Genealogy of the Majapahit Kingdom – The Majapahit Kingdom was once the largest empire in the history of the Indonesian people and the Archipelago. This Hindu-Buddhist kingdom itself began in 1293 until its collapse in 1527 AD with a series of well-known leaders in the history of the genealogy of its kings, starting from Raden Wijaya, Hayam Wuruk, to Brawijaya V.
The founder of Majapahit himself was Raden Wijaya (1293-1309) who was previously the warlord of the Singasari Kingdom and the favorite son-in-law of his last king, Kertanegara. After Kertanegara was killed in a Jayakatwang rebellion in 1292 which later led to the end of Singasari, Raden Wijaya and pioneered the establishment of a new government and became known as the Majapahit Kingdom.
Check out a more complete explanation of the Majapahit royal genealogy to its historical traces and heritage sites.
History of the Majapahit Empire
1. The Early & Glorious Period of the Majapahit Empire
At first Raden Wijaya cleared the forest on the banks of the Brantas River. This village then grew rapidly in 1293 and became a kingdom called Majapahit. The government center itself is in Trowulan, Mojokerto, East Java.
Raden Wijaya who is enthroned and has the title Kertarajasa Jayawardhana. Then, during the Jayanagara era (1309-1328), which was marked by a series of acts of rebellion, the situation in the Majapahit Kingdom slowly began to be conducive under the leadership of Tribhuwana Wijayatunggadewi (1328-1350).
Jayanagara and Tribhuwana are both sons of Raden Wijaya but have different mothers. Tribhuwana Wijayatunggadewi appointed Gajah Mada as prime minister. Gajah Mada then made his legendary pledge, namely the Amukti Palapa oath with the determination to reunite the regions throughout the archipelago under the banners of the Majapahit Empire. Gajah Mada took this Amukti Palapa Oath in front of Queen Tribhuwana Tunggadewi when Hayam Wuruk was just born
Gajah Mada’s oath was later realized in the next era, namely during the leadership of Hayam Wuruk or Sri Rajasanagara in 1350-1389. With the support of Gajah Mada, Hayam Wuruk was then able to bring the Majapahit Kingdom to its heyday.
Quoted from Purwadi’s The History of Javanese Kings (2010), during the era of the leadership of Hayam Wuruk and Gajah Mada, the Majapahit Kingdom itself did not only succeed in expanding its territory. Prosperity itself really felt all the people who took shelter under the banner of Majapahit.
However, with the death of Gajah Mada and Hayam Wuruk, the golden age of the Majapahit Empire began to fade. There was no leader who was really capable of making this empire’s resilience then falter, several conquered countries began to break away one by one.
2. The End of the Majapahit Kingdom
The rise of Queen Suhita (in 1429-1447) to the top of the throne then opened new hopes for Majapahit to begin its rise. During her leadership era, Queen Suhita intensively revived local wisdom which had been neglected during the turbulent times before she took the throne.
During the reign of Queen Suhita, it was marked by the return to power of the elements of the archipelago. Various places of worship were erected on mountain slopes, as well as buildings (temple) arranged as terraced punden, for example on the slopes of Mount Penanggungan, Mount Lawu, and so on.
Queen Suhita who died in 1447. Because Queen Suhita was not also blessed with offspring, Kertawijaya (1447-1451) was crowned as the next Majapahit ruler.
Kertawijaya, as the youngest brother of Queen Suhita, is the King of Majapahit who started using the name Brawijaya as a reminder of the kingdom’s founder, namely Raden Wijaya. However, the movement initiated by Queen Suhita could not be continued by her sister. The Majapahit Kingdom was then led by a series of kings who were not very capable so that it began to erode and showed signs of collapse.
The last days of Majapahit were getting closer when the emergence of the Sultanate of Demak in Central Java. The Demak Sultanate itself was the first Islamic kingdom in Java which was founded precisely by one of the princes from Majapahit by the name of Raden Patah.
Several later references say that Raden Patah was the son of Bhre Kertabhumi or Brawijaya V (his reign in 1468 -1478), a figure believed to be the last king of Majapahit. When Raden Patah later founded the Sultanate of Demak in 1468 AD together with the Wali Songo, the situation in Majapahit was in turmoil.
Majapahit was experiencing internal problems with the emergence of a rebellion carried out by Girindrawardhana, son-in-law of Brawijaya V. Finally, Girindrawardhana then managed to occupy the throne of the Majapahit Kingdom and held the title Brawijaya VI (reign 1478-1489).
Brawijaya VI was overthrown by his prime minister, Patih Air, in 1498. As a result of this conflict, the Majapahit Kingdom became weaker and lost legitimacy from its conquered territories. In 1517, the Demak Sultanate under the leadership of Pati Unus, the successor of Raden Patah, then attacked Majapahit, which at that time had moved its capital city to Daha (Kediri).
This invasion then paralyzed the Majapahit economy. A decade later, in 1527, Majapahit was completely destroyed. The attack of the Demak Sultanate, which at that time was led by Sultan Trenggana, the younger brother of Pati Unus, then ended the full history of Majapahit. After that, the Sultanate of Demak took over the remaining Majapahit territories and at the same time established itself as the new main power on the island of Java.
Genealogy of the Majapahit Kingdom
To find out about the genealogy of the kings who once ruled in the Majapahit Kingdom, historical evidence based on reliable sources is needed. We can know the sources of royal history from the various contents of the Butok inscriptions, the Pararaton book and the Negarakertagama book.
Based on this source, the following is a complete genealogy of the kings of the Majapahit Kingdom.
1. Raja Wijaya or Raden Wijaya
Raden Wijaya is the king and founder of the Majapahit Kingdom. He was the first king who reigned from 1293 to 1309 AD. The title of king he got was Kertajaya Jayawardhana.
2. King Jayanegara
This king was later known as the name “Kala Gemet”, he ruled the kingdom starting from 1309 to 1328 AD. The title of the king is Sri Jayanegara. During his reign he was famous for several rebellions, for example, the Ranggalawe rebellion.
3. Raja Sri Gitarja
This third King of the Majapahit Kingdom as a daughter of Gayatri. He ruled from 1328 to 1350 AD and had the title Tribhuwana Tunggadewi. During this time, the name Gajah Mada regent emerged and succeeded in defeating several rebellions, so that he was later appointed as the prime minister of Majapahit.
4. King Hayam Wuruk
Hayam Wuruk as the fourth king of the Majapahit Kingdom, he began to rule this kingdom at the very young age of 16 years. He ruled from 1350-1389 AD. The title of king he got was Sri Rajasanagara. When in power, the Majapahit Empire then managed to reach the peak of its glory.
5. King Wikramawardhana
He was the king who ruled the eastern part of the Majapahit Kingdom from 1389 to 1429 AD. He later died in 1429 AD.
6. Raja Suhita
King Suhita ruled this kingdom from 1429 to 1447 AD. The title of king he obtained was Dyah Ayu Kencana Wungu.
7. King Kertawijaya
The seventh king of the Majapahit kingdom is King Kertawijaya. He ruled the government of this kingdom in 1447 to 1451 AD. This king also has a fairly well-known title, namely Brawijaya I.
8. King Rajasawardhana
This king reigned from 1451 to 1453 AD. The title he got was Brawijaya II.
9. King Purwawisesa
King Purwawisesa reigned in the Majapahit Kingdom from 1456 to 1466 AD. This ninth king received the title Brawijaya III.
10. Raja Bhre Pandansalas
The next king of the Majapahit kingdom was Bhre Pandansalas. He ruled from 1466 to 1468 AD and had the title Brawijaya IV.
11. Raja Bhre Kertabumi
This 11th king is a king with the title Brawijaya V. He managed to rule the Majapahit kingdom for 10 years, from 1468 to 1478 AD.
12. King Girindrawardhana
Ruled from 1478 to 1498 AD with the title of Brawijaya VI 13. This last Raja or Patih Air King then ruled the kingdom from 1498 to 1518.
Sites of heritage inscriptions and historical traces of the Majapahit Empire
The Majapahit Empire left historical traces in the form of several inscriptions and remains scattered in various regions, including three points which were the center of its administration, namely Mojokerto, Trowulan, and Daha or Kediri.
The following are some of the relics of this legendary kingdom.
1. Wurare Inscription
The inscription that reads the year 1211 Saka or 1289 AD. Tells the story of a brahmin named Aryya Bharad who then divided the land of Java into two parts due to two kings who were almost at war, namely the Kingdoms of Panjalu and Janggala.
2. The Kudadu Inscription
The inscription on this inscription later found the year 1216 Saka or 1294 AD. It tells the story of Raden Wijaya who was assisted by Rama Kudadu in escaping from the threat of Jayakatwang who had killed Raja Singasari, Kertanegara. This inscription also reveals historical facts regarding the determination of the Kudadu area to become autonomous or a special area because it protected its king.
3. Sukamerta inscription
Found the year 1208 Saka or 1296 AD on this inscription. Tells how Raden Wijaya married 4 daughters of Kertanegara. There is also a story of the coronation of Jayanegara, crown prince Raden Wijaya, as viceroy in Daha (Kediri) in 1295 AD.
4. Balawi inscription
Written in 1305 AD In fact there is no clear depiction of the story. This inscription itself was found in Balawi Village, Lamongan, East Java.
5. Prapancasapura Inscription
Created during the leadership of Tribhuwana Tunggadewi, in the period 1328-1350 AD This inscription then tells about Hayam Wuruk who had another name Kummaraja Jiwana.
6. Parung inscription
The year 1350 AD is written on this inscription. It is said that a judge must then have careful consideration before giving a decision.
7. Canggu Inscription
The date of manufacture is written in 1358. It contains various regulations regarding the passages in the area around the Bengawan Solo and Brantas rivers.
This is information about the Majapahit Kingdom starting from history, the Majapahit Kingdom’s genealogy, historical traces and heritage sites. Hope it is useful!
Books Related to the Majapahit Kingdom
1. History of the Kings of Majapahit
Majapahit is one of the biggest kingdoms in the archipelago. Since the government of Dyah Wijaya to Jayanagara, Majapahit is still in the process of political upheaval. The glory of Majapahit was during the reign of Tribhuwana Tunggadewi to Hayam Wuruk. Meanwhile, since the government of Wikramawardhana, Sri Suhita, Dyah Kertawijaya, Rajasa Wardhana, Sri Suhita, Dyah Kertawijaya, Rajasa Wardhana, Sri Suhita, Dyah Kertawijaya, Rajasa Wardhana, Girishawardhana
2. The History of Majapahit: The Rise and Fall of the Greatest Empire in the Archipelago
Established between 1293 and around 1527, this kingdom based in East Java reached its peak of glory under the reign of King Hayam Wuruk, who expanded his empire’s territory across the archipelago and mainland Southeast Asia. This success was achieved through the help of his Mahapatih, Gajah Mada.
According to Negarakertagama (Desawarñana) written by Mpu Prapanca in 1365, the Majapahit Empire had ninety-eight vassal kingdoms, stretching from Sumatra in the west to Papua in the east, a vast area which now includes Indonesia, Singapore, Malaysia, Brunei, East Timor, and the southern part of the modern Philippines, although the exact nature of control over these vast areas is still a matter of debate among modern historians.
The Majapahit saga seeks to provide objective and complete documentation of the great empire which in national historiography is considered the forerunner of the modern Indonesian state. A report that not only records the story of the Majapahit rulers but also the daily lives of the people as well as the kingdom’s relationship with the international world at its time. A historical record that not only writes down the fame of Majapahit’s name but also the ulcers of its history, from its founding to the collapse of the kingdom.
3. Majapahit 2
The atmosphere of Kotaraja is like fire in a husk. Behind the cool breeze, hidden danger threatens, ready to pounce with a swing of the hand. However, only a few people captured the atmosphere. Others have lost the sense of suspicion that originally existed. Amidst the debilitating calm, suspicious traces strewn around the Singasari area.
However, are these strange signs really part of the cipher language? When revenge turns to revenge, the attack that comes like a flash flood cannot be avoided. Bala Sanggrama, an epic about the forerunner of the great empire of the archipelago: Majapahit. Written by a seasoned writer, this novel is one of the historical records of a piece of this nation’s journey.
4. Traces of Majapahit Civilization: Giant Empire
The fame of Majapahit is recognized by the world as one of the giant empires that ever existed in the archipelago. Its territory stretching from Sumatra to Nusa Tenggara is said to be the forerunner of the first archipelago. Majapahit became a superpower empire in the 13th century. A last Hindu-Buddhist kingdom to rule the archipelago and is considered one of the largest states in Indonesian history.
This book presents traces of the history of the existence of the Majapahit Kingdom, which at that time developed into a giant empire. The author tries to provide as objective & detailed a picture as possible about the existence of a giant empire on the archipelago so that it becomes a valuable lesson.
Thus a review of the Majapahit royal lineage and traces of its historical heritage. Sinaumed’s can get books related to the Majapahit kingdom by visiting sinaumedia.com so you have #MoreWithReading information.