Characteristics and Impact of Modernization in Various Fields – Along with the times, all parts of society will develop as well. Things like this cannot be avoided because if we don’t follow them, we will be left behind. Therefore, everyone must be able to advance and change themselves in a more advanced direction. This process is known as modernization.
However, do you know what modernization is and what its characteristics are? Let’s look at the explanation of modernization below.
Definition of Modernization
What exactly is modernization? Modernization is a process that makes us feel that there is a change from an undeveloped civilization to a much more advanced civilization.
Modernization itself is often equated with westernization. Even though the two are two different things, westernization is a process of imitation by a society of cultures originating from the west because they are considered cooler and better than the culture they already have.
With the modernization of a society, the community has achieved achievements because it has succeeded in turning into a developing, quality, advanced, and prosperous society.
Based on Soerjono Soekamto’s thoughts, he defines modernization more complexly, according to him modernization can be defined as changes that occur in people’s lives. These changes include changes in social norms, institutional arrangements, social behavior, social values and also all things or aspects that exist in social life.
Unlike Soerjono Soekanto, Anthony Giddens defines modernization in a different way. For Anthony Giddens, modernization must be seen from various perspectives and fields. In his book entitled The Consequences of Modernity, Anthony Giddens divides modernization into four parts.
Definition of Modernization Based on Anthony Giddens Thought
The division of modernization is divided into capitalism, industrialism, increased control capabilities, and also military strength.
Capitalism, marked by the emergence of production from commodities, then more and more assets which are only owned by some people, then there is labor without owning property and then there are social castes which are sorted by ownership of capital.
Then if modernization is seen from the industrial sector, when all production practices that use natural resources (SDA) are processed using machines, it can be called modernization. This industry also includes various fields, including the transportation industry, the household needs industry, or also the information and communication industry.
Furthermore, modernization is seen from the field of supervision of its citizens. With the CCTV system then there is also camera and satellite traffic, so this condition can be called modernization.
Finally, modernization is viewed from the side of military strength and also the sophistication of a government’s security device. The formation of experts to secure a country such as the TNI and Polri with sophisticated military equipment is also a form of modernization.
Features of Modernization
One of the characteristics of modernization is the primacy of individual victory. Modern people in the modern era tend to have a major role in a system of social life compared to communities, groups or the life of the nation and state.
In the modern era, individuals are always free from the bonds and pressures that exist within a group, they are also free to choose and move towards the group or community they want. Each individual has the freedom to determine his caste or social status.
Every individual who lives in the modern era has freedom and responsibility for what he wants. Their success depends on what they do, as well as the failures that they must be responsible for according to what they do.
The hallmark of the next modernization is differentiation which is very important in the field of labor. In the modern era, in the professional world, of course we are no strangers to professions that have specialization. This specialization will later give birth to diversity in skills, knowledge and skills.
The hallmark of modernization is a rational society. Efficient management and decision-making based on critical thinking are the hallmarks of modernity.
Modern people tend to think critically in the work system and institutional governance. Compared to holding on to myths, modern people prefer ideas that arise based on facts and data using logic.
This is what causes modern people to think far ahead because the thinking they use is also not old-fashioned. Rational also means visionary-minded, modern people are much better at management and planning for life or future needs.
The next characteristic of modernization is the concentration of energy and thoughts on economic activities, namely production, distribution, and consumption of both goods and the need for services. Money is the main medium of exchange in the process of economic activities and transactions.
This economic activity will later give birth to a consumer culture in the midst of modern society. Modern society tends to be preoccupied and complacent with economism activities and put aside preoccupations with family or family ties.
They also put aside their social life which is far different from what is done by an agrarian society or a society that has a life that is not yet modern. Therefore, economism is one of the striking features of the life of modern people and people in the modern era.
Modernization means development and progress. Of course development is the main characteristic of modernization because modernization itself means development. If there is development, then there is modernization.
With modernization, the range of this development is wider and its reach will continue to grow. In fact, it can cover space and time that is far away and different. It was this development that ultimately gave birth to a worldwide process of globalization and developed massively in all parts of the world.
Causes of Modernization
How? Do you understand what modernization is? If you already understand what modernization is, then we must also be aware that modernization is not something that comes without a cause.
Human nature itself is basically never satisfied and always wants to get and discover new things. Therefore, modernization exists because every human being wants it.
Soerjono Soekanto besides defining what modernization is, he also explains the conditions for modernization to occur. The conditions for modernization include:
1. Administration System
The administrative system in a country has been well organized so that a good bureaucracy is formed as well. A good bureaucracy will provide convenience and comfort for the people in the country.
2. Data Collection System
Next, modernization occurs if the data collection is neatly arranged and organized. The data collection system is collected at the center of an agency or institution. In Indonesia, we can see that there is a data collection system, starting from BPJS, Indonesia Smart Card, Social Security and others.
3. Mass Media Communication
The existence of a pleasant climate in the mass media is a condition for modernization. In this case, the mass media does not get pressure from anywhere and is neutral.
4. High Discipline
The application of self-discipline is at a high level as well as at the organizational level. With disciplined behavior, everything will be completed properly, correctly, and on time.
The next requirement is the existence of centralization of authority in the formation of social planning by not prioritizing personal interests or the interests of certain groups.
Every authority that is taken for the common good can be said to be the cause of modernization. Thus, development and progress will be felt collectively, not just for certain individuals or groups.
6. Think Scientifically
Scientific way of thinking or also called scientific thinking . This kind of thinking must have been ingrained in the minds of the people. Both in the ruling class and in ordinary society.
With scientific thinking that is already attached, the education and teaching system will also be well planned and neatly arranged. Things like this will make education more advanced and develop in a better direction from time to time.
7. Favorable climate
Then lastly there is a favorable climate . In the modern era, Favorable is a source of modern society for communication media, mass media and mass communication media.
This climate must be adjusted step by step because later it will intersect with the beliefs that are already trusted by the community or also known as the belief system.
Positive Impact of Modernization
1. There is a Change in Attitude Values
With modernization, people’s way of thinking tends to be open and appreciate new thoughts and things. So that in the end, modernization creates a new plan that promotes positive norms for future development and also the world.
2. Development of Science and Technology
Another positive impact of modernization is the development of science and technology, science and technology. Modernization creates rapid technological developments, these developments support human life and activities to become more sophisticated and practical. Modernization itself can never be separated from digitalization and technological developments.
3. Increasing Effectiveness and Efficiency
Next, modernity creates success, creates effectiveness and efficiency. Effectiveness means bringing people precisely towards their goals, objectives and desires.
While efficiency is a condition where modernization can provide precise, accurate, and useful results with the use of not many resources.
This effectiveness and efficiency is related to individual work. Work done with modernization is more effective and efficient. This influences and has a positive impact on the country’s economy. In fact, it can make the country far more advanced and profitable.
4. Strengthening Integration in Society
With modernization it will create an increasingly open mindedness. This is also influenced by the rapid development of communication. Humans can easily connect with anyone anytime and anywhere. This condition causes humans and society to have a strong and great integration.
5. Increasing Political and Democratic Awareness
Modernization creates an increase in the political consciousness of a society. Modern society tends to be literate in political issues and demands the upholding of democracy. With people who care about politics, of course a system of government will also improve.
In addition, modernization also creates a democratic society, which is willing to express its opinions and ideas about the system and governance of a government. The people are increasingly critical, they will make their country progress with their bold thoughts and ideas towards the government.
6. The Society Is Demanded to Leave the Old Ways
Why does modernization need to be maintained and it needs to be a commitment? Because modernization can bring a positive influence on society. With modernization, people are required to leave the old ways of life that tend to be old-fashioned, especially the patterns of relationships that have a high probability of being toxic .
Modern society is required to abandon old traditions or traditions that bind a person in traditional family relationships. Not only that, every custom that harms someone and puts a burden on him must also be abandoned. For example, a patriarchal society will experience opposition.
7. Demanded to Make Sacrifices for the Interests of the Nation’s Economy
For the sake of progress and civilization of the nation, modern society will strive to grow the economic life of its nation. They tend to make sacrifices, even sacrificing their personal interests for the sake of building the nation and state because of their critical and open thinking.
For example, the childfree trend that is being discussed a lot today, young people living in today’s modern era, many of them decide to be childfree in order to keep the population booming.
8. Transfer of Technology
Modernization makes the scope of communication and information expand, not limited by space and time. Therefore, technological advances and digitalization that have been carried out earlier by developed countries will more easily spread to other countries, including developing countries.
Modernization makes technology transfer easy, practical, and massive. We can see how YouTube easily provides information about tutorials, experiments or other things, this is very beneficial and has a huge influence on the progress of development and the nation’s economy.
9. Overcoming Various Diseases
Modernization increases the advancement of technology and medical devices. The existence of modernization is able to create vaccines for various diseases, be it viruses, smallpox, polio, tuberculosis and others.
This advancement in health technology has indirectly increased life expectancy and of course the quality of life of the community has also increased and developed rapidly.
10. Open New Jobs
With modernization, new industries are also born, so new jobs are also opened. Some of these new types of jobs are assembling various kinds of electronic equipment, IT, digital marketers, and so on. In general, these jobs were born because of globalization.
11. Increasing Quality Food Production
Modernization can increase the production of quality food. This is because, technology is able to fertilize the soil. This technology is known as biotechnology.
Biotechnology is able to create pesticides such as pesticides that can repel insects, pests and fungi. In addition, biotechnology is also able to create quality food from bacterial fermentation. Farms are also much more productive with the help of technology.
In Indonesia itself there is a technology called the green revolution which increases food production. With modernization the amount of food production is much more effective and efficient. In other words, with little utilization of natural resources, it can generate many benefits.
The Development of Modernization in Indonesia
Indonesia itself is a country that is already in a modern stage. Because the transfer of technology is much easier, the Indonesian people are now able to create many practical and efficient advanced technologies to help and support the lives of their people.
Indonesian people are also open-minded about the lives of people who are sensitive to issues of patriarchy, mental health , feminism, politics, and democracy. The community has dared to express opinions freely with social media. With social media, it makes anyone free to express and express their opinions.
Indonesia also cooperates with many countries to complement each other on the needs needed in each country. Indonesia has progressed quite rapidly in terms of modernization and technology. Currently, Indonesia is in a transition period or Indonesia is adapting and adjusting to modernization and globalization.
- Definition of Social Change
- Definition of Social Institutions
- Definition of Social Structure
- List of Ethnic Nations in Indonesia
- Definition of Social Differentiation