Understanding the History and Location of the Ancient Mataram Kingdom

Location of the Ancient Mataram Kingdom – Maybe here are among the Sinaumed’s who don’t really like history lessons. Usually, some of the reasons why students don’t like this subject are not far from the boring subject matter coupled with the less exciting way the teacher explains.

It is only natural that some of you are not very interested in studying history. However, don’t let Sinaumed’s think that studying history, especially Indonesian history, is of no use. You need to know that there are many benefits that can be obtained after studying Indonesian history.

Indonesia is a country rich in ethnicity and culture. This is also inseparable from the history of the nation which began with the many kingdoms of various styles scattered throughout the archipelago. You can conclude that studying this can help you understand Indonesian culture and culture as a whole.

For this reason, in this article, Sinaumed’s will try to study one of the oldest kingdoms in Indonesia, namely the Ancient Mataram Kingdom. You will learn various things such as the history and location of the Ancient Mataram Kingdom, the collapse of the Ancient Mataram Kingdom and who were the leaders of this kingdom.

Hopefully, besides this article being able to provide the information Sinaumed’s needs, this article can also open your eyes about the importance of studying history and prove that there are many historical events in Indonesia that you need to learn about.

History and Location of the Ancient Mataram Kingdom

We will start with basic information regarding the Ancient Mataram Kingdom, before going into important matters related to this kingdom. Basically, the Ancient Mataram Kingdom was a kingdom with Hindu and Buddhist styles that developed from the 8th century to the 11th century.

The location of the Ancient Mataram Kingdom was in Central Java before finally moving to East Java. This kingdom was originally founded by King Sanjaya, and his throne was continued by a number of Syailendra dynasties and Isyana dynasties after the death of the kingdom’s founder.

The word “Mataram” itself is taken from the Sanskrit “Matr” which means “mother”. Many historians describe the Ancient Mataram Kingdom as the personification of a mother figure who symbolizes life, nature and the environment.

Besides being known as “Ancient Mataram”, this kingdom is also widely known as “Medang” by the Javanese. The term Medang arose from various inscriptions found in various locations around Central Java and also in East Java.

Upon further examination, the word Medang apparently refers to a palace called the Medang palace which is located in the Mataram Kingdom. The etymology or origin of the name “Medang” is thought to come from the name of the “medang” tree, a tree originating from that area which is known to be hard and sturdy.

Many historical observers say that the economy of the Ancient Mataram Kingdom was very dependent on agriculture, especially rice farming. The Ancient Mataram Kingdom also benefited from maritime trade to a number of kingdoms from other countries.

In addition, according to foreign sources and archaeological findings, the Ancient Mataram Kingdom was thought to have had a large population and not a few of them were quite prosperous. This kingdom is examined to develop a society that has a complex personality and culture.

This was the reason behind the level of sophistication that the Ancient Mataram Kingdom possessed compared to other kingdoms and their refined civilization. Entering the late 8th century, this kingdom witnessed the development of classical Javanese art and architecture which was reflected in the rapid construction of temples.

Some of the most famous temples built in Mataram are Kalasan Temple, Sewu Temple, even Borobudur Temple and Prambanan Temple, all of which are quite close to the city of Yogyakarta. All of these temples are known to have been built during the era of the Ancient Mataram Kingdom.

At its peak, the Ancient Mataram Kingdom had become the dominant kingdom. They have abundant natural and human resources and are quite feared not only on the island of Java, but also on the island of Sumatra, Bali and even other countries such as Thailand, India, the Philippines, Cambodia.

The Collapse of the Ancient Mataram Kingdom

The Ancient Mataram Kingdom experienced a very extraordinary period during their heyday. Even though they had moved locations due to outside invasions in the 10th century, they were still able to continue living in peace even though they had to move from Central Java to East Java.

Even so, in the end the Ancient Mataram Kingdom, which was so powerful in its time, experienced its downfall. The reason behind the collapse of the Ancient Mataram Kingdom was basically due to the war they waged against the Sriwijaya Kingdom.

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Sinaumed’s needs to know that at that time, there was a Buddhist kingdom which was also known for its power and was located in South Sumatra, around Palembang City to be precise. The kingdom referred to here is none other than the Sriwijaya Kingdom.

At the end of the 10th century, it is suspected that the rivalry between the Sriwijaya Kingdom and the Javanese Ancient Mataram Kingdom became hotter than before. Some experts even suspect that these two kingdoms are hostile to each other. There are a number of reasons behind the enmity of these two great empires.

In 990, Dharmawangsa, King of the Mataram Kingdom at the time, launched a naval invasion against Srivijaya in an attempt to take Palembang. Evidence of the Javanese invasion of Srivijaya is recorded in the historical records of the Chinese in the Song period.

At that time, an envoy from Sriwijaya was sent to the Chinese court in Guangzhou in 988. After spending about two years in China, the envoy learned that his country had been invaded by the Javanese and prevented him from returning home.

King Dharmawangsa’s attack on the Sriwijaya Kingdom made the Maharaja of Sriwijaya, Sri Cudamani Warmadewa seek protection from China. At that time, Sri Cudamani Warmadewa was a capable, shrewd ruler who had diplomatic skills.

The ingenuity and ability possessed by the Maharaja made him able to get further breaths. In the midst of a crisis caused by the invasion of the Ancient Mataram Kingdom, Sri Cudamani Warmadewa won Chinese political support by pacifying the Chinese Emperor.

The attack of King Dharmawangsa against Sriwijaya in the 990s did not have much effect on the sovereignty and prestige of the Srivijaya Kingdom. And in the end, the Srivijaya Kingdom succeeded in repelling the invasion and regaining control of its kingdom around 1003.

In fact, it was the Sriwijaya Kingdom that was able to launch an attack on the Ancient Mataram Kingdom. Then, the attack from the Srivijaya Kingdom on the Ancient Mataram Kingdom was not what Sinaumed’s had imagined. This is because this attack was initiated by a coup by members of the Ancient Mataram Kingdom.

Haji Wurawari, one of the leaders in the ancient Mataram Kingdom, rebelled against his superiors. He launched an invasion from Lwaram, attacking and destroying the Palace in Mataram. This event ended with the death of King Dharmawangsa and most of the royal family.

With the death of King Dharmawangsa and the fall of the capital city, under the military pressure of Hani Wurawari, the Ancient Mataram Kingdom which was known for its power and prosperity from the past, finally collapsed and fell into chaos.

Added to this was the absence of the supreme ruler of Mataram, the warlords in many regional provinces and settlements in Central and East Java rebelled, wanting to break away from the central Mataram government and form self-government serving local dynasties.

List of Leaders of the Ancient Mataram Kingdom

How about it, Sinaumed’s? After reading a fairly detailed explanation about the Ancient Mataram Kingdom, there are many lessons that you can learn from the story of the kingdom’s superiority, both from a moral, historical and cultural perspective.

From the Ancient Mataram Kingdom, you can see how people lived at that time. Even though they rely on farming and farming, they can live and prosper from these activities. This is strong evidence behind Indonesia’s nickname as an agricultural country.

The many temples around Central Java and East Java are also important relics of the Ancient Mataram Kingdom for Indonesian people and are also clear evidence of the spread of Buddhism and Hinduism in Indonesia at that time.

And there are many more things that Sinaumed’s can find in the existence of the Ancient Mataram Kingdom. In this last session, we will try to discuss the leaders of the Ancient Mataram Kingdom from time to time before it finally collapsed due to a coup.

It is known that at least 20 leaders of the Ancient Mataram Kingdom from time to time. Discussing the achievements and lives of these leaders one by one will take a lot of time. So, you will read the leader’s name, leadership period and evidence that this figure once occupied the highest throne of the Ancient Mataram Kingdom.

 

Name of King/Leader Leadership Period Leadership Records
Sanjaya 716 AD – 746 AD It is recorded in the Canggal Inscription (732), Mantyasih Inscription (907) and Taji Gunung Inscription (910)
Dyah Pancapana 746 AD – 784 AD It is recorded in the Kalasan Inscription (778), Kelurak Inscription (782), Abhayagiri Inscription (792), Mantyasih Inscription (907), and Wanua Tengah Inscription (908)
Rakai Panaraban 784 AD – 803 AD Recorded in the Wanua Tengah Inscription (908)
Dyah Manara 803 AD – 827 AD Recorded in the Wanua Tengah Inscription (908)
Dyah Sugar 827 AD – 829 AD Recorded in the Wanua Tengah Inscription (908)
Rakai Garuŋ 829 AD – 847 AD Recorded in the Wanua Tengah Inscription (908)
Dyah Saladu 847 AD – 855 AD It is recorded in the Shivagrha Inscription (856), Mantyasih Inscription (907), and Wanua Tengah Inscription (908)
Dyah Lokapala 855 AD – 885 AD It is recorded in the Shivagrha Inscription (856), Salingsingan Inscription (880), Wuatan Tija Inscription (880), Ngabean Inscription (882), Mantyasih Inscription (907), and Wanua Tengah Inscription (908)
Dyah Tagwas 885 AD – 885 AD Recorded in the Er Warm Inscription (888) and the Middle Wanua Inscription (908)
Dyah Dewendra 885 AD – 887 AD Recorded in the Wanua Tengah Inscription (908)
Dyah Bhadra 887 AD – 887 AD Recorded in the Wanua Tengah Inscription (908)
Dyah Jbang 894 AD – 898 AD Recorded in the Wanua Tengah Inscription (908)
Dyah Balitung 898 AD – 908 AD It is recorded in the Chicken Teas inscription (900), Taji inscription (901), Watukura inscription (902), Telang inscription (904), Kubu inscription (905), Poh inscription (905), Rukam inscription (907), Mantyasih inscription (907) , Middle Wanua Inscription (908) and Kaladi Inscription (909)
Dyah Daksotama 908 AD – 919 AD It is recorded in the Panggumulan Inscription (902), Rumwiga Inscription (905), Palepangan Inscription (906), Reinforcement Inscription (910) and Tihang Inscription (914)
Dyah Tulodhong 919 AD – 924 AD Recorded in the Sukabumi Inscription (804) and the Linntak Inscription (919)
Dyah Wawa 924 AD – 929 AD Recorded in the Sukabumi Inscription (927), Sangguran Inscription (928) and Wulakan Inscription (928)
Dyah Sindok 929 AD – 947 AD It is recorded in the Linntak inscription (919), Turyyan inscription (929), Linggasutan inscription (929), Gulung inscription (929), Jru Jru inscription (930), Anjukladang inscription (937) and Wurandungan inscription (944)
Isyanatungga 947 AD – 985 AD It is recorded in the Gedangan Inscription (950) and the Pucangan Inscription (1041)
Makutawangsa 985 AD – 990 AD Recorded in the Pucangan Inscription (1041)
Dharmawangsa 990 AD – 1016 AD Recorded in the Pucangan Inscription (1041)
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Perhaps some of the Sinaumed’s were surprised to see how many inscriptions were used to record the names of the Kings of the Ancient Mataram Kingdom, considering that the names of these inscriptions were not necessarily mentioned in history lessons at school.

However, Sinaumed’s needs to remember here that not all the Kings of the Ancient Mataram Kingdom had qualified achievements during their heyday. Some of them only work as successors to the throne and there are even kings who don’t serve for a long time.

This is the reason why you don’t learn all the names of the kings not only from the Ancient Mataram Kingdom, but also other kingdoms. Usually, the kings mentioned in history textbooks have played an important role, both in the progress of the kingdom and in the decline or even the collapse of the kingdom.

Returning to the topic of the Ancient Mataram Kingdom, the discussion regarding the names of the kings who occupied the royal throne concludes this article. Sinaumed’s has obtained various kinds of information about the Ancient Mataram Kingdom starting from the location, history to the reasons for the collapse of the kingdom.

Hopefully this article can be an article that gives you useful insights both now and in the future. Hopefully Sinaumed’s can find the information you need regarding the Ancient Mataram Kingdom.

Apart from that, the hope is that Sinaumed’s can open his eyes more and realize how important it is to study history, especially Indonesian history. There is a lot of interesting and informative information that you can get if you study history carefully.

The recommended books above are offered by us, sinaumedia #Friends Without Limits. You can buy and find not only these books, but also other books according to your interests on the sinaumedia.com site . Hopefully the existence of these books can add to your insight and knowledge #MoreWithReading.

Author: M. Adrianto S.