Definition of Globalization: Process, Characteristics and Impact of Globalization

Definition of Globalization – People say the world is now narrow. Where do you want to go in minutes? With anyone we can squeeze each other. News abroad there, in the country was a hit. Even viruses that are far from the country of the Bamboo Curtain can reach remote villages in Indonesia. All of that is the impact of globalization.

Connect with anyone without using it for a long time because the internet is our mainstay. What do you want to see, just click. If you want Japanese food, you don’t need to fly to Japan. If you want Korean artist clothes, you don’t have to bother.

Many things easily go viral because they spread easily. Many people are suddenly famous because their actions are watched by many people. All because of globalization. What is globalization? how did globalization happen? what is the impact of globalization? can we take advantage of globalization? What are some examples of globalization?

Definition of Globalization

Globalization is a process of international integration that occurs because of the exchange of world views, products, ideas, and other aspects of culture. Advances in transportation and telecommunication infrastructure, including the emergence of the telegraph and the Internet, are major factors in globalization which are increasingly encouraging the interdependence of economic and cultural activities.

Many argue that globalization began in the modern era, some other experts have even succeeded in tracing the history of globalization to before the time of European discovery and voyages to the New World. There are also experts who note that globalization may have begun to appear in the third millennium BC.

In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the world’s economic and cultural interconnectedness took place at a rapid pace. The term globalization has been echoed more frequently since the mid-1980s and more frequently since the mid-1990s.

In 2000, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) Grouped the four basic aspects of globalization: trade and transactions, movements of capital and investment, migration and movement of people, and the liberation of knowledge.

In addition, environmental challenges such as climate change, trans-border water and air pollution, and over-fishing from the oceans are also related to globalization. The process of globalization ultimately affects and is affected by business and work procedures, the economy, socio-cultural resources, and the natural environment.

In Indonesia itself, we can see perspectives that can spark openness and clarity of discourse regarding the direction of economic development due to globalization, which Readers can read in the books Globalization, Constitutional Economics, and Economic Novels.

Basically, the notion of globalization does not yet have a precise definition, except for a working definition, so it depends on which side one sees it. Globalization is seen as a social process, or a historical process, or a natural process that will bring all nations and countries in the world increasingly bound to one another, creating a new order of life or co-existence by removing geographical, economic and social boundaries. .

Globalization is synonymous with the term global village or global village, in which the boundaries of the country’s territories seem to be fading or even disappearing, aka becoming borderless due to advances in communication and transportation technology. Why do national borders seem to fade and even disappear? National boundaries are called faded because everyone can visit any country very easily because of the help of modern means of transportation.

In addition, communication between people from different countries can be easily carried out with the help of communication tools and the internet network. National boundaries are called faded because now if we need an item we can even find trade goods from abroad very easily. In the twinkling of an eye, with finger exercises, any item can be ordered.

Technological developments are one of the factors why globalization can be considered positive. The development of science, which then gave rise to innovations in the field of technology, has many benefits. Such as messaging technology.

In the past, we had to painstakingly come to the post office to send news. It took several days to deliver messages via postage stamps. If you want to go a little faster, you can use the telegram, but via the telegram, only a few messages are conveyed.

Not to mention that the post office is far from the house. It takes effort to get there. But the excitement is certainly irreplaceable. In the run-up to Hari Raya, the post office would be flooded with orders for Eid cards. We can send Eid cards to distant family or colleagues. Even we will be happy to hear the voice of the postman who delivers Eid cards for us.

Currently, by only using technology such as smartphones with internet connections, it is very easy for us to send messages in seconds, even face-to-face. If it’s a holiday, say goodbye, copy and paste people’s posts if you distribute them. In just seconds our message has been received.

Similar to transportation, technological developments encourage people to make innovations such as online motorcycle taxis. Now the people of Indonesia, especially in big cities with a high level of mobility, will be greatly helped by this online motorcycle taxi service application.

Because of this globalization, various things become instantaneous and it becomes easier for us to fulfill our needs, as well as various sciences that have developed with globalization which are discussed in the book Globalization is a Myth by Paul Hirst.

Definition of Globalization According to Experts

1. Selo Soemardjan

Selo Soemardjan argues, “globalization is the formation of a communication and organization between different people around the world who have the aim of following the same new rules.”

2.Anthony Giddens

Anthony Giddens states that “everything that happens, namely social relations eventually becomes intense between people in this world and connects one event to another which produces a reciprocal impact between one region and another so that it expands to aspects of life between the two. ”

3. Cochrane and Pain

Cochrane and Pain stated that globalization is marked by the emergence of a global cultural and economic system that can make people from all over the world become a single society that grows globally.

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4. Malcolm Waters

Malcom Waters stated that globalization is a social process that can result in the emergence of geographical restrictions on socio-cultural conditions that become less important and exist in every human consciousness.

Types of Globalization

After discussing the notion of globalization, the next thing to discuss is the types of globalization. The scope of globalization is very broad, such as globalization in the field of transportation, economic globalization, socio-cultural globalization, science and technology globalization, communication globalization, and others.

Transportation globalization

The field of transportation will continue to experience changes along with globalization, moreover public transportation will also continue to develop. In this case, the development of transportation due to globalization can be in land, sea and air transportation. Thanks to globalization, the delivery of goods from one region to another will be faster.

Economic globalization

The second type of globalization is economic globalization. We can see this type of globalization because of international trade carried out by two or more countries. In fact, thanks to economic globalization, one does not need to leave the house to buy an item.

Cultural globalization

In accordance with the notion of globalization, the next type of globalization is cultural globalization. It is no longer a stranger if social culture is a type of globalization. One of the cultures that has started to enter Indonesia, namely Korean culture.

Science and Technology Globalization

Science and technology will continue to experience development from time to time, so that science and technology is a type of globalization. Therefore, the more advanced the times, the more science and technology that can be utilized by many people.

Communication globalization

The globalization of communication, as the name implies, this type of globalization is synonymous with matters of communication. One of the things that has begun to change since the globalization of communication is the reduction in the activity of sending messages which is replaced by sending  chats .

Globalization Process

Based on the notion of globalization, globalization does not suddenly occur, of course. Globalization doesn’t happen overnight. Globalization occurs through many processes. What’s the process?

Globalization arises because of the development of science and the human mind that makes science continue to progress.

The discovery of a theory by a scientist at one time will be perfected by the next scientist.

With reason, humans do not necessarily accept theories from previous scientists. As time goes by, science also develops. The development of science is the beginning of advances in information technology, communication technology, and transportation technology.

The discovery of communication tools, for example, which were initially so unexpectedly simple, are now increasingly sophisticated so that the communication process is very fast.

If in the past we could only send messages via the SMS Short Message service, which had a limited number of words sent and the pulse price was relatively expensive, unexpectedly, now we can use a chat-reciprocating application.

Even if at first we could only send messages to one person, now we can share messages with many people directly with the group facilities provided.

If in the past only voices could greet each other, now distant forms can also be seen via video calls. Advances in technology eventually encourage a lot of innovation in social life. If in the past we were constrained by transportation to go anywhere, now even though we don’t have motorbikes or cars, the city only has to order online transportation wherever we are, wherever we are going.

Characteristics of Globalization

The definition of globalization, types, and processes have been discussed, so the next discussion is the characteristics of globalization. What are the characteristics of actual globalization? According to Cohen and Kennedy the characteristics of globalization are:

1. Increased Common Problems

Increasing common problems, such as the spread of virus-borne diseases of migratory people, foreign debts, and patterns of international crime. The spread of the virus as it is currently sweeping the world where Covid-19, which originated in Wuhan China, has now spread everywhere.

2. Increased Cultural Interaction Between Countries

Increased cultural interaction between countries through mass media and the internet. Some time ago a local private TV station held an interstate talent search event in Southeast Asia. Through this event we get to know what foreign singers are like and it also happens that we see their culture.

3. Every Country is Interdependent in the Economic Sector

The countries of the world have a high degree of dependence due to markets and economic production. Economic activities carried out globally have encouraged the birth of the World Trade Organization, which oversees the implementation of international trade economy.

4. The occurrence of trade between countries

Natural resources owned by a country are not necessarily owned by other countries. So to fulfill each other’s needs there is a process of trade between countries. Import and export process can not be avoided anymore. There was an international economy.

5. Changes in the Concept of Space and Time

Changes in the concept of space and time, where the state’s territorial boundaries are fading due to easy migration of the population. As we know, now Singapore or Malaysia is one of Indonesia’s tourist destinations.

With the availability of many qualified and affordable airlines, the two countries are close to Indonesia. It is said that many are used to going back and forth there like it’s close.

Features of Globalization

In order to know more deeply about globalization, the characteristics of globalization will be explained below, namely:

  • Technology is getting more advanced, while examples of technological developments are the internet and some electronics.
  • Many countries carry out economic cooperation through bilateral or multilateral trade. That way, the needs of a country will be easily met.
  • Some of the world’s problems are common problems, such as the problem of environmental damage.
  • There is cultural acculturation that occurs because it is easy to get information about the culture of other countries.

Impact of Globalization

Globalization has also changed the pattern of people’s lives, one of which is leading people to know many cultures from countries outside. The impacts of globalization in the economic and socio-cultural fields are:

1. The Impact of Globalization on the Economy

Globalization has an impact on the economy. There are positive impacts as well as negative impacts. What are the impacts?

a. The Positive Impact of Globalization

The positive impact of globalization is triggering creative and innovative attitudes among the general public so that they can compete in the global realm.

The rain of goods from abroad offering low prices and luxury quality goods has made local producers turn their heads so they can compete with foreign products. This of course increases creativity and sparks innovation among the wider community.

It’s easy to get goods from abroad at affordable prices. It is undeniable that goods from China’s bamboo curtain country are now dominating the domestic market. With affordable prices and special quality we can get these goods. there are already many distributors who play in imported china goods.

Increased types of employment due to foreign investment from abroad. Increased foreign investment creates job opportunities everywhere and this is clearly beneficial because it can suck up a lot of unemployment.

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There are opportunities to work abroad. Working abroad is no longer complicated now. Many agents channel labor abroad.

b. Negative Impact of Globalization

The ease of getting goods from abroad makes the national market dominated by imported goods. Moreover, if consumers prefer foreign products then fall on local traders.

Triggering consumerism or non-thrifty lifestyle in society. The rise of Korean fever among young people makes them target Korean style. Their love for Korean bands causes them to buy merchandise from their favorite artists. Whatever the price is installed, no longer a complaint. that is why Indonesia is considered a promising market for them. Likewise with collectors of well-known foreign brands. Their ease in collecting items will be difficult to control.

The entry of foreign workers in large numbers so as to dominate the local workforce. The ease of entry of foreign workers into our country has caused large numbers of foreign workers to invade Indonesia. even in the entertainment world, we are getting used to seeing foreign artists. Many foreign nationals are starting to have a place in the hearts of Indonesian citizens.

The death of local businesses due to the sale of goods from abroad. If goods from abroad continue to flood Indonesia, then it is not impossible that local entrepreneurs will go out of business. Failing to compete with foreign products makes traders fall.

With this globalization, everything is made easier with the emergence of E-Commerce, electronic contracts and others. However, this also increases the number of cyber crimes. Therefore, the existence of the book The Influence of the Era of Globalization on Business Law in Indonesia discusses the impact of globalization on business law that applies in Indonesia.


2. The Impact of Globalization in the Socio-Cultural Sector

As is the case in the economic field, in the social sector there are also impacts given by globalization, including:

a. The Positive Impact of Globalization

In terms of socio-culture, globalization has a positive impact, namely changing the mindset of people who were originally ancient to be modern. The ancients were known to be old-fashioned. Naturally, because their access to the outside world is limited. Meanwhile, nowadays any information from anywhere is easy to get. So the mindset of society has changed to be modern.

Making people aware of cultural diversity in the world (world multiculturalism). In addition, fostering an attitude of tolerance between communities due to the interdependence of both work and education dependencies.

b. Negative Impact of Globalization

Failure to understand modernization will result in juvenile delinquency as a result of imitating broadcasts in cyberspace. The flurry of shows on television or the internet makes it easy for teenagers to accept the negative things from these shows.

It is easy to be influenced by foreign culture so that you forget the local culture. As is currently happening. The Korean culture wave is sweeping. Teenagers are starting to love all things Korean, from music, drama, clothes and even food. When eating Korean food is considered cooler than eating warm, for example, it is a negative impact of globalization.

Forgetting local culture because it is considered ancient. Lately, Indonesian culture has been abandoned by young people. They feel more proud to be able to imitate foreign dances than Indonesian dances.

Factors Causing Globalization

Based on the notion of globalization, globalization does not just happen, but there are several contributing factors, including:

1. Easily Accessible Transportation

Globalization can occur because transportation is easily accessible, so it is easy for someone to go abroad, such as an airplane.

2. There is International Trade

The next factor causing globalization is the existence of an open economy or international trade. With international trade, various kinds of products from abroad will easily enter Indonesia.

3. Technology and and Transportation that continues to grow

Technology and transportation that continues to grow is one of the causes of globalization. An example of technological developments can be seen with  e-commerce .

Globalization Aspect

After discussing the notion of globalization to its causal factors, the next discussion is the aspect of globalization. In general, the development of globalization is seen from 3 aspects, namely political aspects, economic aspects, and socio-cultural aspects.

Political Aspect

With globalization, world-class organizations emerged, so that political relations with many countries could occur. World-level organizations, such as  the World Bank ,  WTO, and so on.

Economic Aspect

The economic aspect experienced a significant development due to this globalization. This can happen because there are already many countries that can carry out international trade. In fact, there are already many  domestic and foreign e-commerce sites , making it easier for consumers to shop.

Socio-Cultural Aspects

Globalization is often seen from the entry of foreign cultures into the country. The entry of this culture generally occurs through the internet or social media.

Benefits of Globalization

In addition to having both positive and negative impacts, globalization also provides benefits. The benefits of globalization are as follows:

1. Provide Convenience in Communicating

Will provide an ease in the field of communication with other people. If there was no globalization, maybe our communication would only revolve around the local area.

2. It’s easy to get goods from abroad

Will provide convenience in obtaining various forms of goods which will satisfy the life of a human being. Want brand name clothes made in America? Want a sophisticated car made in Germany? easy to order. Goods are easy to get even from abroad.

3. More Public Transportation

There will be a form of mobility of the population which will be higher with the help of various forms of transportation vehicles. The distance between the place of work and home will not be an obstacle. Want day or night we easily get transportation.

4. Opening New Jobs

Will open various forms of job vacancies. This can reduce the number of unemployed, of course. That way, the level of community welfare can continue to increase.

5. The Tourism Sector Can Increase

Will increase the growth of the tourism sector. Indonesia will find it easier to introduce tourism spots to the eyes of the world. Beautiful places throughout the archipelago will soon reach the eyes of the world.

6. A More Transparent Democracy

Will improve the existing democracy to be more transparent. The ease of accessing information makes political parties such as elections easy to follow. This causes the democratic party to be more transparent. Fraudulent relative can be reduced.

How to Deal with Globalization

As previously explained that globalization has both negative and positive impacts. Therefore, we need to be good at dealing with globalization so as not to abandon our original cultural values. In this case, what is meant by “smart” is to keep trying to think critically when getting information from the mass media or social media, as well as when wanting to learn about foreign cultures, so that cultural values ​​are not abandoned.

Another way to deal with globalization is to keep trying to buy local products, so that domestic businesses continue to run and remain able to compete with foreign products. In addition, it can improve the national economy.

Example of Globalization

After knowing the meaning of globalization to the positive impacts of globalization and the negative impacts of globalization, the following discussion is an example of globalization, namely:

  • There is trade between countries to meet domestic needs
  • Working abroad will be easier
  • It is easy to learn foreign cultures and languages
  • The attitude of tolerance respects the culture of other countries is greater
  • There are international organizations
  • Can play a role in carrying out world peace
  • Learn with modern and sophisticated technology
  • There is an exchange of students abroad.

So how, after reading the notion of globalization to examples of globalization, have you understood more about globalization? Hopefully we can take positive things from globalization and throw away the negative impacts.