Understanding Modernization: Characteristics, Impact and Examples

Understanding Modernization – Does Reader know that modernization can cause an impact on every element present in society? This modernization can be one of the factors that can cause a community environment to experience progress and change in it.

One of the impacts of modernization that is easily realized and felt is progress in the field of technology. As in the past, mobile phones were not yet available, so the process of exchanging messages with people far away could only be done through letters delivered by couriers and took a long time. The development of technology as well as the discussion of basic concepts to the most complex concepts can also be found by Reader in the book Deep Learning Modernization of Machine Learning for Big Data.

So what exactly is modernization? And what impact can be caused by modernization other than technological progress? Here is a brief explanation of modernization.

Meaning of Modernization

Modernization is a process of change from something that is not yet advanced to something more advanced. Modernization can also be said to be a process of transformation towards progress or improvement in various aspects of life in society which Reader can learn through the book Risk Society Towards New Modernity below.

Modernization comes from the Latin word ” modernus” . The word ” modernus” also comes from the word ‘ modo’ which is the way and ‘ ermus’ which indicates the time period in the present.

Some members also expressed their opinions about the meaning of modernization. Like Harold Rosenberg, according to Rosenberg modernization is a new tradition and refers to urbanization or to what extent and how the erosion of the rural nature of a group of people can occur.

Soerjono Soekanto also expressed his opinion on modernization. According to Soerjono, modernization is a process of change that initially changes from a traditional way to a more advanced way. The process of change is intended to improve the well-being of the community.

Ogburn and Nimkoff argue that modernization is an effort that is made to be able to direct society to be able to project itself into a more real future and not just wishful thinking.

According to Abdul Syam, modernization is a process of transformation to more advanced and improved changes in various aspects of social life.

Different from other experts, Neil Smelser thinks that modernization is an irregularity in the structure of society that performs different functions at the same time, then will be divided into several substructures to be able to carry out those more specific functions. Smelser also thinks that modernization will always involve the concepts of structural differentiation.

From the understanding according to the expert, it can be concluded that modernization is a process of change that is present in social life and can make social life more advanced or improved.

Characteristics of Modernization

Reader needs to know that modernization has the purpose of being able to improve the quality of life of the community, besides this modernization process also seeks to be able to improve the mindset in the community so that it becomes better.

When viewed from the impact, modernization will certainly provide good impacts for life in the community. Therefore, Reader needs to recognize this modernization change process.

Modernization can be recognized by the society involved in it through several characteristics present in the modernization. Here are the features of modernization.

  1. Society can behave heterogeneously.
  2. Mobility in society is quite high.
  3. Society has no ties to custom.
  4. Community action in the context of modernization is rational.
  5. Having a high level of organization, especially in self-discipline.
  6. Centralization of authority is in the implementation of social planning.
  7. Have a systematic data collection system.
  8. Scientific thinking that exists in society is institutionalized into the life of the ruler and his society.
  9. The creation of a climate favored by the community through modernization in the use of mass communication tools.

In addition to the characteristics of modernization, a modern society is also one of the characteristics of the occurrence of a modernization process in the environment. Here are the characteristics of modern society.

  1. Heterogeneous , modernized societies will merge and form unions and associations in the development process. A heterogeneous society is also closely related to a multicultural society, that is, a society consisting of different ethnicities and tribes in a certain region.
  2. Open Stratification System , modern society has a stratification system that is open to the changes of the times that are influenced by globalization and can cause the grouping of social strata to fade.
  3. High Mobility of Society , similar to the modernization characteristics of modern society also has high mobility due to the high population movement from villages to cities.
  4. Possessing Objective Thinking , modern society has a more objective nature in looking at something because it sees the existence of many changes and accepts the differences that exist in society.
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Those are some of the characteristics of modernization and modern society that can be distinguished from other social change processes .

Well, Reader can also learn more about this modernization phenomenon through books available on Sinaumedia.com such as the following book.

This book was written by Muhammad Taufan and Ine which also summarizes the modernization material as explained in this article. In addition, this book is also compiled using a student-centered learning paradigm, so it will certainly make it easier for Reader when learning Sociology materials such as modernization.

Impact of Modernization

As has been explained in the definition and characteristics of modernization, modernization will generally have an impact as a result of the process of changing an environment in society from one that is still backward to progress and become more sophisticated.

When viewed only from its meaning, this modernization is seen to have a positive impact on the community in its environment. However, it turns out that there is also a negative impact given by modernization, you know.

In order to be more clear, Reader needs to listen to the impact of modernization, both positive and negative. Here is the explanation.

1. Positive Impact of Modernization

  • There is a change in values ​​and attitudes. This change happened because society proved to have a thought pattern that changed from an irrational thought pattern to a rational one.
  • There is development in the field of science and technology. This development can make it easier for the community to be active and can encourage the community to think more advanced.
  • Developments in science can also give form to the modernization process that occurs in society.
  • There is an increase in social life that changes for the better. The use of technology, as well as knowledge that develops can improve the function of community life, so that community life becomes much better over time.
  • Society experiences changes in behavior and way of life with science and technology that continues to grow.
  • Modernization can increase the effectiveness and efficiency of individual jobs in the community.
  • The effectiveness and efficiency caused by this modernization has an impact on the production process, so that it can improve the economy in a country.
  • The community will have an open attitude towards change as well as a desire to always innovate in order to achieve the well-being that the community aspires to.

2. Negative Impact of Modernization

  1. Resulting in social disparity. The social disparity caused by modernization can be seen through the phenomenon of social groups such as homeless, unemployed, street vendors and others.
  2. Causing the strengthening of the gap between the educated community and the uneducated community and can cause changes in the existing social order in the community.
  3. There is an economic gap that can be seen through the difference between the lives of the rich community and the poor community, thus triggering the emergence of a consumptive culture and a culture of demonstration effect or showing off.
  4. Can cause pollution of the natural environment, as a result of development such as industrial factories that occur continuously.
  5. Modernization can have an impact on the increase in criminality, because everyone has a desire to be able to surpass others and try to achieve that goal in various ways including criminal ways.
  6. There is a shift in values ​​in local culture.
  7. The loss of customs from the community’s local culture that has been handed down from generation to generation and become one of the unique attractions and values ​​of the community.
  8. Causing the occurrence of westernization bias or excessive worship of western culture, both in a person’s lifestyle and way of looking.
  9. There is a technological gap or digital divide in society.

Symptoms of Modernization

Before the modernization process occurs in a community environment, this modernization occurs through several symptoms that can be viewed from various fields on aspects of life in the community.

Here is a further explanation of the symptoms of modernization.

1. Field of Culture

The symptoms of modernization that occur in the field of culture can be marked through traditional culture that is displaced by the influence of culture from outside. Symptoms in the cultural field can also be seen through the occurrence of acculturation between two different cultures.

There is also research carried out related to the level of religiosity of Indonesians in general and the ethnic groups in the regions specifically by Prof. Dr. Bungaran Antonius Simanjuntak which was made into a book titled Tradition, Religion, and Acceptance of Modernization in Society.

 

2. Political Field

The next symptoms of modernization can be seen through the political field. In the political field, the symptoms of modernization can be seen through the many countries that have escaped colonialism and the emergence of new countries that have become independent.

In the political field, the symptoms of modernization can also be seen through the growth of democratic countries and the birth of political institutions. In addition, the recognition of human rights is also one of the symptoms of modernization.

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The symptoms of modernization in this political field are the most easily seen or realized by the public, because the democratic system is usually supported through direct and secret general elections involving the public.

There is also a view of the modernization model of the study of Family Law through the approach of legal epistemology, epistemology owned by KHI and CLD-KHI which is discussed in the book Modernization of Family Law below.

 

3. Economic field

In the economic field, the symptoms of modernization can be seen from the increasing complexity of society’s needs for goods and services, so that the industrial sector is then built on a large scale to produce consumer demand goods.

4. Social Field

The formation of many new groups in society is a symptom of modernization in the social field. New groups in the society in question such as labor groups, intellectuals, manager groups to economic groups based on their class, namely low class and high class.

 

Examples of Modernization 

In order to more clearly understand the material of this modernization, Reader can see some examples of modernization according to the areas affected by modernization. Here are the examples.

1. Examples of Modernization in the Field of Culture

a. Behavior

In the field of culture, one example of modernization is the changing behavior of society from children to adults. An example is the change in the behavior of children in 2021 who tend to be more comfortable debating or being able to critically answer parents’ questions, because they have been given enough knowledge since childhood.

In Indonesia itself, in order to defend its human dignity, it faces the inevitable challenges of modernity, which is also discussed in the book Religion, Philosophy, Modernity – Human Dignity by Frans Magnis Suseno.

b. Language

The language used by modernized societies has also changed. In the past, like in Java, people had difficulty using Indonesian, because their everyday language was Javanese, so it would be difficult to communicate with people outside the island of Java.

Now, residents of the island of Java can use fluent Indonesian and even master foreign languages.

c. Lifestyle

The lifestyle of modern society will change along with the modernization of the society in which it lives. For example, like before, people don’t care too much about fashion and food.

In the past, the Indonesian people ate food that could be harvested through the produce of the garden or by slaughtering their livestock and their age, the Indonesian people were not too picky when it came to food.

But now, people tend to choose food more, because they pay attention to their health conditions. In addition, there are vegetarian and other lifestyles that did not exist before.

2. Examples of Modernization in the Economic Field

In the economic field, modernization can be seen through the following examples.

The development of industries in the community, so as to be able to expand employment. In addition, changes in the nature of society that are increasingly consumptive and require many goods and services, such as online taxi services, reflexology massage services and services to spend on daily needs.

In addition, developments in the field of technology also affect the economic field, such as industries or factories that produce goods now using machines more than humans. This is considered, because machines are more effective, cheaper and faster than humans, so that the employment field narrows and causes the termination of employment relationships on a large scale.

3. Examples of Modernization in the Political Field 

In the political field, examples of modernization can be seen through the influence of relations between countries that grow and develop on an international and global scale. In addition, there are visions and missions that make up international organizations and consist of several countries such as the UN, ASEAN, the EU and so on.

The establishment of bilateral and multilateral cooperation is also one of the examples of modernization in the political field. This cooperation from various sources is one of the consequences of globalization and is expected to provide benefits for the interests of countries that establish cooperation.

4. Examples of Modernization in the Social Field 

It’s easy for people to access information quickly just by using a mobile phone. Now there are many online media that will always provide updates on topics that are attractive to readers.

The ease of reading news and accessing information is one example of modernization in the social field.

In addition to the ease of accessing information, growth in the field of transformation and distribution processes is also an example of modernization in the social field. For example, public transportation is available in various regions, even in remote regions, as well as online ojek that can reach wherever Reader wants to go.

Currently in Indonesia there is also a KRL that has been officially used since July 1, 2013 due to this modernization. Learn about the implementation of e-ticketing at KRL and various other service innovations that are discussed in the book Untold Story E-Ticketing – “Behind the Scenes” Modernization of KRL Jabodetabek .

Reader, that’s a brief explanation of the material of modernization starting from its meaning according to experts, characteristics, symptoms to examples of modernization.