Understanding What Is 5W 1H In The News Text

5W 1H – Sinaumed’s must know what 5W 1H is, which is often used before writing news texts or even analyzing problems in the field of marketing? Yep, the use of 5W 1H which is often considered to be the main elements in making a news text, especially when determining a news subject. Before writing a news text, of course, Sinaumed’s must make a text outline first using 5W 1H. In short, this 5W 1H is a guide to the questions that form the basis of news composition. After the news text framework has been compiled, Sinaumed’sjust need to perfect it. So, what exactly is 5W 1H? What are the benefits of using the 5W 1H guidelines in compiling a text, especially news texts? So, so that Sinaumed’s understands it, let’s look at the following review!

What Is 5W 1H?

Basically, the definition of 5W 1H is a guide that contains questions for compiling a news text. Well, these questions will be “answered” by the news text compilers themselves. Through these answers, information about news texts will be compiled and then perfected according to the structure and rules of the language. In 5W 1H there are 6 elements in the form of: What , Who , Where , When , Why , and How . Through these 6 questions or 6 elements, Sinaumed’s will find it helpful to compose news texts easily.

  • what _

In a news story, this What element must be the main thing to pay attention to. “What is the problem/event that happened?” 

  • Who _

This second element relates to who or people related to the event that will be made news. Not infrequently, a news text will also contain statement statements from the people involved. “Who was involved in the problem/event?”

  • Where _

This third element relates to the place or location of the problem/event. As a rule, it can be described in more detail. For example in Ambarawa District, Semarang Regency, Central Java, Indonesia. “Where is the place where the problem/event happened?”

  • when _

The fourth element relates to the time when the problem/event occurred. Since the news text is factual text, then this fourth element cannot be falsified, right? It must really correspond to the time when the problem/event occurred. “When did the problem/event happen?”

  • Why _

This fifth element relates to the reasons why these problems/events can occur. This element must be investigated in detail so that when composing the news text, Sinaumed’s is not confused or forgets about the events that have occurred. “Why did this event happen?”

  • How _

The last element is about how the process of occurrence of the problem/event being discussed. Usually, it is this element that must be explained in detail so that readers or listeners are not confused with the core of the news. In the elaboration must also use causality conjunctions (cause and effect). The how element will also support the statement of the why element. “How did this problem/event happen?”

Well, all of these elements must be contained in an article or news text. In fact, not infrequently, writing literary works such as short stories also requires this 5W 1H guide so that it is easier for the writer to compile the information. In journalism, the 5W 1H guidelines are more commonly referred to as the “Inverted Pyramid”. Just a little trivia , 5W 1H will usually use question words. Example 5W 1H for compiling information in a news text.

  1. What is your motivation to become an employee of a government agency?
  2. Who is eligible to take the 2022 CPNS exam?
  3. Where will the 2022 CPNS exam be held?
  4. When will the 2022 CPNS exam be held by the central government?
  5. Why are you interested in taking the 2022 CPNS exam?
  6. What is the registration process for the 2022 CPNS exam?

Benefits of Using 5W 1H in Composing News Texts

In general, the use of 5W 1H in the effort to compose news texts will actually make it easier for Sinaumed’s to compose good and correct news texts. When receiving information from an event either through the answers of sources or analyzing it alone, the use of 5W 1H must still be the main guide for compiling news texts. Even today, the use of 5W 1H is not only applied to the preparation of news texts, but also in the company’s business analysis activities.

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In short, the use of the 5W 1H method makes it very easy for writers to organize the complete information they get so that it can become a good and correct text.

Know What is News Text

Since earlier, Sinaumed’s often encounters the term “news text”, especially in the use of 5W 1H. Really, what is the text of the news? Come on, see the following review!

News Text Definition

Actually, learning about this news text has been taught since elementary school level, especially with the 2013 Curriculum in the subject of Indonesian. If you look at the Big Indonesian Dictionary (KBBI), the word “news” has the meaning of ‘a story or description of a hot incident or event’. Meanwhile, according to JB Wahyudi, news text is ‘a type of narrative text that contains reports of incidents, events, or information about something that has happened or is happening’. Meanwhile, according to Putra (2007), he argues that news is a report about an incident that causes a stir in the community, whether those who hear or know about it firsthand. Well, since the news is closely related to society,

On that basis, news texts can be defined as ‘texts that contain all events that have occurred or are currently happening in society’. This news text will usually be disseminated by reading it through various mass media. Starting from television, radio, internet, to special websites that contain news from around the world.

News Text Elements

Regarding the elements of the news text, actually it has been explained before. However, there’s nothing wrong if Sinaumed’s reviews it again. The elements of the news text are 5W 1H, namely in the form of What , Who , Where , When , Why , and How . Here’s an explanation.

  • what _

In a news story, this What element must be the main thing to pay attention to. “What is the problem/event that happened?” 

  • Who _

This second element relates to who or people related to the event that will be made news. Not infrequently, a news text will also contain statement statements from the people involved. “Who was involved in the problem/event?”

  • Where _

This third element relates to the place or location of the problem/event. As a rule, it can be described in more detail. For example in Ambarawa District, Semarang Regency, Central Java, Indonesia. “Where is the place where the problem/event happened?”

  • when _

The fourth element relates to the time when the problem/event occurred. Since the news text is factual text, then this fourth element cannot be falsified, right? It must really correspond to the time when the problem/event occurred. “When did the problem/event happen?”

  • Why _

This fifth element relates to the reasons why these problems/events can occur. This element must be investigated in detail so that when composing the news text, Sinaumed’s is not confused or forgets about the events that have occurred. “Why did this event happen?”

  • How _

The last element is about how the process of occurrence of the problem/event being discussed. Usually, it is this element that must be explained in detail so that readers or listeners are not confused with the core of the news. In the elaboration must also use causality conjunctions (cause and effect). The how element will also support the statement of the why element. “How did this problem/event happen?”

News Text Features

Since the text of the news will be disseminated to the wider community, the information must also be factual or actually happened in real terms. Even in the journalistic code of ethics, it prohibits compiling news texts with lies. Well, here are the characteristics of a news text.

1. Factual

The point is that the events or events discussed in the news text must actually occur in reality. To see whether the event was real or not, the truth can be proven by documentation.

2. Actual

That is, the events or events discussed in the news text must be things that are new, current, and are being discussed by many people. This is because the purpose of people reading news texts is only to find out about current events in their area or outside their area.

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3. Unique and Interesting

Unique means that every journalist or news provider portal must have their own style of enclosure created by a unique editorial, editorial and dictionary team. Meanwhile, the characteristics of news must also be interesting, which means that news information must attract the attention of many people. If a news text has attracted the attention of many people, they will feel so curious to read or listen to the news text.

4. Influencing the Broad Society

That is, a news text must really be able to give a big impact on the interests of the wider community. For example, there is news about natural disasters. Well, this news will be able to influence the general public to donate aid to the victims of the natural disaster.

5. Objective

A news text besides being factual, must also be objective alias in its preparation not influenced by the views or opinions of other people, even journalists.

6. Using Standard, Simple, and Communicative Language

In contrast to short stories or other narrative texts which can use informal language, this news text is characterized by standard language. Standard language is a variety of languages ​​whose pronunciation and writing are in accordance with EYD (Enhanced Spelling) rules and standard grammar. In addition, in a news text, language must be simple and communicative to listeners and readers.

News Text Structure

As with other Indonesian language texts, news texts also have their own structure. According to Romli (2018), there are 3 news text structures, namely news orientation, events, and news sources. Well, here is the explanation.

1. News Orientation

Namely in the form of an introduction to the problem or what things will be discussed in the news text. If you look at the elements of the 5W 1H news text, this structure contains what elements .

2. Events

Namely in the form of a series of events that occur and are explained in detail and sequentially. If you look at the elements of the 5W 1H news text, this structure contains elements of Who , Where , When , Why , and How .

3. News Sources

The actual news source can be placed at the beginning of the news, but at the end is also allowed. Usually, this news source is written in print media such as newspapers.

Language Rules of News Text

Linguistic rules are used as a guideline for compiling a text, including news texts. According to Romli (2018), the linguistic rules of news texts are:

1. Using Direct Sentences

If you want to use direct speech, it will usually be in the form of a quote from the speaker’s conversation in an interview.

2. Using Indirect Sentences

If you want to use indirect sentences, it is advisable to report the text of the news with the general sentence structure.

3. Using Transitive Verbs

Namely in the form of a verb (verb) that can be changed into a passive form.

4. Using Preachers

Namely in the form of a verb (verb) that indicates a conversation.

News Text Writing Techniques

According to Harahap (2006), a news text must be written using certain techniques, namely as follows.

1. Title

In the title section, it should be arranged in short sentences, but can describe the contents of the news as a whole. Currently, the arrangement of sentences in the title section is the responsibility of a copywriter and must attract the attention of the reader.

2. Core News

The core part of the news is also important, because it will determine whether a reader will continue reading or not. In its preparation, it will not be separated from the elements of 5W 1H.

3. News Body

In this section, it will contain a more detailed explanation of the core part of the news. The description in the body of the news will be more complete because it contains information from sources that are important points. The description is also written in paragraph form while paying attention to conjunctions. Usually, the preparation of the body of the news will be easy to write if the title and core of the news have been worked on.

Source:

Hidayat, Arif. (2011). News Text Writing Learning. INSANIA, Vol 16(3). 

Pratiwi, Ni Wayan Eviyanti Siska. (2018). Ability of Class VIII B Students of SMP Negeri 1 Torue in Writing News Texts. Journal of Language and Literature, Vol 3(4). 

http://portaluniversitasquality.ac.id:55555/

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