Founder of the kingdom of Demak – Several kingdoms and sultanates have indeed become an inseparable part of Indonesian history. Currently, maybe what we know about the empire is the sultanate in Yogyakarta. But you need to know that there are still many kingdoms or empires that have developed in Indonesia. One of them is the kingdom of Demak. This kingdom turned out to be the first Islamic kingdom in Java, especially Central Java.
History of the Establishment of the Kingdom of Demak
The Kingdom of Demak was the first Islamic kingdom on the north coast of Java. In the past, the Demak region first appeared as a district of the Majapahit Kingdom. The Sultanate or Kingdom of Demak became one of the big pioneers in spreading Islam in the region of Java Island. However, the lifespan of the Demak Kingdom was relatively short compared to other kingdoms. One of the well-known legacies of the Demak Kingdom is the Great Mosque of Demak, which was founded by the Wali Songo.
In addition, the Kingdom of Demak is also one of the centers for the spread of Islam in Indonesia. Certainly, the Kingdom of Demak has quite a complex history. Starting from the establishment process until the end of the kingdom.
In the process of its journey, the Kingdom of Demak had very important events or events in it. For more details, here are some discussions regarding the history of the reign of the Demak Kingdom or Sultanate as the first Islamic kingdom in Indonesia.
Founder of the Kingdom of Demak and its First King
The founder of the Kingdom of Demak himself was Raden Patah. Apart from the founder, Raden Patah also became the first king of the empire. After he left Majapahit, Raden Patah received support from the regent who ruled around the Demak area. Then, he founded the Kingdom of Demak. Until then the kingdom became an Islamic empire, so that the rules and norms applied were based on Islamic values and teachings.
Not only that, the founding of the Kingdom of Demak was marked by the presence of condro sengkolo. According to the story that has been circulating until now, when Raden Patah went to visit Glagah Wangi, he met a person known as Nyai Lembah. There Raden Patah was then advised to stay in Glagah Wangi.
After receiving the suggestion, finally Raden Patah accepted it and started living in the area. Now, the Glagah Wangi area is known as Bintoro Demak. Over time, the Bintoro Demak area turned into the center of the capital for all the activities of the Demak Kingdom.
Location of the Kingdom of Demak
In ancient times, the Kingdom of Demak was located by the sea. The place is included in the Kampung Bintara area. For now, the village is included in the Central Java region. When the Demak government was led by Sultan Prawoto, the place began to be moved to Demak Prawata.
However, when Sultan Prawoto died, the kingdom began to be transferred to Jipang by Arya Penangsang, who at that time held the governmental power of the Demak kingdom. After that, Arya Penangsang died because he was killed by Ki Gede Pamanahan and also Hadiwijaya. For Hadiwijaya himself comes from Pajang. Where after killing Arya Penangsang, he then received full control to manage all things in the Kingdom of Demak. Then after that, the Kingdom of Demak turned into the Kingdom of Pajang.
Genealogy of the Kings of the Kingdom of Demak
The kingdom was officially established in 1481 AD, at that time the kingdom was led by kings who were directly supported by religious leaders known as Walisongo. There are several kings who have led the Kingdom of Demak from its inception, the process towards glory, and until the kingdom collapsed. The following is a genealogy of kings from the Kingdom of Demak that needs to be understood:
1. Raden Patah
Raden Patah is the son of the leader of the Majapahit Kingdom named Raden Brawijaya from his marriage to a princess of the Campa palace. In the Kingdom of Demak, Raden Patah was the first king and served for 18 years. Starting from 1500 to 1518. During his reign in the Kingdom of Demak, he built many things. Starting from houses of worship including the Great Mosque of Demak which is still standing firmly in the center of Demak City.
2. Pati Unus
After Raden Patah became king in the Kingdom of Demak, he then had a son named Pati Unus. Where the son of Raden Patah later ascended the throne after his father’s reign ended in 1518. However, Pati Unus only ruled for three years. Then, Pari Unus was given the title as Prince of Sabrang Lor. This happened thanks to his resistance to the Portuguese in their attempt to seize Malacca. But unfortunately, Pati Unus died in his attempt to invade the Portuguese for the second time to Malacca in 1521.
3. Sultan Trenggana
Sultan Trenggana became one of the kings in the genealogy of the Kingdom of Demak, known for his battle in seizing Sunda Kelapa from the hands of the Portuguese colonialists under the leadership of Fatahillah. During the reign of Sultan Trenggana, large kingdoms in Java such as the Kingdoms of Madura, Blambangan, Mataram and Pajang were successfully controlled by the Kingdom of Demak. Then, the reign of Sultan Trenggana ended after he died during the war that took place in Pasuruan in 1546.
4. Sunan Prawoto
After King Pati Unus abdicated, turmoil began to arise within the Kingdom of Demak. Because, there are no more descendants who come directly from the empress who was the previous leader. Therefore, Sultan Trenggana became king after the fall of Pati Unus. After Sultan Trenggana left the Kingdom of Demak, he was replaced by Sunan Prawoto, who only ruled for a few years. Because, he was more interested in exploring his life as a cleric who spread Islam throughout Java.
5. Arya Penangsang
In its history, it is recorded that Sunan Prawoto died because he was killed by Arya Penangsang’s men who wanted to take power in the Kingdom of Demak. Therefore, Arya Penangsangan became the next king of the Demak Kingdom and transferred the government in it to Jipang. After that, various conflicts began to emerge. Especially after the transfer of the Kingdom of Demak to Pajang in 1586 because Hadiwijaya managed to defeat Arya Penangsang. At that time also the Kingdom of Demak ended or collapsed.
Community Life During the Heyday of the Kingdom of Demak
The following are some discussions about people’s lives during the heyday of the Demak Kingdom:
1. Social Life
The most fundamental difference in people’s lives in the Islamic Kingdom and also the Hindu Kingdom is the massive access to the religion that is adhered to by the majority of the people. In Islam itself there is no such thing as caste, so it can be embraced by various levels of society. In addition, in Islam there are also no rituals that must be quite expensive, such as offerings to gods or brahmanas, as is done by people from Hinduism.
The social system that existed in the Islamic empire was egalitarian. As well as the implementation of Friday prayers at the same time as ordinary people. This is certainly a form of novelty that cannot be found in the past.
Especially in the feudal system, where the system places the position of leader in a very high place. Almost all of the people of Demak, especially the people who are at the center of power, are Muslim. Then it was supported again by da’wah carried out by various scholars who were close to the rulers, namely Walisongo.
2. Political Life
When viewed from the perspective of politics and its government system, the Kingdom of Demak was one of the largest powers in Java. The kingdom succeeded in ending the long domination of the Majapahit Kingdom and the existence of Sundanese rulers who had consistently existed since the sixth century AD.
The Kingdom of Demak itself places the duke as the long arm of the Sultan. Meanwhile, areas such as Tuban, Surabaya and Madiun have quite influential dukes. In the 16th century, the Kingdom of Demak was then continued by the Portuguese position in Malacca. Then in 1527, there was a seizure of Sunda Kelapa with the aim of controlling all the coasts on the north coast and preventing the arrival of the Portuguese on the island of Java.
3. Economic Life
As we know that the Kingdom of Demak was on the north coast of Java Island. So that the main source of the economy of the people of Demak is sea trade. The absence of other Islamic kingdoms on the island of Java, this is one of the factors why Demak is very active in trading at sea. Then, the Kingdom of Demak reached its heyday during the reign of Sultan Trenggono.
Where at that time, they succeeded in expanding their territory and controlling the majority of the main ports such as Madura, Tuban, Surabaya, Semarang, Cirebon, Jepara and Sunda Kelapa. Not only that, the duchies in the interior such as Kediri, Madiun, Malang, Pati and Panjang are also the main sources of agriculture and livestock for trade commodities. In agriculture, Javanese rice is one of the most important commodities in international trade in Indonesia.
Causes of the Collapse of the Kingdom of Demak
The following are some discussions regarding the causes of the fall of the Demak kingdom:
1. There was a civil war
The tragedy of this civil war began with the rivalry between Prince Surowiyoto or better known as Sekar Seda Lepen and Sultan Trenggana. They are the two sons of the previous leader of the Demak Kingdom, Raden Patah.
After Raden Patah died, his two sons began to compete for the throne. After this competition, it was finally Sultan Trenggana who succeeded in occupying the king’s throne. Then after Sultan Trenggana died, the king’s position was replaced by his son named Sunan Prawoto.
However, his position did not go smoothly and was strongly opposed by Sekar Seda Lepen. As a result of Sekar Seda Lepen’s refusal, Sunan Prawoto finally killed Seda Lepen by the river when he was just returning from the mosque after performing Friday prayers.
In 1561, Arya Penangsang, the son of Sekar Seda Lepen, avenged his father by killing Sunan Prawoto and his family and took the position of the fifth king of Demak. After he succeeded in becoming a king, Arya Penangsang ordered his followers to kill the leader of Jepara, PrinceHadiri. That was what later made the dukes, including Jaka Tingkir Hadiwijaya, hostile to the king.
2. The existence of disputes within the family
One of the causes of the subsequent collapse of the Demak Kingdom was the difference in heredity in Raden Patah’s family. He is known to have had many sons, but from different mothers. The first difficulty was experienced after the death of Duke Unus who had no sons.
Then Prince Surowiyoto or Sekar Seda Lepen and also Raden Trenggana fought for power. The debate occurred because Seda Lepen, who was the eldest son of the king, was born from a third wife. While Raden Trenggana who was younger, was born from his first wife.
3. Failed Imperial Government
The failed government of the Demak kingdom was one of the factors that caused the Demak Kingdom to collapse. Various problems that occurred such as differences in sects between the people and the nobility, the government that did not care about its people and was too focused on the Portuguese war and the lack of listening to the aspirations of the people, made the Kingdom of Demak unable to survive.
Cultural Results from the Kingdom of Demak
The following are various kinds of cultural products from the Kingdom of Demak, including:
1. Soko Tatal
One of the cultural products handed down by the Kingdom of Demak is Soko Guru and Soko Tatal, both of which are located at the Great Mosque of Demak. Soko Guru are three poles made of solid wood and have a diameter of about one meter. Meanwhile, Soko Tatal is made from pieces of wood that came from the remaining wood from the making of the three Soko Guru.
The uniqueness in one Soko Tatal pillar exists because Sunan Kalijaga can only make three pillars. While the mosque is ready to be built. Therefore, Sunan Kalijaga had the idea to collect the remaining pieces of wood from three Soko Guru and then make them into one pillar. The pillar is the main attraction for lovers of religious tourism.
The Kingdom of Demak is one of the Islamic kingdoms in Indonesia which has inherited a lot of cultural products. Among them is Pawestren which was built as a holy place and is used for congregational prayers for women. Pawestren has very beautiful walls with carvings made with Majapahit motifs or commonly known as maksurah motifs. The place of worship was built using four main pillars and reinforced with four pillars. The main pillars in Pawestren support beam beams which consist of three layers.
3. Ablution Pool Site
The site is very well known by the public and is one of the cultural products of the Kingdom of Demak which is often visited by tourists. This ablution pool site was built with the aim of facilitating travelers or students who take ablution water when visiting the Great Mosque of Demak. However, now the ablution pool site is no longer used.
4. Great Mosque of Demak
This mosque is certainly no stranger to our ears. This is because the Great Mosque of Demak has very often been used as a religious tourism destination. The mosque was built during the Demak Kingdom in 1479. The architecture in this mosque is very pleasing to the eye. We can see ornaments and calligraphy which are quite thick with an Islamic atmosphere. This mosque is located in the City of Demak, precisely in Central Java Province.
This is an explanation of the founder of the Demak Kingdom and the genealogy of its kings, from its inception until the fall of the Demak Kingdom.