually this flute is used in the Sundanese song Cianjuran and the Classical Gamelan Degung.
Rebab is a traditional musical instrument from West Java which has been known since the 8th century. This musical instrument was once brought by traders from the Middle East who came to Indonesia. The rebab can not only be found in West Java, because the rebab is also a traditional musical instrument from Jambi.
The term rebab comes from the word Rabab which comes from the Persian language and means sad. This understanding is in accordance with the types of songs that are often played using the fiddle, namely sad songs or ngalengis. The rebab musical instrument is also commonly referred to as lengek, which means friction or mat. Meanwhile, people who play the fiddle are called “ngalengek”, which means playing the fiddle.
In the past, the fiddle was made of copper and had three strings or strings. However, over time the fiddle was made using wood in the form of an arrow. This instrument itself is played by swiping like a violin, just not lifting it to the shoulder.
Jengglong is a musical instrument that many people still know. This musical instrument is a musical instrument that has a function as a basic tone creator and also a framework for songs in gamelan art.
Jengglong is usually played by being hit. The beater used is made of wood which at the ends is wrapped with woolen cloth which has a fine texture.
Apart from that, we also use a thin rubber band tied to the end of a round shaped hammer. This is done with the aim that the sound produced is not too harsh and also pleasing to the ear. This musical instrument is generally made using bronze, iron, or brass base materials.
Jengglong has the shape of blades lined up above the resonator or sound chamber. The existing blades are divided into two ancak. Where both consist of 3 blades with a curved surface.
13. Celempung Musical Instrument
Celempung is a musical instrument whose origins are unknown until now. Where and when was this musical instrument created. The celempung musical instrument is usually made of bamboo with a diameter of 50 to 70 cm.
The celempung musical instrument is combined with several other types of celempung musical instruments and is called the celempung jointly. Traditional musical instruments are played by being hit using a tool.
This musical instrument creates a tone using the resonant waves that are in the space of the bamboo stalks. Apart from being used as a means of entertainment, the celempung musical instrument is also used as a media for preaching in Islamic teachings. In the performance, the celempung instrument acts as a regulator of the rhythm of the song. Usually, celempung will be combined with other musical instruments such as fiddle, karinding, lute, and others.
- Melodic Musical Instruments
- Traditional musical instruments
- Rhythmic Instruments
- Kinds of Modern and Traditional Musical Instruments
- Types of Music Genres
- Best Friendship Song
- Kinds of Film Genres
Those are some explanations about the variety of musical instruments originating from West Java. As the next generation of the nation, of course we must preserve Indonesian traditional arts, especially those from where we were born. Why is it necessary to preserve the art or culture of Indonesia?
Because, this has become the hallmark of our nation and has become our own pride. If we don’t preserve it, one day our country will lose its identity. In addition, our children and grandchildren will not be able to enjoy art and culture from regions throughout Indonesia.
The following are some book recommendations related to the art of traditional musical instruments and Indonesian culture.